Maine Butterfly Checklist

 

The following is a complete checklist of the butterfly species currently known from Maine.  Accompanying the scientific and common names of each species is its breeding status and state conservation status.  Information on the occurrence of these species comes from a variety of sources, including Brower (1974) and other publications, specimens contained in all major northeastern museums and many private collections, the Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) ecoregional survey project, and MDIFWıs rare species tracking database.  A detailed list of contributing data sources is provided above.

 

Brower (1974) listed 103 species of butterflies and skippers for the state.  Following a review of the sources listed above, an additional 11 species have been added bringing the stateıs total list to 114 species.  A few of the additions are the result of taxonomic changes that split formerly one species into two, but most result from new species discoveries.  Five of the 114 species are believed extirpated from Maine and ten have been listed as state endangered or special concern by MDIFW.  Much has been learned regarding butterfly species rarity and threat in Maine since the previous state-listing process in 1997 (McCollough et al. 2003), and several revisions, mainly additions to the endangered and special concern list, are anticipated.

 

The nomenclature followed in this list follows Opler and Warren (2003) and includes all recent changes in nomenclature since the Miller and Brown (1981) Catalogue/Checklist of the Butterflies of America North of Mexico and the supplement by Ferris (1989).

 

 

Checklist and Breeding Status of Maine Butterflies.

 

Scientific Name

Subspecies

Common Name

Status1

 

 

 

 

Family Hesperiidae

 

Skippers

 

Epargyreus clarus (Cramer)

 

Silver-spotted Skipper

BR

Thorybes pylades (Scudder)

 

Northern Cloudywing

BR

Thorybes bathyllus (J. E. Smith)

 

Southern Cloudywing

BR or RS

Erynnis icelus (Scudder & Burgess)

 

Dreamy Duskywing

BR

Erynnis brizo (Boisduval & LeConte)

 

Sleepy Duskywing

BR

Erynnis juvenalis (Fabricius)

 

Juvenalıs Duskywing

BR

Erynnis persius (Scudder)

 

Persius Duskywing

EX

Pholisora catullus (Fabricius)

 

Common Sootywing

BR or RS

Carterocephalus palaemon (Pallas)

mandon (W. H. Edwards)

Arctic Skipper

BR

Ancyloxypha numitor (Fabricius)

 

Least Skipper

BR

Thymelicus lineola (Ochsenheimer)

 

European Skipper

BR

Hesperia comma (Linnaeus)

laurentina (Lyman)

Laurentian Skipper

BR

Hesperia leonardus Harris

 

Leonardıs Skipper

BR

Hesperia metea Scudder

 

Cobweb Skipper

BR

Hesperia sassacus Harris

 

Indian Skipper

BR

Polites peckius (W. Kirby)

 

Peckıs Skipper

BR

Polites themistocles (Latreille)

 

Tawny-edged Skipper

BR

Polites origines (Fabricius)

 

Crossline Skipper

BR

Polites mystic (W. H. Edwards)

 

Long Dash Skipper

BR

Wallengrenia egeremet (Scudder)

 

Northern Broken Dash

BR

Pompeius verna (W. H. Edwards)

 

Little Glassywing Skipper

BR

Anatrytone logan (W. H. Edwards)

 

Delaware Skipper

BR

Poanes hobomok (Harris)

 

Hobomok Skipper

BR

Poanes viator (W. H. Edwards)

zizaniae (Shapiro)

Broadwinged Skipper

BR

Euphyes bimacula (Grote & Robinson)

 

Two-spotted Skipper

BR

Euphyes vestris (Boisduval)

metacomet (Harris)

Dun Skipper

BR

Amblyscirtes hegon (Scudder)

 

Pepper & Salt Skipper

BR

Amblyscirtes vialis (W. H. Edwards)

 

Common Roadside Skipper

BR

 

 

 

 

Family Papilionidae

 

Swallowtails

 

Battus philenor (Linnaeus)

 

Pipevine Swallowtail

RS

Papilio polyxenes Fabricius

asterius (Stoll)

Black Swallowtail

BR

Papilio glaucus Linnaeus

 

Eastern Tiger Swallowtail

RS

Papilio canadensis Rothschild & Jordan

 

Canadian Tiger Swallowtail

BR

Papilio troilus Linnaeus

 

Spicebush Swallowtail

RS or RC; SC

Papilio cresphontes Cramer

 

Giant Swallowtail

RS

 

 

 

 

Family Pieridae

 

Sulphurs and Whites

 

Pontia protodice (Boisduval & LeConte)

 

Checkered White

RC

Pieris rapae (Linnaeus)

 

Cabbage Butterfly

BR

Pieris oleracea Harris

 

Mustard White

BR

Colias philodice Godart

 

Clouded Sulphur

BR

Colias eurytheme (Boisduval)

 

Alfalfa Butterfly

BR

Colias interior Scudder

 

Pink-edged Sulphur

BR

Phoebis sennae (Linnaeus)

 

Cloudless Sulphur

RS

Phoebis philea (Linnaeus)

 

Orange-barred Sulphur

RS

Phoebis agarithe Boisduval

 

Large Sulphur

RS

Pyrisitia lisa (Boisduval & LeConte)

 

Little Sulphur

FS

 

 

 

 

Family Lycaenidae

 

Hairstreaks, Blues, Coppers, and Harvesters

 

Subfamily Miletinae

 

Harvesters

 

Feniseca tarquinius (Fabricius)

 

Harvester

BR

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Lycaeninae

 

Hairstreaks, Blues, and Coppers

 

Lycaena phlaeas (Linnaeus)

hypophlaeas Boisduval; not americana Harris (See Emmel & Pratt 1998)

American Copper

BR

Lycaena hyllus (Cramer)

 

Bronze Copper

BR

Lycaena epixanthe (Boisduval & LeConte)

 

Bog Copper

BR

Lycaena dorcas (W. Kirby)

claytoni Brower

Claytonıs Copper

BR; EN

Callophrys hesseli (Rawson & Ziegler)

 

Hesselıs Hairstreak

BR: EN

Callophrys gryneus (Hübner)

 

Olive Hairstreak

BR; SC

Callophrys augustinus (Westwood)

 

Brown Elfin

BR

Callophrys polios (Cook & Watson)

 

Hoary Elfin

BR

Callophrys irus (Godart)

 

Frosted Elfin

EX

Callophrys henrici (Grote & Robinson)

 

Henryıs Elfin

BR

Callophrys lanoraieensis (Sheppard)

 

Bog Elfin

BR; SC

Callophrys niphon (Hübner)

clarki (T. N. Freeman)

Eastern Pine Elfin

BR

Callophrys eryphon (Boisduval)

 

Western Pine Elfin

BR; SC

Satyrium titus (Fabricius)

 

Coral Hairstreak

BR

Satyrium acadica (W. H. Edwards)

 

Acadian Hairstreak

BR

Satyrium edwardsii (Grote & Robinson)

 

Edwardsı Hairstreak

BR; EN

Satyrium calanus (Hübner)

falacer (Godart)

Banded Hairstreak

BR

Satyrium liparops (LeConte)

strigosum (Harris)

Striped Hairstreak

BR

Strymon melinus (Hübner)

 

Grey Hairstreak

BR

Erora laeta (W. H. Edwards)

 

Early Hairstreak

BR

Cupido comyntas (Godart)

 

Eastern Tailed Blue

BR

Cupido amyntula (Boisduval)

maritima (LeBlanc)

Western Tailed Blue

BR

Celastrina lucia (W. Kirby)

Populations from northern black spruce bogs may represent another species.  C. ladon (Cramer) applies to another species that has not yet been found in Maine but could occur in southern parts of the state.

Spring Azure (and what is often referred to as the Cherry Gall Azure)

BR

Celastrina neglecta (W. H. Edwards)

 

Summer Azure

BR

Glaucopsyche lygdamus (Doubleday)

couperi Grote

Silvery Blue

BR

Plebejus idas (Linnaeus)

empetri (T. N. Freeman)

Crowberry Blue

BR; SC

Plebejus melissa (W. H. Edwards)

samuelis Nabokov

Karner Blue

EX2

Plebejus saepiolus (Boisduval)

amica (W. H. Edwards)

Greenish Blue

BR

 

 

 

 

Family Nymphalidae

 

 

Brushfoots, Monarchs, Satyrs

 

Subfamily Libytheinae

 

Snouts

 

Libytheana carinenta (Cramer)

bachmanii (Kirtland)

Eastern Snout

RS

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Danainae

 

Monarchs or Milkweed Butterflies

 

Danaus plexippus (Linnaeus)

 

Monarch

TC

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Heliconiinae

 

Fritillaries

 

Euptoieta claudia (Cramer)

 

Variegated Fritillary

RC

Speyeria cybele (Fabricius)

 

Great Spangled Fritillary

BR

Speyeria aphrodite (Fabricius)

 

Aphrodite Fritillary

BR

Speyeria idalia (Drury)

 

Regal Fritillary

EX

Speyeria atlantis (W. H. Edwards)

 

Atlantis Fritillary

BR

Boloria eunomia (Esper)

dawsoni (Barnes & McDunnough)

Bog Fritillary

BR; SC

Boloria selene (Denis & Schiffermüller)

Two poorly differentiated subspecies occur in Maine; myrina (Cramer) in the southwest, and atrocostalis (Huard) in the north.  A broad blend zone occurs across central Maine.

Silver-bordered Fritillary

BR

Boloria bellona (Fabricius)

 

Meadow Fritillary

BR

Boloria frigga (Thunberg)

saga (Staudinger)

Frigga Fritillary

BR

Boloria chariclea (Schneider)

grandis (Barnes & McDunnough)

Purple Lesser Fritillary

BR

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Nymphalinae

 

Checkerspots, Tortoiseshells, Commas, and Ladies

 

Chlosyne nycteis (Doubleday)

 

Silvery Checkerspot

BR

Chlosyne harrisii (Scudder)

 

Harrisıs Checkerspot

BR

Phyciodes tharos (Drury)

 

Pearl Crescent

BR

Phyciodes cocyta (Cramer)

 

Northern Pearl Crescent

BR

Phyciodes batesii (Reakirt)

 

Tawny Crescent

EX

Euphydryas phaeton (Drury)

 

Baltimore Checkerspot

BR

Junonia coenia Hübner

 

Common Buckeye

RS

Polygonia interrogationis (Fabricius)

 

Question Mark

TC

Polygonia comma (Harris)

 

Eastern Comma

BR

Polygonia satyrus (W. H. Edwards)

 

Satyr Comma

BR

Polygonia faunus (W. H. Edwards)

 

Green Comma

BR

Polygonia gracilis (Grote & Robinson)

 

Hoary Comma

BR

Polygonia progne (Cramer)

 

Grey Comma

BR

Roddia vaualbum (Dennis & Schiffermüller)

 

Compton Tortoiseshell

BR

Aglais milberti (Godart)

 

Milbertıs Tortoiseshell

BR

Nymphalis antiopa (Linnaeus)

 

Mourning Cloak

BR

Vanessa atalanta (Linnaeus)

 

Red Admiral

BR

Vanessa cardui (Linnaeus)

 

Painted Lady

TC

Vanessa virginiensis (Drury)

 

American Lady

BR

Limenitis arthemis (Drury)

The northern limit of the blend zone between the subspecies L.a. astyanax (Fabricius) (Red Spotted Purple) and L. arthemis occurs in southwestern Maine where some individuals may show reduced white banding on the wings and rare individuals may closely resemble the Red Spotted Purple phenotype. 

White Admiral

BR

Limenitis archippus (Cramer)

 

Viceroy

BR

 

 

 

 

Subfamily Satyrinae

 

Satyrs and Arctics

 

Enodia anthedon A. H. Clark

 

Northern Pearly-Eye

BR

Satyrodes eurydice (Linnaeus)

 

Eyed Brown

BR

Satyrodes appalachia (R. L. Chermock)

 

Appalachian Brown

BR

Megisto cymela (Cramer)

 

Little Wood Satyr

BR

Coenonympha tullia (Hübner)

inornata W. H. Edwards

Inornate Ringlet

BR

Cercyonis pegala (Fabricius)

In southwestern Maine is subspecies alope (Fabricius), which has a well-developed yellowish to orange patch on the forewing. In northern Maine is subspecies nephele (Kirby), which lacks the forewing patch.   A broad blend zone occurs between these two subspecies in southern and coastal Maine as far east as Calais producing phenotypes of intermediate appearance.

Common Wood Nymph

BR

Oeneis jutta (Hübner)

ascerta (Masters & Sorensen)

Jutta Arctic

BR

Oeneis polixenes (Fabricius)

katahdin (Newcomb)

Katahdin Arctic

BR; EN

 

1: BR = Breeding resident; TC = Frequent to common temporary colonist; RC = Rare temporary colonist; FS = Frequent stray; RS = Rare Stray; EX = Extirpated; EN = State Endangered; SC = State Special Concern

 

2:  Plebejus melissa samuelis (Karner Blue) is the only federally endangered butterfly in Maine; It is now extirpated.