106f    Greek History    Listed as Ancient History 158. Three or four credit hours.  H, I.    J. ROISMAN

111f    Europe from Late Antiquity to 1618     A survey of European history from the age of Augustus to the beginning of the Thirty Years War, covering political, intellectual, social, and cultural history. Larger themes include the evolution of medieval kingship, relations between church and state, the development of nation-states, Renaissance, Reformation, and religious wars. Interactions among Christians, Jews, and Moslems; also attention to gender, family, and daily life. Four credit hours.  H, I.    TAYLOR

112s    A Survey of Modern Europe     An introduction to European political, socioeconomic, and cultural developments from 1618 to the present. Coverage of international relations, both within Europe and between Europe and the non-European world, the development of modern industrial nation-states, and transformations in culture and everyday life. Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

131f    Survey of United States History, to 1865    A general overview of key issues and events in U.S. history from the age of settlement through the Civil War. Four credit hours.  H, U.    BULTHUIS

132s    Survey of United States History, 1865 to the Present    The rise of national power and its implications for American democratic values. Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT

[136]    The American Superpower, 1945-1970     An exploration of American politics, society, and culture from the emergence of the United States as a superpower at the end of World War II through the turbulent events of the 1960s. Why did America forge a consensus for liberal reform at home and containment of communism abroad? How did this consensus find expression in civil rights campaigns, a war on poverty, confrontations with the Soviet Union, and involvement in Vietnam? How did this consensus shatter amid antiwar activism, racial turmoil, and a rising counterculture? Part of the three-course Integrated Studies 136, "America in the Postwar World: 1945-1970." Prerequisite: Initially elect IS136 = concurrent enrollment in American Studies 136 and Music 136. Four credit hours.  H, U.    

137f    The Great Depression: America in the 1930s     The 1920s was the most prosperous time in American history, and many expected living standards to soar ever higher. Instead the economy went into a tailspin that affected every group and region, posed a crisis of faith in capitalism, and tested the American people and their government at every level. An examination of the origins, impact, and response to this crisis. Part of the three-course Integrated Studies 137, "Left in the Dust: America's Great Depression." Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in American Studies 137 and Art 137. Four credit hours.  H.    WEISBROT

151f    Introduction to East Asia from Ancient Times to the 17th Century    Listed as East Asian Studies 151. Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE

152s    Introduction to East Asia from the 18th Century to Modern Times    Listed as East Asian Studies 152. Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE

154s    Roman History    Listed as Ancient History 154. Three or four credit hours.  H, I.    J. ROISMAN

173f    History of Latin America    Listed as Latin American Studies 173. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW

174s    Introduction to Latin American Studies    Listed as Latin American Studies 174. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW

181f    Conceptions of Jews and Judaism    Listed as Religious Studies 181. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FREIDENREICH

182s    Jews and Judaism in the Modern World    Listed as Religious Studies 182. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FREIDENREICH

183f    History of the Premodern Middle East     The history of the Middle East from the rise of Muhammad to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids. The spread of Islam, the development and application of religious and political authority, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and their successors, the development of Islam in both its formal and more "folk" forms, the development of literature, art, science, and society. Gives a broad and deep understanding of the Middle East that will allow for more nuanced interpretations of current events grounded in an understanding of the long historical context. Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER

184s    History of the Modern Middle East     The history of the Middle East from the post-Suleymanic Ottoman Empire to the present. Examines the fall of the Ottoman and Safavid empires, the rise of Western dominance, the struggle for independence, attempts at reform, the Arab-Israeli conflict, oil, the Iranian revolution, the Gulf War, the rise of Islamist movements and ongoing repercussions. Particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics and the nature of power and authority. Designed to give the historical background necessary for understanding current events in the Middle East in their proper context. Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER

[186]    The Holocaust    Why were Jews and other peoples systematically murdered during the Holocaust? What were the roots of this horrific experience in Jewish history, in German history, and in modern European history? What can we learn about the Holocaust from the study of politics, psychology, and literature, as well as from historical documents and scholarship? What can the comparative study of genocide tell us about the unique features of the Holocaust and about recurring historical patterns? Part of the Integrated Studies Program; requires concurrent enrollment in Religion 186. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

197j    World Environmental History of the 20th Century    Listed as Science, Technology, and Society 197A. Three credit hours.  H.    POTTS

200s    Introduction to History     Required of all history majors and designed to help develop understanding of what it means to pursue authentic knowledge about the human past. Explores why historians do what they do and what it is they think they are doing. Develops some of the basic tools necessary to be a good historian, including research, writing, and methodological skills. Reveals the diversity and vitality of historical scholarship and helps students master its basic goals and techniques. Prerequisite: History major. Four credit hours.  H.    JOSEPHSON

210s    Christianity from the Reformation to the Present    Listed as Religious Studies 236. Four credit hours.  H.    CAMPBELL

216s    Church History and Theology in Medieval Europe     The history and theology of Christianity in Western and Central Europe from the time of Jesus to the Lutheran Reformation. Topics include the earliest church, martyrdom, sainthood and relics, monasticism, the development of institutional religion, mysticism, worship, popular devotion, heresy, and interactions between Christianity, Judaism, and Islam throughout the period. Four credit hours.  H.    TAYLOR

224f    Germany and Europe, 1871-1945    What went wrong with German history from the first unification to the catastrophe of Nazism? Examining the question of German peculiarities within the European context and the debate on continuities in recent German history. Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

[227]    The Russian Empire: Russia Looks to the West, 1613-1905    The cultural and social history of Russia. Topics include Kievan Rus', the rise of Moscovy, the westernizing influence of Peter the Great, and the development of serfdom and autocracy. Focus on Russia's self-identity as Western or Eastern and on the challenges of building civil society. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

228s    The Russian Empire: Soviet History and 20th-Century Revolutions     The people of the Soviet Union lived through three revolutions (1905, 1917, 1991) and two world wars. Their leaders forced the pace of modernization and subjected their own citizens to class war, arrest, and execution. An exploration of the last days of Tsarism, of Leninism and Stalinism, and of the forces leading to the Gorbachev revolution and breakup of the Soviet empire. Four credit hours.  H, I.    JOSEPHSON

230Af    Religion in the U.S.A.    Listed as Religious Studies 217. Four credit hours.  H.    CAMPBELL

[230B]    Women in American Religion    Listed as Religious Studies 257. Four credit hours.  H.    

[230C]    In Search of a Strong Man: Greece in the Fourth Century    Listed as Classics 234. Three credit hours.  H, I.    

231f    American Women's History, to 1870     An examination of key themes in the varied lives of women in America from Colonial times to the end of the Civil War, such as their relationship to the public sphere and politics; women's work in the contexts of household production, early industrialization, and slavery; women and citizenship in the new republic; and women, religion, and social reform. Four credit hours.  H, U.    LIPPERT

232s    American Women's History, 1870 to the Present     An exploration of critical topics in the history of women in America from Reconstruction to the present, including the struggle for suffrage, black women in the aftermath of slavery, women and the labor movement, the impact on women of two world wars, birth control and reproductive freedom, women's liberation, the feminization of poverty, and the backlash against feminism. Four credit hours.  H, U.    LIPPERT

[235]    The American Family, 1600s to the Present     The domestic lives of Americans from the age of European settlement to the present day, treating the family as a social institution that both shaped and was shaped by political events, cultural movements, and economic forces. Topics include the clash between Indian and English family forms in the Colonial period; the effect of slavery and emancipation on black families; the changing legal, economic, and cultural dimensions of patriarchy; and the rise of alternative domestic ideals and practices in modern America. Four credit hours.  H.    

[238]    American Political History, 1600 to the Present     An exploration of public life in America from Colonial times to the present, considering not only the elections, parties, and movements that have defined the American political landscape but also the social and cultural changes underpinning it. Four credit hours.  H, U.    

[239]    The Era of the Civil War    A social, political, and cultural survey of the Civil War, its origins, and its aftermath. Was the war a watershed in American history, as historians have commonly suggested? And if so, what kind of watershed? Four credit hours.  H, U.    

[242]    Rivers     What have humans done to rivers over the centuries? What have rivers done to humans? A comparison of the environmental history of river basins in North and South America, Asia, and Europe, 1800-2000, with emphasis on the 20th century and the history of technology. Student groups will do research and presentations on river basins chosen in consultation with the instructor. Three credit hours.  H, I.    

245f    Science, Race, and Gender    Historical analysis of the concepts of race and gender in four different ways: their institutional basis, their scientific content, epistemological issues that surround notions of race and gender, and the cultural and social background of the scientists and science that developed from 1800 to the present. Consideration of importance of historical issues for contemporary society. Four credit hours.  H, U.    JOSEPHSON

[246]    Luddite Rantings: A Historical Critique of Big Technology    Adopting a technologically determinist argument, the instructor will subject to withering criticism the way in which Westerners, and in particular Americans, have embraced such technologies as automobiles, computers, reproductive devices, rockets, and reactors, with nary a thought about their ethical, moral, political, or environmental consequences. Students will be encouraged to argue. Four credit hours.  H.    

247f    African-American History, from Slavery to Freedom     The nature of racism, the experience of slavery, the role of African Americans in shaping the nation's history, and the struggle for equality from Colonial times until the present. Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT

[256]    Heian and Medieval Japan     An exploration of the evolution of culture and society of Japan from the eighth to the 16th centuries, examining changes in the rise and fall of the Heian aristocratic world and the development of the warrior culture of the Kamakura and Ashikaga periods. Readings and discussions will explore these processes of change in politics and society, religion and thought, and literature and art. East Asian Studies 151 recommended. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

258s    Anthropology, History, Memory    Listed as Anthropology 258. Four credit hours.    BHIMULL

[261]    African History    An introduction to major themes in Africa's past. Topics include the peopling of Africa, the evolution of African states, the role of Islam, the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on Africa, slavery within Africa, European imperialism, the impact of colonial rule, and struggles for independence. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

[272]    History of Law, Society, and Rebellion in Mexico    We look beyond the clichéd image of the Mexican bandit to consider the complex economic, social, and political problems behind ruptures in the legal order from Aztec times to the present. Focusing on revolts, the social origins and political construction of crime, and state regulation of popular culture, we trace the outlines of the history of Mexico and consider how notions of legality vary across time and cultures. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

[274]    Race, Religion, and Frontiers in Iberian-American Colonization     Topics include the medieval roots of Iberian expansion and the importance of religion and race in the Conquest; the institutional and social construction of colonial society, including Iberians' cultural baggage--notions of racial purity and piety and related ideas such as honor and hierarchy; decolonization, focusing on the struggle over abolition; and the persistence of Iberian notions of race and colonization in the Americas. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

275j    Strongmen and Populism in Modern Spain and Latin America     A cross-disciplinary study of the historical factors behind the creation of Trujillo's dictatorship in the Dominican Republic, the rise of Getulio Vargas's Estado Novo in Brazil, the role of Zapata as an agrarian warlord in the Mexican Revolution, the failure of the Spanish Republic and the emergence of Franco's regime, and the crises that have brought populist regimes and caudillos, or charismatic strong leaders, to power. Three credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW

276f    Patterns and Processes in World History    An introduction to patterns and processes in world history, principally focused on the period since 1200. Themes include the evolution of trade and empire, global balances in military and political power, historical epidemiology, the evolution of capitalism, slavery and its abolition, democratic and industrialization revolutions, imperialism, global warfare, and decolonization. Four credit hours.  H, I.    WEBB

277s    History of the Maya from 200 B.C.    A multidisciplinary survey (archaeology, anthropology, sociology, literature, and history) of the trajectory of the Mayan peoples from the writing of the first known Maya glyphs (c. 200 B.C.) to the current conflicts in Chiapas and Guatemala. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW

[282]    The Making of Judaism    Listed as Religious Studies 282. Four credit hours.  H.    

[285]    Foundations of Islam     A comprehensive introduction to the Islamic religious tradition focusing on the formative early period (seventh-11th centuries C.E.) and to contemporary interpretations and adaptations. Explores the nature of religion, religious knowledge, practice, identity, law, gender, and the nature of the divine. Analyzes the foundational beliefs, diversity, and social constructions within Islam by examining the early texts (the Qur'an, hadith/sunna), their interpretations, and their application through time. No prior knowledge expected. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

297f    History of Modern China    A survey of modern China from the late Qing Dynasty (18th century) to the present, examining how the idea and reality of "China" and "Chineseness" changed over time through exploring the relationship between ideological change and everyday life. Topics include the decline of empire and the rise of the nation-state, changing relationships between state and society, the development of ethnic, national and gender identities, urban cosmopolitanism, and communism and capitalism with Chinese characteristics. Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE

297Bj    Elizabethan England: From Crisis to Innovation    Situation of England during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558-1603) in its context as one of the emerging powers of early modern Europe. Elizabeth's reign has been called "Golden" despite crises such as growing poverty, famine and disease, changes to social practices as marriage, hospitality and charity, and almost constant engagement in war on the continent. Despite such widespread difficulties, this period produced some of the richest contributions to culture in England's history, particularly in literature, music, architecture, and landscape. Topics explored include the Renaissance, diplomacy and war, religious nonconformity, and social change. Three credit hours.  H.    COGAN

297Jj    Topics in Maine's Jewish History    Listed as Religious Studies 297J. Three credit hours.  H, U.    FREIDENREICH

298As    Antebellum America, 1815-1860    A study of U. S. history in the half-century between the War of 1812 and the Civil War. Considers how the rise of political parties and the growth of democratic tendencies intersected with such developments and institutions as the market revolution, religious revival, the feminization of American culture, and race and slavery in national discourse. Concludes with an examination of the political and cultural events that led to the Civil War. Four credit hours.  H.    BULTHUIS

298Bs    Early American Frontiers     Historians have sometimes defined the frontier as a place where empires die. Evaluates that idea of frontier and looks at the various frontiers, or Wests, that Euro-American explorers and Native Americans created in various zones of interaction from Columbian contact through 1850. Compares different regional and national approaches to expansion, concluding with the dramatic push westward by the U. S. peoples and government in the 1840s, and pays particular attention to Native American social and cultural transformation and to environmental history. Four credit hours.  H.    BULTHUIS

306f    Alexander the Great    Listed as Classics 356. Four credit hours.  H.    J. ROISMAN

311f    Sainthood and Popular Devotion in the Middle Ages     An interdisciplinary seminar that explores ideas of sanctity and popular devotion from the early Middle Ages to 1550. Issues include formation of concepts of sainthood, pilgrimages, relics, and popular versus elite belief. Previously listed as History 411. Prerequisite: Prior course in medieval history recommended. Four credit hours.  H.    TAYLOR

[312]    Medieval England, 1066-1485     The history of England from the Norman Conquest until the end of the Plantagenet dynasty in 1485. Topics include the impact of the Norman Conquest, the Anarchy, the spread of the king's justice and the church/state controversy, Magna Carta and the rise of parliament, women and gender, the Hundred Years' War, religion and culture, and the mystery surrounding the last Yorkist king, Richard III. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or previous medieval history course. Four credit hours.  H.    

[313]    Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe     The history of women and gender from the early Middle Ages to the French Revolution, with attention to women of all classes and categories of society: virgins, wives, and widows; saints, nuns, and mothers; queens, intellectuals, physicians, and brewers; prostitutes, magicians, and witches. Changes in legal, family, and economic status over time; working opportunities and restrictions; attitudes toward sexuality; the querelle des femmes; male views of women; writings by women; church attitudes. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

[314]    Italian Renaissance     An interdisciplinary seminar on the history and culture of the Renaissance in Italy, with special attention to Florence and Venice. Topics include culture (art, literature, music); civic life; gender, family, and sexuality; humanism; religion and popular culture; politics. Formerly listed as History 214. Four credit hours.  H.    

315s    Heresy, Humanism, and Reform     Seminar topics include popular religion, heresy, inquisition, anti-Judaism, and anti-clericalism on the eve of the Reformation; northern humanism; Luther, Zwingli, Calvin, and the Radical Reformation; Catholic reform; religious wars; women, family, and gender; witch crazes. Formerly listed as History 215. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or a prior course in medieval history or religion. Four credit hours.  H.    TAYLOR

[317]    The Gothic Moment: Paris and the Ile-de-France, 1100-1250     An exploration of the 12th-century renaissance--the moment during which universities first develop, Gothic cathedrals and churches are built all over northern Europe, literature in the form of Arthurian legends, courtly love, and fabliaux reach all levels of society, and when speculative philosophy and theology engage the minds of the leading thinkers. Concentrating on Paris between 1100 and 1250, exploring the culture of this period through interdisciplinary studies. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

321s    The First World War     Covers the origins of the war, its impact on European societies, the experience of soldiers and of civilians on the home front, and the war's long-term legacy in Europe and the wider world. Includes an individual research component. Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

322j    Europe and the Second World War     An exploration of the origins of World War II, its military, civilian, and diplomatic aspects, and its effects. Includes debates on the Versailles peace order, appeasement, collaboration and resistance in Nazi-occupied Europe, war aims, the mass murder and deportation of civilian populations, and the rebuilding of Europe after 1945. Although the focus is on Europe, the global dimensions of the war receive ample consideration. Three credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

323s    Yugoslavia: Emergence to Dissolution    An analysis of the complex Balkan region that constituted Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1991, beginning with the Ottoman and Habsburg influence in the 18th century and ending with the civil wars of the 1990s. Yugoslav history, with its unique cultural mixture, opens an unusual and instructive perspective on modern Europe. It has strongly affected larger trends in European history from the outbreak of World War I to genocide during World War II and a specific form of communism after 1945. Formerly offered as History 220. Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

327f    Daily Life Under Stalin    Many workers and peasants, and of course political elites, supported the Stalinist system, overlooking, discounting or even justifying the great human costs of collectivization, industrialization, and the Great Terror as needed to create a great socialist fortress. An examination of the nature of regime loyalty under Stalin, making extensive use of primary sources. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours.  H.    JOSEPHSON

[332]    New France: France in Canada, 1535-1760     Focuses on the first French exploration of Canada, from Jacques Cartier in 1534-5 until the surrender of New France to British troops in 1760. Topics include the religious and economic motivation of the colony, involvement of King Louis XIV and his minister Colbert, life in the colony, Jesuits and Ursulines, conflict with British North America, and relations with the native populations. Possible field trip to Québec or Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. Prerequisite: A course in early European or American history. Four credit hours.  H.    

337s    The Age of the American Revolution     The American revolutionary period (ca. 1760-1820), blending political, social, intellectual, and cultural history, from 18th-century America as a society built on contradictions (liberty and slavery, property and equality, dependence and independence) through the rebellion against Britain to the democratic, slave-owning, egalitarian, libertarian, and hyper-commercial world of the early republic. Four credit hours.  H, U.    BULTHUIS

[340]    Biographies and Autobiographies of Great American Women    A seminar in which biographies and autobiographies of prominent individual American women are used to explore not only their lives but also critical issues in American women's history, in the discipline of biographical/autobiographical historical writing, in developing a concept of historical greatness. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H, U.    

342s    Crisis and Reform: American Society and Politics in the 1960s    The utopian hopes for government during the Kennedy and Johnson years, both in solving social problems and in containing communism around the world. Readings focus on the shaping of federal policies, their domestic and global impact, and the cultural and political legacy of this era. Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT

[347]    America in Vietnam    The roots of conflict in Vietnam, American involvement, the course of the war, and its legacy for both Americans and Vietnamese. Four credit hours.  H, U.    

364s    Environmental and Health History in Africa    A seminar on major issues in African environmental and health history. Topics include early human health in Africa; the impacts of the horticultural and agricultural revolutions; disease and the slave trades; colonial-era campaigns to control sleeping sickness; the food crisis and international aid; and post-colonial campaigns to control TB, malaria, and HIV. Four credit hours.  H, I.    WEBB

374s    Religion and World War II    Listed as Religious Studies 334. Four credit hours.    CAMPBELL

[381]    Women and Gender in Islam    A comprehensive introduction to the construction of gender in the Islamic Middle East. Puts the lives of contemporary Muslim women and men into a deeper historical perspective, examining the issues that influence definitions of gender in the Islamic world. Through monographs, essays, novels, stories, and film, examines the changing status and images of women and men in the Qur'an, hadith/sunna, theology, philosophy, and literature. Traces changes and developments in those constructions of identity beginning with the rise of Islam and continuing through contemporary understandings. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

388j    History of the Crusades    Exploration of the historical circumstances of the Crusades primarily from a Middle Eastern perspective. The goal is to foster a broader understanding of the sociopolitical, religious, and economic forces driving the Crusades and their effects on the Middle East. Focus primarily on the Crusades of the 11th-13th centuries, but consideration is also given to their legacy and long-term effects. The nature of "Holy War" from both Christian and Islamic perspectives, the nature of Christian-Muslim conflict, armed conflict in a premodern context, and whether there was such a thing as an East vs. West conflict. Three credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER

389s    History of Iran    Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Iran from the rise of the Safavid dynasty to the election of Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Particular points of focus: state formation, the influence of the West on 19th-century economic and intellectual development, 20th-century internal struggles between the religious and political elite, the effects of oil and great power intervention, the rise of activist Islam and the revolution, the war with Iraq, and life after Khomeini. Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER

394s    Ecological History    A seminar that explores major issues in humankind's relationship to the natural world. Topics include the food crisis in prehistory, the human use of fire, disease and urbanization, the domestication of animals, the global exchange of flora and fauna, the impacts of industrialization and global capitalism, tropical deforestation, and the conservation movement. Four credit hours.  H, I.    WEBB

397f    Visual Culture in American Life, 1800-1920     How has American society's insatiable thirst for visual media influenced the way we view one another, portray ourselves, and the way that others view us? We will explore the significance of what Raymond Williams called the "cultural revolution" for the lives of ordinary men and women in the United States. This history encompasses subjects that have retained their relevance in contemporary life, including racial and ethnic stereotypes, armchair travel, virtual versus lived reality, authenticity and artifice, mass entertainment, city life, celebrity, and gender. Four credit hours.  H.    LIPPERT

397Bf    Colonial North America     Before 1763 there was not even an idea of a United States of America. An examination of that lost world before the United States. Begins with the process of colony building among Spanish, French, English, and Dutch emigrants; concludes with a close examination of the growth and development of the British colonies; moves ultimately to the tensions that helped force the American Revolution. Topics explored include diplomacy with Native Americans, economic developments, the role of women, the place of slavery, and church-state relations. Four credit hours.  H.    BULTHUIS

398s    Women and Gender in East Asia     A seminar on the history of women and gender in China, Japan, and Korea from the 1600s to the 1900s, examining changes in gender ideology and women's everyday lives. Topics include premodern concepts of gender and the body, neo-Confucian gender ideology, family and social relations, and modernity and the new woman. Readings and discussions cover a range of primary and secondary materials, including literature, visual and material culture, theoretical works, and historical monographs. Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE

400f    Senior Research Colloquium    Required for all senior honors students to focus on developing critical research and writing skills. Students will develop research proposals and present their work, including a substantial portion of the thesis. Replaces History 483. Prerequisite: Departmental approval to undertake a full-year senior honors project. Four credit hours.    TAYLOR

[413]    Research Seminar: Joan of Arc: History, Legend, and Film     A critical examination of one of the most famous figures in history within the context of 15th-century French history and particularly the Hundred Years' War with England. Focus will be on the role of narrative and interpretation in the understanding of history from the time of Joan of Arc to our own. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H, I.    

414s    Research Seminar: History of Fear in Europe, 1300-1900     An exploration of how fear and different forms of communication or rumor influenced the course of European history in the medieval and early modern period. Case studies involve instances of anti-Judaism and anti-Islam; reactions to leprosy and syphilis; misogyny and demonology; xenophobia; and fear of death in all its forms from 1321 to 1888. Explores how changing communications from oral to semiliterate to journalistic culture influenced and changed history, marginalizing those outside the religious, gendered, ethnic, medical, and socioeconomic 'norms' of society at a given time and place Prerequisite: A course in medieval or early modern history. Four credit hours.  H, I.    TAYLOR

421f    Research Seminar: Debating the Nazi Past    Explores the political and social dynamics of the Third Reich, the charisma and importance of Hitler, the choices of ordinary Germans, the genesis and execution of the Holocaust, and the problems of postwar Germans in dealing with the Nazi past. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK

[435]    Research Seminar: The American Civil War    An in-depth study of the Civil War in America, with a series of common readings on the war, including its causes, its aftermath, significant military and political leaders (e.g., Grant, Lee, Longstreet, Sherman, Lincoln, Davis), the experiences and impact of the war for women and African Americans, the impact of defeat on the South, the ways in which Americans remember and reenact the war. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H, U.    

436s    Research Seminar: History of the American West     "Go west, young man, go west!" newspaper editor Horace Greeley loved to say, although he remained in New York and did not coin the phrase. It referred to the host of opportunities thought to be lying in wait in uncharted territories out yonder. The West has embodied the American dream; it has also represented an American nightmare. The changing definitions, demographics, conceptualizations, and significance of the West across two centuries of North American history. Prerequisite: An introductory U.S. history survey or other relevant, lower-division U.S. history course. Four credit hours.  H.    LIPPERT

[444]    Research Seminar: Big Science and Technology in the 20th Century     The social, economic, and political determinants of big science and technology in the 20th century through analysis of the history of major waterworks projects, the rise of agribusiness, and nuclear power in various national settings and under various polities. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H.    

[445]    Research Seminar: Nuclear Madness     An examination of the place of nuclear technologies in the modern world, using social, cultural, and institutional history and focusing on the USSR and the United States. Nuclear technologies are symbols of national achievement, yet significant scientific uncertainties accompanied their creation, they require significant public outlays, and they have led to dangerous pollution. What explains their great momentum? Four credit hours.  H.    

446f    Research Seminar: Historical Epidemiology    An exploration of humankind's historical experience with epidemic disease. Topics include the evolution of human diseases and those of domesticated animals, urbanization and disease, the integration of disease reservoirs, childhood epidemics, the world's medical traditions and the efficacy of their interventions, the rise of public health and the pharmaceutical industry, and the contemporary challenges of HIV/AIDS and bioterrorism. Prerequisite: History 261, 276, or 394. Four credit hours.  H.    WEBB

447f    Research Seminar: The Cold War    An examination of the Cold War from both Soviet and American perspectives, tracing the reasons for this prolonged rivalry, the patterns of military and diplomatic confrontation, the global impact of the Cold War, and the upheaval in Soviet-American relations that recently moved the Cold War into the realm of history. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H.    WEISBROT

461f    Research Seminar: The History and Development of Islamic Law     An examination of questions--how law comes to be; who has control over it; what makes it Islamic; how is it different from other systems--leading to a deeper understanding of the functions, diversity, and trajectories of Islamic law. We will explore the roots, historical paths of formation, and development of the major schools of Islamic legal thought and their arguments over and elucidation of Shari'a. This will shed light on current Islamist movements and their claims to that heritage and to the law. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H.    TURNER

473f    Research Seminar: Roots of Political and Ethnic Conflict in Modern Latin America    Why have modern Latin American states consistently faced resistance and rebellion from peasants and indigenous peoples? An interdisciplinary examination of Latin America's colonial legacy, followed by analysis of conflicts spurred by 19th-century liberalism and 20th-century social revolutions in the Andes, Central America, Brazil, and Mexico. Special attention to ethnicity and gender, political violence, and different theoretical perspectives on how states are (un)made. Prerequisite: A previous course on Latin America and permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW

484s    History Honors Program    Majors may apply late in their junior year for admission into the History Honors Program. Taken in spring semester (after History 400 in the fall) this course requires research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of a thesis. Upon successful completion of the thesis and the major, the student will graduate "With Honors in History." Prerequisite: Senior standing, a 3.5 grade point average in the history major at the end of the junior year, and permission of the instructor. Four credit hours.    FACULTY

491f, 492s    Independent Study    Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. One to four credit hours.    FACULTY