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History Course Descriptions
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HI106f Greek History Listed as Ancient History 158. Three or four credit hours. H, I. J. ROISMAN
HI111f The West from Antiquity to 1618 An interdisciplinary survey of European history from ancient Mesopotamia to the religious wars. Larger themes include the evolution of legal systems and the development of kingship; ancient and medieval notions of history; relations between church and state; the development of universities; the impact of the plague; discoveries in the New World; and the Renaissance, Reformation, and religious wars. Focus is on the interpretation and analysis of primary sources, class discussion, and development of writing skills. Throughout we will examine changing attitudes toward gender and sexuality; concepts of persecution, repression and tolerance; reactions to disease; and the results of economic disparity. Four credit hours. H, I. TAYLOR
HI112s A Survey of Modern Europe An introduction to four centuries of an eventful and exciting history that has shaped not only Europe but the world of today. It includes an analysis of social structures, the role of the state, claims to political participation, intellectual currents, and a synthesis of everyday life and large-scale historical events changing at different paces. Four credit hours. H, I. SCHECK
HI131f Survey of U.S. History, to 1865 A general overview of key issues and events in U.S. history from the age of settlement through the Civil War. Four credit hours. H, U. TORTORA
HI132s Survey of U.S. History, 1865 to the Present The rise of national power and its implications for American democratic values. Four credit hours. H, U. BATTISTI
[HI137] The Great Depression: America in the 1930s The Great Depression of the 1930s is still the worst economic collapse of modern times. Why did it come about? How did it pose a crisis of faith in capitalism? How did Americans cope with the hard times, and how did the experience shape their values and behavior? In what ways did the federal government respond, to what ends, and with what consequences? And exploration of these historical problems hones critical-thinking and interpretive skills; helps students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and fosters clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas. Part of the three-course Integrated Studies 137 cluster, "American Stories: Understanding the Great Depression." Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in American Studies 137 and English 137. (Elect IS137.) Four credit hours. H.
[HI151] Introduction to East Asia from Ancient Times to the 17th Century Listed as East Asian Studies 151. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI152] Introduction to East Asia from the 18th Century to Modern Times Listed as East Asian Studies 152. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI154s Roman History Listed as Ancient History 154. Three or four credit hours. H, I. J. ROISMAN
HI173f History of Latin America Listed as Latin American Studies 173. Four credit hours. H, I. FALLAW
HI174s Introduction to Latin American Studies Listed as Latin American Studies 174. Four credit hours. H, I. FALLAW
[HI181] Conceptions of Jews and Judaism Listed as Religious Studies 181. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI182s Jews and Judaism in the Modern World Listed as Religious Studies 182. Four credit hours. H, I. MAIZELS
HI183f History of the Premodern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the rise of Muhammad to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids. The spread of Islam, the development and application of religious and political authority, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and their successors, the development of Islam in both its formal and more folk forms, the development of literature, art, science, and society. Gives a broad and deep understanding of the Middle East that will allow for more nuanced interpretations of current events grounded in an understanding of the long historical context. Four credit hours. H, I. TURNER
HI184s History of the Modern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the post-Suleymanic Ottoman Empire to the present. Examines the fall of the Ottoman and Safavid empires, the rise of Western dominance, the struggle for independence, attempts at reform, the Arab-Israeli conflict, oil, the Iranian revolution, the Gulf War, the rise of Islamist movements, and ongoing repercussions. Particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics and the nature of power and authority. Designed to give the historical background necessary for understanding current events in the Middle East in their proper context. Four credit hours. H, I. TURNER
HI200fs Introduction to History Required of all history majors and designed to help develop understanding of what it means to pursue authentic knowledge about the human past. Explores why historians do what they do and what it is they think they are doing. Develops some of the basic tools necessary to be a good historian, including research, writing, and methodological skills. Reveals the diversity and vitality of historical scholarship and helps students master its basic goals and techniques. Prerequisite: History major. Four credit hours. H. LEONARD, SCHECK
[HI210] Christianity from the Reformation to the Present Listed as Religious Studies 236. Four credit hours. H.
HI216s Church History and Theology in Medieval Europe Introduces students to the history and theology of Christianity from ancient through medieval times, ending with the Lutheran Reformation. After an introduction to the Bible and the earliest missions, we trace developments in doctrine, heresy, persecution, popular beliefs, gender, organizational structures, and relationships with other religions, specifically Judaism and Islam. Four credit hours. H. TAYLOR
[HI221] Topics in Maine's Jewish History Listed as Religious Studies 221. Three credit hours. H, U.
[HI224] Germany and Europe, 1871-1945 What went wrong with Germany from the first unification to the catastrophe of Nazism? Examining the question of German peculiarities within the European context and the debate on continuities in recent German history. Focus on critical reading and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI227] The Russian Empire: Russia Looks to the West, 1613-1905 The cultural and social history of Russia. Topics include Kievan Rus', the rise of Moscovy, the westernizing influence of Peter the Great, and the development of serfdom and autocracy. Focus on Russia's self-identity as Western or Eastern and on the challenges of building civil society. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI228s The Russian Empire: Soviet History and 20th-Century Revolutions The people of the Soviet Union lived through three revolutions (1905, 1917, 1991) and two world wars. Their leaders forced the pace of modernization and subjected their own citizens to class war, arrest, and execution. An exploration of the last days of Tsarism, of Leninism and Stalinism, and of the forces leading to the Gorbachev revolution and breakup of the Soviet empire. Four credit hours. H, I. JOSEPHSON
HI230Af Religion in the U.S.A. Listed as Religious Studies 217. Four credit hours. H. CAMPBELL
[HI230C] In Search of a Strong Man: Greece in the Fourth Century Listed as Classics 234. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI231f American Women's History, to 1870 An examination of key themes in the varied lives of women in America from Colonial times to the end of the Civil War, such as their relationship to the public sphere and politics; women's work in the contexts of household production, early industrialization, and slavery; women and citizenship in the new republic; and women, religion, and social reform. Four credit hours. H, U. LEONARD
HI232s American Women's History, 1870 to the Present An exploration of critical topics in the history of women in America from Reconstruction to the present, including the struggle for suffrage, black women in the aftermath of slavery, women and the labor movement, the impact on women of two world wars, birth control and reproductive freedom, women's liberation, the feminization of poverty, and the backlash against feminism. Four credit hours. H, U. LEONARD
[HI235] The American Family, 1600s to the Present The domestic lives of Americans from the age of European settlement to the present day, treating the family as a social institution that both shaped and was shaped by political events, cultural movements, and economic forces. Topics include the clash between Indian and English family forms in the Colonial period; the effect of slavery and emancipation on black families; the changing legal, economic, and cultural dimensions of patriarchy; and the rise of alternative domestic ideals and practices in modern America. Four credit hours. H.
[HI238] American Political History, 1600 to the Present An exploration of public life in America from Colonial times to the present, considering not only the elections, parties, and movements that have defined the American political landscape but also the social and cultural changes underpinning it. Four credit hours. H, U.
[HI239] The Era of the Civil War A social, political, and cultural survey of the Civil War, its origins, and its aftermath. Was the war a watershed in American history, as historians have commonly suggested? And if so, what kind of watershed? Four credit hours. H, U.
HI242s Colonial North America Through a continental perspective, explores the rich economic, social, and cultural diversity of the American colonies. We will consider the experiences, interactions, and conflicts of American Indians, Europeans, and Africans within the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English colonial empires in what is now the United States and Canada, from 1491 to the 1760s. Four credit hours. H, U. TORTORA
[HI245] Science, Race, and Gender Historical analysis of the concepts of race and gender in four different ways: their institutional basis, their scientific content, epistemological issues that surround notions of race and gender, and the cultural and social background of the scientists and science that developed from 1800 to the present. Consideration of importance of historical issues for contemporary society. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI246s Luddite Rantings: A Historical Critique of Big Technology Adopting a technologically determinist argument, the instructor will subject to withering criticism the way in which Westerners, and in particular Americans, have embraced such technologies as automobiles, computers, reproductive devices, rockets, and reactors, with nary a thought about their ethical, moral, political, or environmental consequences. Students will be encouraged to argue. Four credit hours. H. JOSEPHSON
HI247f African-American History, from Slavery to Freedom Explores the experience of blacks in American society from Colonial times through the present. Subjects focus on racism, slavery, the role of African Americans in shaping the nation's history, and the ongoing struggle for equality. In exploring these historical developments, the course aims to expose students to a range of primary and scholarly sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas. Four credit hours. H, U. BATTISTI
HI250f History of Modern China A survey of modern China from the late Qing Dynasty (18th century) to the present, examining how the idea and reality of "China" and "Chinese-ness" changed over time through exploring the relationship between ideological change and everyday life. Topics include the decline of empire and the rise of the nation-state, changing relationships between state and society, the development of ethnic, national and gender identities, urban cosmopolitanism, and communism and capitalism with Chinese characteristics. Previously offered as History 297. Four credit hours. H, I. XU
[HI258] Anthropology, History, Memory Listed as Anthropology 258. Four credit hours.
[HI261] African History An introduction to major themes in Africa's past. Topics include the peopling of Africa, the evolution of African states, the role of Islam, the impact of the Atlantic slave trade on Africa, slavery within Africa, European imperialism, the impact of colonial rule, and struggles for independence. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI272] History of Law, Society, and Rebellion in Mexico We look beyond the clichéd image of the Mexican bandit to consider the complex economic, social, and political problems behind ruptures in the legal order from Aztec times to the present. Focusing on revolts, the social origins and political construction of crime, and state regulation of popular culture, we trace the outlines of the history of Mexico and consider how notions of legality vary across time and cultures. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI274] Race, Religion, and Frontiers in Iberian-American Colonization Topics include the medieval roots of Iberian expansion and the importance of religion and race in the Conquest; the institutional and social construction of colonial society, including Iberians' cultural baggage—notions of racial purity and piety and related ideas such as honor and hierarchy; decolonization, focusing on the struggle over abolition; and the persistence of Iberian notions of race and colonization in the Americas. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI275j Strongmen and Populism in Modern Spain and Latin America A cross-disciplinary study of the historical factors behind the creation of Trujillo's dictatorship in the Dominican Republic, the rise of Getulio Vargas's Estado Novo in Brazil, the role of Zapata as an agrarian warlord in the Mexican Revolution, the failure of the Spanish Republic and the emergence of Franco's regime, and the crises that have brought populist regimes and caudillos, or charismatic strong leaders, to power. Three credit hours. H, I. FALLAW
HI276s Patterns and Processes in World History An introduction to patterns and processes in world history. Themes include the evolution of trade and empire, global balances in military and political power, impacts of disease, the evolution of capitalism, slavery and its abolition, global migrations, industrialization, imperialism, and decolonization. Students read essays and study maps of historical patterns and processes and write essays to hone their critical-thinking and writing skills. Four credit hours. H, I. WEBB
HI277s History of the Maya from 200 B.C. A multidisciplinary survey (archaeology, anthropology, sociology, literature, and history) of the trajectory of the Mayan peoples from the writing of the first known Maya glyphs (c. 200 B.C.) to the current conflicts in Chiapas and Guatemala. Four credit hours. H, I. FALLAW
[HI282] The Making of Judaism Listed as Religious Studies 282. Four credit hours. H.
HI285f Foundations of Islam A comprehensive introduction to the Islamic religious tradition focusing on the formative early period (seventh-11th centuries C.E.) and to contemporary interpretations and adaptations. Explores the nature of religion, religious knowledge, practice, identity, law, gender, and the nature of the divine. Analyzes the foundational beliefs, diversity, and social constructions within Islam by examining the early texts (the Qur'an, hadith/sunna), their interpretations, and their application through time. No prior knowledge expected. Four credit hours. H, I. TURNER
HI297j Russian Empire in the 19th Century: Reform, Reaction, Revolution Explores the history of Russia's long 19th century, from the reign of Catherine the Great to the outset of World War I. This period witnessed Russia's expansion into a multiethnic empire, which was engaged on the European political stage, yet found itself unable to reconcile the demands of its modernizing society with the traditional autocratic prerogatives of the tsars. Students will learn to analyze the causes and consequences of the major events in this period and consider the relationship of sources to broader historical trends through a combination of lecture, discussion, and written assignments. Three credit hours. H. MURPHY
HI298As History of Premodern China An introduction to aspects of the traditional society and culture of China from its mythological and archaeological origins to the end of the 17th century, examining important and fascinating developments in Chinese history, literature, philosophy, religion, and culture. An emphasis on learning how to read critically primary texts as well as visual and material sources. Four credit hours. H. XU
[HI306] Alexander the Great Listed as Classics 356. Four credit hours. H.
[HI311] Sainthood and Popular Devotion in the Middle Ages Exposes the religious beliefs and practices of the people of the ancient and medieval world, looking beyond what was prescribed by the institutional church. How did religious behaviors structure people's lives? Why did some go so far outside of the accepted norms that they were considered heretics? Examines the role of women and non-Christians in medieval religious life. After extensive reading and discussion of secondary sources, students work on their own research projects using primary sources and present their final product to the class. Prerequisite: Prior course in medieval history recommended. Four credit hours. H.
HI312s Medieval England, 1066-1485 The history of England from the Norman Conquest until the end of the Plantagenet dynasty in 1485. Topics include the impact of the Norman Conquest, the Anarchy, the spread of the king's justice and the church/state controversy, Magna Carta and the rise of parliament, women and gender, the Hundred Years' War, religion and culture, and the mystery surrounding the last Yorkist king, Richard III. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or previous medieval history course. Four credit hours. H. TAYLOR
[HI313] Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe The history of women and gender from the early Middle Ages to the French Revolution, with attention to women of all classes and categories of society: virgins, wives, and widows; saints, nuns, and mothers; queens, intellectuals, physicians, and brewers; prostitutes, magicians, and witches. Changes in legal, family, and economic status over time; working opportunities and restrictions; attitudes toward sexuality; the querelle des femmes; male views of women; writings by women; church attitudes. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI314s Italian Renaissance An interdisciplinary seminar on the history and culture of the Renaissance in Italy, with special attention to Florence and Venice. Topics include culture (art, literature, music); civic life; gender, family and sexuality; humanism; religion and popular culture; politics. Four credit hours. H. TAYLOR
[HI315] Heresy, Humanism, and Reform Why would someone be willing to kill or be killed for religious beliefs? The question is as relevant in the modern world as it was in the century of the Reformations. Using microhistories and mentalités as the basis for our study, this seminar will use discussion and extensive writing exercises to examine this issue as it related to the inquisition, anti-Jewish sentiment at the end of the Middle Ages, and the development of Lutheranism and the reformed religions. How did changes in belief restructure and challenge the very bases of European societies? What role did women play in religious change? We will also look at the beginnings of 'toleration' and the ambiguous meanings of the word. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or a prior course in medieval history or religion. Four credit hours. H.
[HI317] The Gothic Moment: Paris and the Ile-de-France, 1100-1250 An exploration of the 12th-century renaissance—the moment during which universities first develop, Gothic cathedrals and churches are built all over northern Europe, literature in the form of Arthurian legends, courtly love, and fabliaux reach all levels of society, and when speculative philosophy and theology engage the minds of the leading thinkers. Concentrating on Paris between 1100 and 1250, exploring the culture of this period through interdisciplinary studies. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI321] The First World War Covers the origins of the war, its impact on European societies, the experience of soldiers and of civilians on the home front, and the war's long-term legacy in Europe and the wider world. Focus on the meaning of total war, patterns of intolerance and persecution, the crusading spirit, and the sheer scale of violence. Includes an individual research component. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI322f Europe and the Second World War Seeks a deeper understanding of the origins of the war, its military, civilian, and diplomatic aspects, and its effects. Starts with an intensive look at the First World War and its aftermath, because the Second World War is hardly imaginable without the "Great War." Includes targeted debates on crucial aspects of the war and a strong research component. Focus is on Europe, but global dimensions receive ample consideration. Goal is to understand historical processes in their dramatic and unsettling openness—important, as the outcome was initially hard to predict, leading many Europeans to make decisions based on false expectations. Four credit hours. H, I. SCHECK
[HI323] Yugoslavia: Emergence to Dissolution An analysis of the complex Balkan region that constituted Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1991, beginning with the Ottoman and Habsburg influence in the 18th century and ending with the civil wars of the 1990s. Yugoslav history, with its unique cultural mixture, opens an unusual and instructive perspective on modern Europe. It has strongly affected larger trends in European history from the outbreak of World War I to genocide during World War II and a specific form of communism after 1945. Formerly offered as History 220. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI327] Daily Life Under Stalin Many workers and peasants, and of course political elites, supported the Stalinist system, overlooking, discounting, or even justifying the great human costs of collectivization, industrialization, and the Great Terror as needed to create a great socialist fortress. An examination of the nature of regime loyalty under Stalin, making extensive use of primary sources. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
[HI332] New France: France in Canada, 1535-1760 Focuses on the first French exploration of Canada, from Jacques Cartier in 1534-5 until the surrender of New France to British troops in 1760. Topics include the religious and economic motivation of the colony, involvement of King Louis XIV and his minister Colbert, life in the colony, Jesuits and Ursulines, conflict with British North America, and relations with the native populations. Possible field trip to Québec or Louisbourg in Nova Scotia. Prerequisite: A course in early European or American history. Four credit hours. H.
HI336f After Appomattox An examination of America from the Confederacy's collapse in April 1865 to the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. What were the major issues facing the nation once the shooting war was over? What did Reconstruction accomplish? How much did emancipation change the lives of African Americans? Did women's activism on behalf of the war effort accelerate their expectations for equality in the postwar period? Where did all those soldiers go? We will address these and many other important questions. Enhances critical historical reading and thinking, excellence in research and writing, and competence in oral presentation. Four credit hours. H, U. LEONARD
[HI337] The Age of the American Revolution The American revolutionary period (ca. 1760-1820), blending political, social, intellectual, and cultural history, from 18th-century America as a society built on contradictions (liberty and slavery, property and equality, dependence and independence) through the rebellion against Britain to the democratic, slave-owning, egalitarian, libertarian, and hyper-commercial world of the early republic. Four credit hours. H, U.
[HI342] Crisis and Reform: American Society and Politics in the 1960s The utopian hopes for government during the Kennedy and Johnson years, both in solving social problems and in containing communism around the world. Readings focus on the shaping of federal policies, their domestic and global impact, and the cultural and political legacy of this era. Four credit hours. H, U.
[HI347] America in Vietnam The roots of conflict in Vietnam, American involvement, the course of the war, and its legacy for both Americans and Vietnamese. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI350s Women and Gender in East Asia A seminar on the history of women and gender in China, Japan, and Korea from the 700s to the 1700s, examining changes in gender ideology and women's everyday lives. Investigates how women made history and how history made women by examining women's multiple roles in political, economic, legal, social, intellectual, and literary history. Topics include women and government, sexuality, marriage and family, law and economy, religion, Neo-Confucianism, education, writing and work. Four credit hours. H, I. XU
[HI364] Environmental and Health History in Africa A seminar on major issues in African environmental and health history. Topics include the impacts of the horticultural, agricultural, and livestock revolutions; the "Columbian Exchange" and the "Monsoon Exchange"; the rinderpest pandemic; colonial-era campaigns to control sleeping sickness, TB, and malaria; the colonial-era transformations of African disease environments; African and Western conceptions of disease etiologies; the interface between allopathic, traditional, and religious healing; and postcolonial campaigns against HIV. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI374s Religion and World War II Listed as Religious Studies 334. Four credit hours. CAMPBELL
[HI381] Women and Gender in Islam A comprehensive introduction to the construction of gender in the Islamic Middle East. Puts the lives of contemporary Muslim women and men into a deeper historical perspective, examining the issues that influence definitions of gender in the Islamic world. Through monographs, essays, novels, stories, and film, examines the changing status and images of women and men in the Qur'an, hadith/sunna, theology, philosophy, and literature. Traces changes and developments in those constructions of identity beginning with the rise of Islam and continuing through contemporary understandings. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI388] History of the Crusades Exploration of the historical circumstances of the Crusades primarily from a Middle Eastern perspective. The goal is to foster a broader understanding of the sociopolitical, religious, and economic forces driving the Crusades and their effects on the Middle East. Focus primarily on the Crusades of the 11th-13th centuries, but consideration is also given to their legacy and long-term effects. The nature of "holy war" from both Christian and Islamic perspectives, the nature of Christian-Muslim conflict, armed conflict in a premodern context, and whether there was such a thing as an East vs. West conflict. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI389s History of Iran Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Iran from the rise of the Safavid dynasty to the election of Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Particular points of focus: state formation, the influence of the West on 19th-century economic and intellectual development, 20th-century internal struggles between the religious and political elite, the effects of oil and great power intervention, the rise of activist Islam and the revolution, the war with Iraq, and life after Khomeini. Four credit hours. H, I. TURNER
[HI394] Ecological History A seminar on major issues in ecological history. Topics include the relationship between ecological science and environmental history; the early impact of the agricultural revolutions; the "collapse" of early civilizations; processes of deforestation and desertification; the rise of the conservation movement; ecological costs and benefits of technological efforts to engineer nature; biological innovations and chemical controls; the paradox of population growth; and the contemporary crisis of modern agriculture and diet. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI397Af Native Peoples in North America Students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities, and will consider their cultural, social, and artistic contributions to North American life. Topics may include pre-contact, contact and conflict with Europeans, warfare, displacement, cultural repression, Indian veterans, urban migration, and the struggle for sovereignty, recognition, and prosperity. Four credit hours. H. TORTORA
HI397Cf Confucianism: From China to the World An interdisciplinary study of Confucianism from its ambiguous and complex origin to the 21st century. Examines key themes in the development of Confucianism from China to traditional East Asian and our present world. Topics include ancient Confucian philosophy, Neo-Confucianism, Confucianism and state ideology, family structure, gender, capitalism, modernity, and globalization. Four credit hours. H. XU
HI398As United States in the Cold War Examines how the politics and culture of the Cold War shaped the United States at home and also considers their impact on American foreign policy decisions. Particular attention will be paid to the disparity between Cold War ideals and the social and political realities of the Cold War era. Postwar Americans rallied behind liberal consensus ideals—but what practical impact did those ideals have on American society, politics, foreign relations, and culture? Four credit hours. H. BATTISTI
HI398Bs After Alexander: The Disintegration of an Empire Listed as Classics 398A. Four credit hours. H. J. ROISMAN
HI413f Research Seminar: Joan of Arc: History, Legend, and Film A critical examination of one of the most famous figures in history within the context of 15th-century French history and particularly the Hundred Years' War with England. Focus will be on the role of narrative and interpretation in the understanding of history from the time of Joan of Arc to our own. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H, I. TAYLOR
[HI414] Research Seminar: History of Fear in Europe, 1300-1900 An exploration of how fear and different forms of communication or rumor influenced the course of European history in the medieval and early modern period. Case studies involve instances of anti-Judaism and anti-Islam; reactions to leprosy and syphilis; misogyny and demonology; xenophobia; and fear of death in all its forms from 1321 to 1888. Explores how changing communications from oral to semi-literate to journalistic culture influenced and changed history, marginalizing those outside the religious, gendered, ethnic, medical, and socioeconomic norms of society at a given time and place. Prerequisite: A course in medieval or early modern history. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI421f Research Seminar: Debating the Nazi Past Explores the political and social dynamics of the Third Reich, the charisma and importance of Hitler, the choices of ordinary Germans, the genesis and execution of the Holocaust, and the problems of postwar Germans in dealing with the Nazi past. Focus on critical research, reading, and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance and charismatically underpinned violence. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H, I. SCHECK
HI435s Research Seminar: The American Civil War An in-depth study of the Civil War in America, with a series of common readings on the war, including its causes, its aftermath, significant military and political leaders (e.g., Grant, Lee, Longstreet, Sherman, Lincoln, Davis), the experiences and impact of the war for women and African Americans, the impact of defeat on the South, the ways in which Americans remember and reenact the war. Four credit hours. H, U. LEONARD
[HI436] Research Seminar: History of the American West "Go west, young man, go west!" newspaper editor Horace Greeley loved to say, although he remained in New York and did not coin the phrase. It referred to the host of opportunities thought to be lying in wait in uncharted territories out yonder. The West has embodied the American dream; it has also represented an American nightmare. The changing definitions, demographics, conceptualizations, and significance of the West across two centuries of North American history. Prerequisite: An introductory U.S. history survey or other relevant, lower-division U.S. history course. Four credit hours. H.
[HI445] Research Seminar: Nuclear Madness An examination of the place of nuclear technologies in the modern world, using social, cultural, and institutional history and focusing on the USSR and the United States. Nuclear technologies are symbols of national achievement, yet significant scientific uncertainties accompanied their creation, they require significant public outlays, and they have led to dangerous pollution. What explains their great momentum? Four credit hours. H.
HI446s Research Seminar: Global Health History An exploration of humankind's historical experience with disease. Topics include the nature of disease and health, the origins of disease, the distribution of disease over time and space, therapeutic and prevention strategies, epidemics of infectious disease, international health interventions, epidemiological transitions, and behavior and disease. Students learn to integrate natural science and social science perspectives, writing weekly intellectual journals, engaging in seminar discussion, undertaking a research project on the history of disease, and making a public presentation of their research. Prerequisite: History 276, 364, or 394. Four credit hours. H. WEBB
[HI447] Research Seminar: The Cold War Soon after World War II the Soviet Union and the United States began a struggle for military, diplomatic, economic, and ideological supremacy. Why did this confrontation develop? Why did it risk mutual nuclear annihilation and dominate global politics for more than 40 years? How did it shape and reflect the societies and governments that waged it? In exploring these issues, the seminar aims to expose students to diverse primary sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write and speak clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster independent research through a semester-long project. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H.
HI461f Research Seminar: The History and Development of Islamic Law An examination of questions—how law comes to be, who has control over it, what makes it Islamic, how is it different from other systems—leading to a deeper understanding of the functions, diversity, and trajectories of Islamic law. We will explore the roots, historical paths of formation, and development of the major schools of Islamic legal thought and their arguments over and elucidation of Shari'a. This will shed light on current Islamist movements and their claims to that heritage and to the law. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H. TURNER
HI473f Research Seminar: Historical Roots of Violence in Modern Latin America Why have Latin American nations experienced persistent violence? We examine its historical roots from an interdisciplinary perspective. How do social, political, and cultural historians, as well as anthropologists, sociologists, political scientists, and psychologists, explain social and ethnic conflicts, domestic violence, torture, insurgencies, and counterinsurgencies, and "dirty wars"? Objectives include a response paper, in-class presentations, a critical book review, and a substantial (c.30 page) research paper, the first draft of which will be presented and critiqued in class. Prerequisite: A previous course on Latin America and permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H, I. FALLAW
HI483f, 484s History Honors Program Majors may apply late in their junior year for admission into the History Honors Program. Normally completed in spring semester, requires research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of a thesis. Upon successful completion of the thesis and the major, the student will graduate "With Honors in History." Prerequisite: Senior standing, a 3.5 grade point average in the history major at the end of the junior year, and permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. FACULTY
HI491f, 492s Independent Study Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. One to four credit hours. FACULTY
HI493f Seminar: Advanced Research in East Asia Listed as East Asian Studies 493. Four credit hours. WEITZ
HI497f U.S. Immigration and Ethnic History An examination of how immigrants shaped the development of the nation, and, in turn, how immigrants and ethnic groups in America were shaped by American society, politics, and laws. Particular attention will be given to the shifting causes and patterns of immigration, similarities and differences among the experiences of immigrants in the United States, processes of assimilation, and the evolution of American immigration policies. Four credit hours. H. BATTISTI
HI498As 20th-Century Environmental History Students will consider the role of scientists, engineers, state officials, and the public in shaping the natural world in the 20th century. The focus will include major hydroelectric, nuclear, agriculture, and transportation infrastructure in North America, Europe, and South America. Students will complete an original research paper. Four credit hours. H. JOSEPHSON
HI498Bs Native Americans in New England An exploration of the experiences of Native Americans in New England, within the broader context of American and Native American history and culture. How have Native Americans confronted racism, ignorance, and indifference to preserve their cultures and identities? The literary, artistic, and social contributions of natives to New England and to American life are examined closely. Prerequisite: History 200 recommended, but not required. Four credit hours. H, U. TORTORA