115s    Biology of Women    An introduction to the biology of the female throughout her life span. Topics include reproductive anatomy, the menstrual cycle and related hormones, aspects of sexual function, contraception, pregnancy and infertility, childbirth, lactation, menopause, and other gynecological considerations. Myths surrounding women's biology will also be discussed. Satisfies the non-laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Normally offered in alternate years. Four credit hours.  N.    BROWN

116j    Human Anatomy    An introduction to human gross anatomy, covering the skeletal system, peripheral nervous system, vascular system, and major internal organ structure. Special senses of sight, hearing, taste, and smelling will be presented. Laboratory time with skeletons, plastic models, and radiology examples. Lecture and laboratory. Three credit hours.  N.    DIAZ

131f    Biodiversity    An examination of the variety and variability of life on Earth and the natural complex of relationships. Topics include climatology and habitat diversity, taxonomic diversity, evolution and speciation, interrelationships in ecosystems, and biological conservation. Satisfies the laboratory science distribution requirement. Credit may not be obtained for both Biology 131 and Biology 164. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    BEVIER

[133]    Microorganisms and Society    An introduction to the importance of microorganisms to human health and the functioning of planet Earth. The diversity of the microbial world presented with relevant examples of how microorganisms affect our daily lives. Discussions and lectures based on the roles microorganisms and viruses play in disease, the food industry, ecological relationships, and biotechnology. Satisfies the laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    

[134]    Darwin on Trial    Case studies will be used to examine various lines of evidence supporting the theory of evolution--biogeography, comparative anatomy, molecular biology, and the fossil record--and ways in which to evaluate the validity of scientific claims in general. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Three credit hours.  N.    

163f    The Cellular Basis of Life    An examination of cells as the fundamental unit of life. Cellular structure and function of procaryotes and eucaryotes will be emphasized using evolutionary relationships as a framework. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    GREENWOOD, JOHNSON, KAVALER

164s    Evolution and Diversity    An introduction to the theory of evolution and to the diversity of organisms. Topics will include the theory of natural selection, transmission genetics, speciation, and the adaptive radiation of all domains and kingdoms of organisms. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 163. Four credit hours.  N.    STONE

198s    Disease and Defense    An introduction to the mechanisms by which viruses, bacteria, and parasites cause disease and how the human immune system works to combat these pathogens. Topics include inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies, vaccine development, and global disease eradication efforts. Satisfies the non-laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Three credit hours.  N.    HANNUM

211f    Taxonomy of Flowering Plants    An introduction to the study of variation, evolution, classification, and nomenclature of biological organisms and the techniques used by systematists in establishing phylogenetic relationships, with particular emphasis on flowering plants. Recognition of major families of flowering plants and identification of specimens represented in the local flora are stressed. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    STONE

[214]    Plant Physiology    The essential mechanisms of plant function. Topics include plant water relations, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, and stress physiology. The importance of these physiological processes to plants in agricultural and natural ecosystems will be considered. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

[216]    Biology of Vascular Plants    A study of vascular plants with emphasis on structure, activities, reproduction, and evolutionary relationships of ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

225f    Immunology    An introduction to the cellular and molecular components of immune recognition and effector responses against pathogens, with emphasis on the human immune system. Topics will include immune deficiency, allergy, and autoimmunity. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.  N.    HANNUM

232s    Developmental Biology    A study of development, with emphasis on the experimental findings that have led to present ideas of the morphological and chemical processes underlying the development and growth of organisms. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    KAVALER

235s    Horticulture    Basic principles in the areas of plant structure and function will be considered and related to plant cultivation. Practical application of these principles discussed in areas such as lighting, propagation, pruning, and floriculture. Offered in alternate years. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    FIRMAGE

[237]    Woody Plants    Introduction to anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and ecology of woody plants. Field trips emphasize identification and ecology; laboratory sessions focus on structure and function. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.  N.    

238f    Bacteriology    An introduction to pathogenic bacteriology. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and mammalian responses against infectious agents of disease; development of general knowledge in these areas and practical experience in laboratory techniques. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    F. FEKETE

252s    Plant Development    A study of the mechanisms by which plants increase their size and develop different tissues and organs to carry out specific functions. The influence of hormones as well as light and other environmental factors on plant morphogenesis will be considered. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    JOHNSON

[254]    Marine Invertebrate Zoology    The morphology, functional anatomy, and classification of the invertebrates. An optional weekend trip to the Maine coast. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.  N.    

256s    Ichthyology    The biology of the most numerous and diverse group of vertebrates, occurring in every aquatic environment from intermittent streams, rivers, and lakes to the open oceans and deep oceanic trenches. An exploration of the 400 million years of fish evolutionary adaptations which have resulted in the development of more than 20,000 species of the most morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally adapted creatures on earth. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    DANNER

[257]    Winter Ecology    An introduction to the ecological and physiological adaptations of plants and animals to the winter environment in central Maine; an extensive field component. A fee of $225 will be assessed to cover up-country expenses. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and permission of the instructor. Three credit hours.    

259j    Plants of the Tropics    An intensive field-based study of several Costa Rican ecosystems, including cloud forests, lowland tropical rainforests, dry forests, and agricultural environments, emphasizing the physiology and ecology of plants in both wild and agricultural settings. The importance of plants and agriculture for tropical Latin American cultures and the impacts of human activity on native plant communities will also be addressed. Cost in 2004: $1,800. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and permission of the instructor. Three credit hours.    JOHNSON

271f    Introduction to Ecology    Introduction to ecological principles, structure and function of ecosystems, patterns of distribution, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population dynamics, and adaptations of organisms to their physical environment. Application of these principles to current environmental problems. Field trips to sites representative of local terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 164. Four credit hours.  N.    COLE, FIRMAGE

274s    Neurobiology    Introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system from the cellular to the systems level. Topics include the basics of cellular neurophysiology and neuroanatomy, motor and sensory systems, neural networks and mechanisms of patterned neural activity, and mechanisms for learning and memory. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    TILDEN

[275]    Mammalian Physiology    A study of mammalian homeostasis and mechanisms of disease. Topics include endocrinology, neurobiology, osmoregulation, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, metabolism, reproduction, and the physiology of exercise. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.  N.    

[276]    Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy    Comparative studies of basic vertebrate anatomical systems and their structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships among the major vertebrate groups. Laboratories emphasize comparisons of anatomical structure across different vertebrate species through dissection. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

279s    Genetics    The mechanisms of inheritance, with emphasis on experimental findings. The physical and chemical bases for the behavior of genes, and applications of genetic principles to society. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    KAVALER

297f    Evolution of Disease    An examination of medicine and disease from an evolutionary perspective. A combination of lectures and discussions will cover current topics such as the evolution of virulence, emerging diseases, why we get sick, why we grow old, antibiotic resistance, the role of evolution in epidemiology, and the evolution of HIV, allergy, asthma, and cancer. Offered Fall 2003, as Biology 297B, "Evolution of Disease." Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three credit hours.  N.    LANCE

297Bf    The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases    Wild animals are hosts to whole communities of macro- and micro-parasites. The patterns of disease dynamics they cause affect which strains or competing species dominate in the ecosystem. This course is designed to provide students with a sound understanding of the ecology, pathology, host population dynamics, and spatial aspects of fish and wildlife diseases. The laboratory provides an appreciation of the diagnostic and surveillance tools necessary to develop disease surveillance, control, and prevention. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    DANNER

298s    Medical Biochemistry    Listed as Biochemistry 298 (q.v.). Four credit hours.    RICE

312f    Vertebrate Zoology    A study of the vertebrates with emphasis on natural history, adaptations, functional anatomy, and evolutionary relationships. Species found in New England are emphasized. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    LANCE

315f    Animal Cells, Tissues, and Organs    Studies of the organization of cells into tissues and organs in animals. Emphasis on the relationship between cellular morphology and tissue and organ function. Laboratories emphasize the microanatomy of mammalian tissues and tissue culture techniques and experimentation. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.  N.    GREENWOOD

319s    Conservation Biology    Listed as Environmental Studies 319 (q.v.). Four credit hours.    COLE

320s    Evolution    An examination of the mechanisms of evolution at single and multiple loci, including natural selection, genetic drift, and inbreeding. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of both organisms and genes. Applications to human health and conservation biology. Prerequisite: A 200-level biology course. Three credit hours.    STONE

325s    Advanced Immunology    Advanced study of immune system features such as innate immunity, lymphocyte activation, self-tolerance, and immunological memory. Emphasis on the human immune system, with comparisons across a range of species. Extensive reading and discussion of the primary literature. Optional fourth credit laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 225. Three or four credit hours.    HANNUM

[334]    Ornithology    An introduction to the biology of birds. Topics include evolution and diversity, feeding and flight adaptations, the physiology of migration, communication, mating systems and reproduction, population dynamics, and conservation of threatened species. Field trips to local habitats and several mandatory weekend field trips. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Prerequisite: Biology 164, and junior standing. Four credit hours.  N.    

352s    Advanced and Applied Ecology    The theoretical aspects of population and community ecology, emphasizing population regulation, demography, trophic relationships, community structure and organization, and succession. Coevolutionary interactions between plants and animals. Relevance of ecological theory to the solution of environmental problems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 271. Four credit hours.    COLE, FIRMAGE

[354]    Marine Ecology    A study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of marine organisms. Emphasis will be on North Atlantic communities. One weekend field trip to the coast. Lecture. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and junior standing. Three credit hours.    

[358]    Ecological Field Study in Anguilla    Observation and detailed study of selected tropical fauna and flora of the British West Indies. Qualitative and quantitative field investigations will emphasize the ecological relationships in coral reefs, seagrass beds, intertidal communities, and xeric scrub forests. Students will also learn to identify fauna and flora indigenous to the area. Environmental challenges of living on a tropical island will also be investigated. Lectures, films, and discussions of assigned readings during the first week will be followed by a 17-day field trip to Anguilla in the Lesser Antilles. Students will be required to design and complete a short research project in addition to compiling a detailed field notebook. Cost in 2005 $1,980 included all transportation, including round-trip air fare from Boston, lodging and two meals daily in a West Indian hotel, and local group expenses (van rentals, etc.). Costs are subject to change depending upon course enrollment. Limited scholarship funds are available. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and permission of the instructors. Three credit hours.    

367f, 368s    Biochemistry of the Cell I    Listed as Biochemistry 367, 368 (q.v.). Four credit hours.    MILLARD

[372]    Advanced Cell Biology    Listed as Biochemistry 372 (q.v.). Four credit hours.    

373f    Animal Behavior    An examination of animal behavior from a biological perspective. Topics include the control, development, function, and evolution of behavior. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    BEVIER

374s    Advanced Neurobiology    In-depth examination of aspects of neurobiology. Topics may include sensory physiology, neuromodulators, biological rhythms, and neuroendocrinology. Extensive review of primary literature. Prerequisite: Biology 274. Three credit hours.    TILDEN

[375]    Comparative Animal Physiology    A comparative study and broad overview of physiological systems and adaptations among animals from morphological, cellular, biochemical, and mechanical perspectives. Laboratory emphasizes an investigative approach to the measurements of physiological processes. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

378s    Molecular Biology    Listed as Biochemistry 378 (q.v.). Four credit hours.    JOHNSON

[379]    Electron Microscopy    Principles and practice of transmission and scanning electron microscopy, including electron optics, imaging, and X-ray microanalysis. The routine operation of both the TEM and SEM are presented and practiced, as are the principles and techniques of sample preparation from living materials. The interpretation and evaluation of electron photomicrographs are emphasized. Students have an opportunity to develop further their techniques and expertise in the area of greatest interest to them. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164, Chemistry 141, 142, a major in one of the natural sciences, and permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.    

392s    The Cell Cycle and Cancer    The cell cycle is the fundamental process by which cells reproduce. The process is tightly regulated by the cell, and this regulation has been the focus of intense biomedical research. A study of recent research investigating the cellular mechanisms that control the cell cycle. How cellular propagation is stimulated and controlled and how defects in these systems lead to cancer. An investigation of the complexities of diagnosing, treating, and living with cancer. Lecture only. Prerequisite: Biology 164, Chemistry 142, and junior standing. Three credit hours.    GREENWOOD

[394]    Topics in Cell and Molecular Biochemistry    Listed as Biochemistry 394 (q.v.). One credit hour.    

398s    Molecular Ecology    Use of molecular genetic techniques to address questions concerning ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation. Topics include reproductive success, relatedness, individual and species identification, gene flow, conservation genetics, and population history. Field and lab techniques will include non-invasive sampling of local species, DNA extraction, PCR, microsatellite analysis, and sequencing. Discussions of primary literature will be emphasized. Prerequisite: One of the following: Biology 271, 297, 312, 320, or 373. Four credit hours.    LANCE

401f, 402s    Senior Colloquium    Attendance at selected departmental colloquia during the fall and spring semesters; written evaluations to be submitted. Required of all senior biology majors. One credit hour for the year.     JOHNSON

[433]    Evolutionary Genetics    Original research in evolutionary genetics. Students will generate DNA sequences and apply analytical tools to learn about the long-term history of plant populations. Reading and discussion from the primary literature will facilitate the development of analytical approaches. Prerequisite: Biology 212, 279, or 320. Five credit hours.    

[434]    Bioinformatics    Development, execution, and presentation of independent research in database manipulation, computational analysis, or visualization of genetic or related biological information. Projects may use existing software or develop new software, depending on student background and interest. At least one all-day field trip required. Prerequisite: Biology 279 or 320, and at least one course in computer science. Three credit hours.    

451s    Applied and Environmental Microbiology    The ecology of microorganisms associated with plants and animals, as well as terrestrial and aquatic microorganisms and their general roles in the environment. Laboratories include both field- and laboratory-based components. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 238. Five credit hours.    F. FEKETE

[474]    Molecular Neuroscience    Original research on crustacean neuromodulatory receptors. Techniques include receptor binding assays, bioinformatics, and comparative functional genomics. Taught off-campus at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory. Normally offered in alternate years. Prerequisite: Biology 274. Three credit hours.    

483f, 484js    Honors Research in Biology    Research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of an honors thesis and an oral presentation of the research results. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a biology major and permission of the department chair. One to four credit hours.    FACULTY

491f, 492s    Independent Study     Prerequisite: Permission of a faculty sponsor. One to four credit hours.    FACULTY

493f    Problems in Environmental Science    Causes of and solutions to selected environmental problems studied through lectures, discussions, and guest presentations. A group project is conducted to teach methods used by private firms and governmental agencies to investigate environmental problems. Prerequisite: Biology 271 and senior standing as a biology or environmental studies major. Five credit hours.    COLE, FIRMAGE

498s    Behavioral and Physiological Ecology    Advanced study of the behavior and physiology of animals in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Topics include how individuals adjust to environmental changes, and how particular behavior patterns contribute to an animal's chances of survival and its reproductive success. Extensive review of primary literature. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Senior standing and one of the following courses: Biology 271, 275, 373, or 375. Four credit hours.    BEVIER