Biology

 
COURSE OFFERINGS
 
115j    Biology of Women    An introduction to the biology of the female throughout her life span. Topics include reproductive anatomy, the menstrual cycle and related hormones, aspects of sexual function, contraception, pregnancy and infertility, childbirth, lactation, menopause, and other gynecological considerations. Myths surrounding women's biology will also be discussed. Satisfies the non-laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Normally offered in alternate years. Three credit hours.  N.    BROWN

131f    Biodiversity    An examination of the variety and variability of life on Earth and the natural complex of relationships. Topics include climatology and habitat diversity, taxonomic diversity, evolution and speciation, interrelationships in ecosystems, and biological conservation. Satisfies the laboratory science distribution requirement. Credit may not be obtained for both Biology 131 and Biology 164. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    ADDIS

133s    Microorganisms and Society    An introduction to the importance of microorganisms to human health and the functioning of planet Earth. The diversity of the microbial world presented with relevant examples of how microorganisms affect our daily lives. Discussions and lectures based on the roles microorganisms and viruses play in disease, the food industry, ecological relationships, and biotechnology. Satisfies the laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    F. FEKETE

163f    The Cellular Basis of Life    An examination of cells as the fundamental unit of life. Cellular structure and function of procaryotes and eucaryotes will be emphasized using evolutionary relationships as a framework. Lecture and laboratory. Four credit hours.  N.    GREENWOOD, HANNUM, KAVALER

164s    Evolution and Diversity    An introduction to the theory of evolution and to the diversity of organisms. Topics will include the theory of natural selection, transmission genetics, speciation, and the adaptive radiation of all domains and kingdoms of organisms. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 163. Four credit hours.  N.    STONE

197Aj    Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems     Agriculture is a fundamental way in which humans interact with their environment and is at the nexus of ecological, social, and economic systems. An introduction to the ecological bases, practicalities, and philosophies of food and agricultural systems. Provides a foundation in such concepts as agroecology, sustainable soil management, pest and weed control, and organic farming. Also considers social, economic, and public-policy issues. Field trips to local farms and other agricultural institutions. Satisfies the non-laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Three credit hours.  N.    MARSHALL

197Bj    Introduction to Marine Ecosystems    What is a marine ecosystem? How are people altering marine environments and the organisms that live in these environments? An introduction to marine ecology and the major human-induced effects on marine ecosystems. Topics include: ocean chemistry, primary producers, consumers and food webs, intertidal zones, the deep ocean, coral reefs, climate change, eutrophication, overfishing, and sustainable resource management. Mandatory all-day field trips on Fridays. Satisfies the non-laboratory science distribution requirement. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Three credit hours.  N.    CORCORAN

211f    Taxonomy of Flowering Plants    An introduction to the study of variation, evolution, classification, and nomenclature of biological organisms and the techniques used by systematists in establishing phylogenetic relationships, with particular emphasis on flowering plants. Recognition of major families of flowering plants and identification of specimens represented in the local flora are stressed. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    STONE

214f    Plant Physiology     The essential mechanisms of plant function. Topics include plant-water relations, mineral nutrition, photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, and stress physiology. The importance of these physiological processes to plants in agricultural and natural ecosystems will be considered. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    JOHNSON

225s    Immunology    An introduction to the cellular and molecular components of immune recognition and effector responses against pathogens, with emphasis on the human immune system. Topics will include immune deficiency, allergy, and autoimmunity. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    HANNUM

[232]    Developmental Biology    A study of development, with emphasis on the experimental findings that have led to present ideas of the morphological and chemical processes underlying the development and growth of organisms. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    

235s    Horticulture    Basic principles in the areas of plant structure and function will be considered and related to plant cultivation. Practical application of these principles discussed in areas such as lighting, propagation, pruning, and floriculture. Offered in alternate years. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 164. Three or four credit hours.    FIRMAGE

[237]    Woody Plants    Introduction to anatomy, physiology, reproduction, and ecology of woody plants. Field trips emphasize identification and ecology; laboratory sessions focus on structure and function; one laboratory includes a Saturday field trip. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

238f    Bacteriology    An introduction to pathogenic bacteriology. Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and mammalian responses against infectious agents of disease; development of general knowledge in these areas and practical experience in laboratory techniques. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    F. FEKETE

[245]    Biology of Race and Gender    The biological basis of race, gender, and sex. Topics include the Human Genome Project and eugenics; reproductive physiology, hormones, and sex determination; brain function and intelligence; and adaptation and human evolution. Cannot be counted toward the biology major. Four credit hours.  N, I.    

[252]    Plant Development    A study of the mechanisms by which plants increase their size and develop different tissues and organs to carry out specific functions. The influence of hormones as well as light and other environmental factors on plant morphogenesis will be considered. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three or four credit hours.    

254f    Marine Invertebrate Zoology    A survey of the major groups of marine invertebrates emphasizing external anatomy, classification, reproduction, ecological roles, conservation biology and applied aspects. Offered in alternate years. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    WILSON

[256]    Ichthyology    The biology of the most numerous and diverse group of vertebrates occurring in every aquatic environment from intermittent streams, rivers, and lakes to the open oceans and deep oceanic trenches. An exploration of the 400 million years of fish evolutionary adaptations, which have resulted in the development of more than 20,000 species of the most morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally adapted creatures on earth. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

257j    Winter Ecology    An introduction to the ecological and physiological adaptations of plants and animals to the winter environment in central Maine, with an extensive field component. Some overnight trips will be taken (cost: $175 for room and board.) Prerequisite: Biology 164 and permission of the instructor. Three credit hours.    WILSON

[259]    Plants of the Tropics    An intensive field-based study of several Costa Rican ecosystems, including cloud forests, lowland tropical rainforests, dry forests, and agricultural environments, emphasizing the physiology and ecology of plants in both wild and agricultural settings. The importance of plants and agriculture for tropical Latin American cultures and the impacts of human activity on native plant communities will also be addressed. Estimated cost in 2009: $2,200. Financial aid available to eligible students. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and permission of the instructor. Three credit hours.    

266s    The Environment and Human Health    Listed as Environmental Studies 266. Four credit hours.  N.    CARLSON

271f    Introduction to Ecology    Introduction to ecological principles, structure and function of ecosystems, patterns of distribution, energy flow, nutrient cycling, population dynamics, and adaptations of organisms to their physical environment. Application of these principles to current environmental problems. Field trips to sites representative of local terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 164. Four credit hours.  N.    COLE, FIRMAGE

[273]    The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases     Wild animals are hosts to whole communities of macro- and micro-parasites. The patterns of disease dynamics they cause affect which strains or competing species dominate in the ecosystem. Designed to provide students with a sound understanding of the ecology, pathology, host population dynamics, and spatial aspects of fish and wildlife diseases. The laboratory provides an appreciation of the diagnostic and surveillance tools necessary to develop disease surveillance, control, and prevention. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

274f    Neurobiology    Introduction to the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system from the cellular to the systems level. Topics include the basics of cellular neurophysiology and neuroanatomy, motor and sensory systems, neural networks and mechanisms of patterned neural activity, and mechanisms for learning and memory. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    AHMAD

275s    Mammalian Physiology    A study of mammalian homeostasis and mechanisms of disease. Topics include endocrinology, neurobiology, osmoregulation, cardiovascular system, respiratory system, metabolism, reproduction, and the physiology of exercise. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    SEGGIO

[276]    Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy    Comparative studies of basic vertebrate anatomical systems and their structural, functional, and evolutionary relationships among the major vertebrate groups. Laboratories emphasize comparisons of anatomical structure across different vertebrate species through dissection. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

279s    Genetics    The mechanisms of inheritance, with emphasis on experimental findings. The physical and chemical bases for the behavior of genes, and applications of genetic principles to society. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    KAVALER

297f    Biological Clocks     An introduction to and examination of various biological oscillations that occur in nature, focusing mainly on circadian rhythms. Behavioral, genetic, and neuroanatomical aspects of biological clocks will be investigated using Drosophila and mammals as models to discuss circadian rhythms. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Three credit hours.  N.    SEGGIO

297Jj    Introductory Bioinformatics    Listed as Computer Science 297J. Three credit hours.  Q.    MCCLELLAN

[312]    Vertebrate Natural History     Emphasizes diversity, evolution, life-history characteristics, and strategies of vertebrates in northeastern habitats. Students will learn about vertebrate-specific adaptations to climate, reproduction, and predator avoidance and will focus on the basic art of field observation and awareness during weekly lab excursions. The objective is a better understanding of vertebrates and a solid base for performing and designing observational and trapping experiments. Develops basic skills in reading vertebrate sign, nature journaling, and sketching. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164. Four credit hours.    

315f    Animal Cells, Tissues, and Organs    Studies of the organization of cells into tissues and organs in animals. Emphasis on the relationship between cellular morphology and tissue and organ function. Laboratories emphasize the microanatomy of mammalian tissues and tissue culture techniques and experimentation. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and Chemistry 142 and junior standing. Four credit hours.    GREENWOOD

319s    Conservation Biology    Listed as Environmental Studies 319. Four credit hours.    COLE

320s    Evolutionary Analysis    An examination of the mechanisms of evolution at single and multiple loci, including natural selection, genetic drift, and inbreeding. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of both organisms and genes. Applications to human health and conservation biology. Optional fourth credit hour for laboratory includes an independent research component. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and a 200-level biology course. Three credit hours.    STONE

325f    Advanced Immunology    Advanced study of the immune system through reading and discussion of primary literature, focusing on several main topics per semester. Emphasis on the human immune system and human health, with comparisons across a range of species. Optional fourth credit for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 225. Three or four credit hours.    HANNUM

334s    Ornithology    An introduction to the biology of birds. Topics include evolution and diversity, feeding and flight adaptations, physiology, migration, communication, mating systems and reproduction, population dynamics, and conservation of threatened species. Field trips to local habitats and two mandatory weekend field trips. Lecture and laboratory. Offered in alternate years. Prerequisite: Biology 164, and junior standing. Four credit hours.    WILSON

[342]    Past Terrestrial Ecosystems    Listed as Geology 342. Three credit hours.    

352s    Advanced and Applied Ecology    The theoretical aspects of population and community ecology, emphasizing population regulation, demography, trophic relationships, community structure and organization, and succession. Co-evolutionary interactions between plants and animals. Relevance of ecological theory to the solution of environmental problems. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 271 and sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours.    COLE, FIRMAGE

[354]    Marine Ecology    A study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of marine organisms. Emphasis will be on North Atlantic communities. One weekend field trip to the coast for all students. Prerequisite: Junior standing, Biology 164 and 271. Three credit hours.    

[354 L]    Lab: Marine Ecology     One credit hour.    

[357]    Physiological Ecology    An examination of the physiological and behavioral adaptations of organisms to environmental conditions and consideration of how such adaptations affect the interactions of organisms. Examples drawn from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater plants and animals. Prerequisite: Biology 271. Three credit hours.    

[357 L]    Lab:Physiological Ecol'y     One credit hour.    

358j    Ecological Field Study    Listed as Environmental Studies 358. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructors. Three credit hours.    COLE, FIRMAGE

362s    Medical Biochemistry    Listed as Biochemistry 362. Four credit hours.    RICE

367f    Biochemistry of the Cell I    Listed as Biochemistry 367. Four or five credit hours.    MILLARD

368s    Biochemistry of the Cell II    Listed as Biochemistry 368. Four or five credit hours.    GREENWOOD

373s    Animal Behavior    An examination of animal behavior from a biological perspective. Topics include the control, development, function, and evolution of behavior. Fourth credit hour for laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 164 and junior standing. Three or four credit hours.    ADDIS

374s    Advanced Neurobiology    In-depth examination of current topics in neurobiology. Topics may include sensory physiology, neuromodulators, biological rhythms, neuroendocrinology, and neurodegenerative disorders. Extensive review of primary literature. Optional fourth-credit laboratory involves an independent research project. Prerequisite: Biology 274. Three or four credit hours.    AHMAD

378s    Molecular Biology    Listed as Biochemistry 378. Four credit hours.    JOHNSON

379f    Advanced Genetics and Genomics    Advanced genetics with an emphasis on genomics and bioinformatic approaches to addressing biological questions. Topics will include comparative genomics, uses of proteomics, computational biology, and advances in biotechnology related to genomic study, such as large-scale sequencing, microarrays, and gene expression profiling. The relationships between genome research and biomedicine will be discussed. Online genomics tools and databases will be used for computational analyses. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 279 with lab. Four credit hours.    KAVALER

392s    The Cell Cycle and Cancer     The cell cycle is the fundamental process by which cells reproduce. The process is tightly regulated by the cell, and this regulation has been the focus of intense biomedical research. A study of recent research investigating the cellular mechanisms that control the cell cycle. How cellular propagation is stimulated and controlled, and how defects in these systems lead to cancer. An investigation of the complexities of diagnosing, treating, and living with cancer. Lecture only. Prerequisite: Biology 164, Chemistry 142, and junior standing. Three credit hours.    GREENWOOD

397f    Comparative Vertebrate Endocrinology    Exploration of the endocrine system in us and other diverse members of the vertebrate group. We begin by learning the forms and functions of classes of hormones and then build upon that knowledge by examining a variety of endocrine systems in depth. At the end of each system, we will investigate how disruptions can have deleterious effects on humans and our environment. This course will be a combination of lecture and discussion of primary scientific literature. Students will guide the discussions of scientific papers, leading the class through data interpretation and conclusions. Prerequisite: Biology 275 or 373. Three credit hours.    ADDIS

401f, 402s    Biology Seminar     Participation in selected department seminars during the fall or spring semester. Seminars will focus on student-led discussions of readings from the primary literature and will also include playing host to several outside speakers. Required of all senior biology majors. Prerequisite: Senior standing. One credit hour.    F. FEKETE, STONE, WILSON

451s    Applied and Environmental Microbiology    The ecology of microorganisms associated with plants and animals, as well as terrestrial and aquatic microorganisms and their general roles in the environment. Laboratories include both field- and laboratory-based components. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 238. Five credit hours.    F. FEKETE

[452]    Behavioral and Physiological Ecology     Advanced study of the behavior and physiology of animals in ecological and evolutionary contexts. Topics include how individuals adjust to environmental changes and how particular behavior patterns contribute to an animal's chances of survival and its reproductive success. Extensive review of primary literature. Lecture and laboratory. Prerequisite: Biology 271, 275, 373, or 375. Four credit hours.    

474j    Neuroscience Research    A laboratory-intensive course designed to familiarize students with modern cellular and molecular approaches to neuroscience research. The course will consist of two weeks spent at the Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, with the rest of the time spent on campus. Prerequisite: Biology 274 and permission of the instructor. Three credit hours.    TILDEN

483f, 484js    Honors Research in Biology    Research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of an honors thesis and an oral presentation of the research results. Prerequisite: Senior standing as a biology major and permission of the department chair. One to four credit hours.    FACULTY

491f, 492s    Independent Study    Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite: Permission of a faculty sponsor. One to four credit hours.    FACULTY

493f    Problems in Environmental Science    Causes of and solutions to selected environmental problems studied through lectures, discussions, and guest presentations. A group project is conducted to teach methods used by private firms and governmental agencies to investigate environmental problems. Prerequisite: Biology 271 and senior standing as a biology or environmental studies major. Five credit hours.    COLE, FIRMAGE