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[HI106]    Greek History      Listed as Ancient History 158.     Three or four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI111f    The West from Antiquity to 1618      An interdisciplinary survey of European history from ancient Mesopotamia to the religious wars. Larger themes include the evolution of legal systems and the development of kingship; ancient and medieval notions of history; relations between church and state; the development of universities; the impact of the plague; discoveries in the New World; and the Renaissance, Reformation, and religious wars. Focus is on the interpretation and analysis of primary sources, class discussion, and development of writing skills. Throughout we will examine changing attitudes toward gender and sexuality; concepts of persecution, repression and tolerance; reactions to disease; and the results of economic disparity.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TAYLOR
HI112s    A Survey of Modern Europe      An introduction to four centuries of an eventful and exciting history that has shaped not only Europe but the world of today. It includes an analysis of social structures, the role of the state, claims to political participation, intellectual currents, and a synthesis of everyday life and large-scale historical events changing at different paces.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK
HI120f    Made in China      Long before Walmart stitched the "Made in China" label into your T-shirt and Apple slapped a similar sticker on your iPhone, China was known for its stuff—for producing, trading, and consuming luxury items and everyday goods. Introduces students to China's long history of material culture covering "things" from ancient Bronze Age vessels to Mattel toys and offering a historical perspective on such contemporary issues as China's growing economy, labor practices, Chinese consumerism, and U.S.-China trade relations. Students will develop basic skills in critical thinking, historical argument, research, and writing.     Four credit hours.  H,W1.    LACOUTURE
HI131f    Survey of U.S. History, to 1865      A general overview of key issues and events in U.S. history from the age of settlement through the Civil War.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    TORTORA
HI132s    Survey of U.S. History, 1865 to the Present      The rise of national power and its implications for American democratic values.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT
HI136f    American Superpower, 1945-1970      Examines the evolution of postwar America with attendant questions of economic growth and the challenge of poverty, national security in the nuclear age, rising protests and social justice, and cultural change and social order. Exposes students to diverse primary sources; hones critical thinking and interpretive skills; helps students write and speak clearly, concisely, and precisely; and, in conjunction with complementary courses in this cluster, draws connections between different disciplinary perspectives of a subject that can enrich understanding. Part of the three-course Integrated Studies 136 cluster, "America in the Postwar World: 1945-1970." Prerequisite:  Concurrent enrollment in American Studies 136A and American Studies 136B.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT
[HI137]    The Great Depression: America in the 1930s      The Great Depression of the 1930s is still the worst economic collapse of modern times. Why did it come about? How did it pose a crisis of faith in capitalism? How did Americans cope with the hard times, and how did the experience shape their values and behavior? In what ways did the federal government respond, to what ends, and with what consequences? Exploration of these historical problems hones critical-thinking and interpretive skills; helps students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and fosters clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas. Part of the three-course Integrated Studies 137 cluster, "American Stories: Understanding the Great Depression." Prerequisite:  Concurrent enrollment in American Studies 137 and English 137. (Elect IS137.)     Four credit hours.  H.  
[HI154]    Roman History      Listed as Ancient History 154.     Three or four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI173f    History of Latin America      Listed as Latin American Studies 173.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW
HI183f    History of the Premodern Middle East      The history of the Middle East from the rise of Muhammad to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids. The spread of Islam, the development and application of religious and political authority, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and their successors, the development of Islam in both its formal and more folk forms, the development of literature, art, science, and society. Gives a broad and deep understanding of the Middle East that will allow for more nuanced interpretations of current events grounded in an understanding of the long historical context.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER
HI184s    History of the Modern Middle East      The history of the Middle East from the post-Suleymanic Ottoman Empire to the present. Examines the fall of the Ottoman and Safavid empires, the rise of Western dominance, the struggle for independence, attempts at reform, the Arab-Israeli conflict, oil, the Iranian revolution, the Gulf War, the rise of Islamist movements, and ongoing repercussions. Particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics and the nature of power and authority. Designed to give the historical background necessary for understanding current events in the Middle East in their proper context.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER
HI200fs    Introduction to History      Required of all history majors and designed to help develop understanding of what it means to pursue authentic knowledge about the human past. Explores why historians do what they do and what it is they think they are doing. Develops some of the basic tools necessary to be a good historian, including research, writing, and methodological skills. Reveals the diversity and vitality of historical scholarship and helps students master its basic goals and techniques.     Four credit hours.  H.    LEONARD, WEBB
HI211s    History of Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia to Ancient Greece      Study of ancient civilizations (from c. 3100 BCE to 350 BCE) beginning with the first urban developments and legal systems of Mesopotamia, in-depth study of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty of the Old Kingdom through the New Kingdom, Bronze and Archaic Age Greece, and finally the classical age. Emphasis will be on the concept of civilization, construction of laws and kingship, gender and ethnic diversity, and how the cultures of ancient civilizations influenced political, cultural, and economic developments in the Western past.     Four credit hours.  H.    TAYLOR
[HI216]    Church History and Theology in Medieval Europe      Introduces students to the history and theology of Christianity from ancient through medieval times, ending with the Lutheran Reformation. After an introduction to the Bible and the earliest missions, we trace developments in doctrine, heresy, persecution, popular beliefs, gender, organizational structures, and relationships with other religions, specifically Judaism and Islam.     Four credit hours.  H.  
HI224f    Germany and Europe, 1871-1945      What went wrong with Germany from the first unification to the catastrophe of Nazism? Examining the question of German peculiarities within the European context and the debate on continuities in recent German history. Focus on critical reading and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK
HI227f    Russian History, 900-1905: Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality     The cultural and social history of Russia. Topics include Kievan Rus', the rise of Moscovy, the westernizing influence of Peter the Great, and the development of serfdom and autocracy. Focus on Russia's self-identity as Western or Eastern and on the challenges of building civil society.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    JOSEPHSON
HI228s    The Russian Empire: Soviet History and 20th-Century Revolutions      The people of the Soviet Union lived through three revolutions (1905, 1917, 1991) and two world wars. Their leaders forced the pace of modernization and subjected their own citizens to class war, arrest, and execution. An exploration of the last days of Tsarism, of Leninism and Stalinism, and of the forces leading to the Gorbachev revolution and breakup of the Soviet empire.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    JOSEPHSON
HI230Af    Religion in the United States      Listed as Religious Studies 217.     Four credit hours.  H.    CAMPBELL
[HI230C]    In Search of a Strong Man: Greece in the Fourth Century      Listed as Classics 234.     Three credit hours.  H, I.  
HI231f    American Women's History, to 1870      An examination of key themes in the varied lives of women in America from Colonial times to the end of the Civil War, such as their relationship to the public sphere and politics; women's work in the contexts of household production, early industrialization, and slavery; women and citizenship in the new republic; and women, religion, and social reform.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    LEONARD
HI232s    American Women's History, 1870 to the Present      An exploration of critical topics in the history of women in America from Reconstruction to the present, including the struggle for suffrage, black women in the aftermath of slavery, women and the labor movement, the impact on women of two world wars, birth control and reproductive freedom, women's liberation, the feminization of poverty, and the backlash against feminism.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    LEONARD
HI233f    Native Americans to 1850      Through readings, discussions, and films, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include pre-contact Indian societies; contact and conflict with explorers, traders, missionaries, and settlers; warfare and society; the struggle against early American expansion; Indian removal in the East; and the Trail of Tears.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    TORTORA
HI234s    Native Americans since 1850      Through reading, discussion, and film, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include warfare and removal in the West, cultural repression, boarding schools, Indian soldiers and code talkers, urban migration, termination, Indian activism and revival in the 1960s and 70s, and the ongoing struggle for sovereignty, recognition, and prosperity.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    TORTORA
[HI239]    The Era of the Civil War      A social, political, and cultural survey of the Civil War, its origins, and its aftermath. Was the war a watershed in American history, as historians have commonly suggested? And if so, what kind of watershed?     Four credit hours.  H, U.  
HI241s    History of Colby College      Through readings, lectures, discussion, presentations, and independent research, students will learn about the history of Colby since its founding in 1813. Students will participate in writing the College's history by doing independent research projects on Colby's past using the abundant resources in Special Collections and elsewhere. Who is your residence hall named after? Why are our sports teams called the Mules? How did town-gown relations change when the College moved to Mayflower Hill? Who was Janitor Sam? Who was Mary Low? Discover answers to these and a multitude of other questions you never have thought to ask.     Four credit hours.  H.    LEONARD
HI242s    Colonial North America      Through a continental perspective, explores the rich economic, social, and cultural diversity of the American colonies. We will consider the experiences, interactions, and conflicts of American Indians, Europeans, and Africans within the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English colonial empires in what is now the United States and Canada, from 1491 to the 1760s.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    TORTORA
[HI245]    Science, Race, and Gender      Historical analysis of the concepts of race and gender in four different ways: their institutional basis, their scientific content, epistemological issues that surround notions of race and gender, and the cultural and social background of the scientists and science that developed from 1800 to the present. Consideration of importance of historical issues for contemporary society.     Four credit hours.  N, U.  
HI246s    Luddite Rantings: A Historical Critique of Big Technology      Adopting a technologically determinist argument, the instructor will subject to withering criticism the way in which Westerners, and in particular Americans, have embraced such technologies as automobiles, computers, reproductive devices, rockets, and reactors, with nary a thought about their ethical, moral, political, or environmental consequences. Students will be encouraged to argue.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    JOSEPHSON
HI247f    African-American History, from Slavery to Freedom      Explores the experience of blacks in American society from Colonial times through the present. Subjects focus on racism, slavery, the role of African Americans in shaping the nation's history, and the ongoing struggle for equality. In exploring these historical developments, the course aims to expose students to a range of primary and scholarly sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT
HI250s    History of Modern China      A survey of modern China from the late Qing Dynasty (18th century) to the present, examining how the idea and reality of "China" and "Chinese-ness" changed over time through exploring the relationship between ideological change and everyday life. Topics include the decline of empire and the rise of the nation-state, changing relationships between state and society, the development of ethnic, national and gender identities, urban cosmopolitanism, and communism and capitalism with Chinese characteristics. Previously offered as History 297.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE
[HI272]    History of Law, Society, and Rebellion in Mexico      Listed as Latin American Studies 272.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
[HI274]    Race, Religion, and Frontiers in Iberian-American Colonization      Listed as Latin American Studies 274.     Three credit hours.  H, I.  
HI275j    Strongmen and Populism in Modern Spain and Latin America      Listed as Latin American Studies 275.     Three credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW
HI276fs    Patterns and Processes in World History      An introduction to patterns and processes in world history. Themes include the evolution of trade and empire, global balances in military and political power, impacts of disease, the evolution of capitalism, slavery and its abolition, global migrations, industrialization, imperialism, and decolonization. Students read essays and study maps of historical patterns and processes and write essays to hone their critical-thinking and writing skills.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    BEEMER, WEBB
[HI277]    History of the Maya from 200 B.C.      Listed as Latin American Studies 277.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI285f    Foundations of Islam      A comprehensive introduction to the Islamic religious tradition focusing on the formative early period (seventh-11th centuries CE) and to contemporary interpretations and adaptations. Explores the nature of religion, religious knowledge, practice, identity, law, gender, and the nature of the divine. Analyzes the foundational beliefs, diversity, and social constructions within Islam by examining the early texts (the Qur'an, hadith/sunna), their interpretations, and their application through time. No prior knowledge expected.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER
HI297f    History of Southeast Asia: Crossroads of the World      An examination of the phases of Southeast Asian history beginning with the development of cities and states (prehistory to c. 800); the rise of the great Southeast Asian empires such as Angkor in Cambodia (ca. 800 to ca. 1400); the age of trade and the rise of great trading states (ca. 1400 to ca. 1800); and concluding with a discussion of Europe's emerging power in the region in the 19th century. Includes important historical themes such as gender relations, trade, indigenous notions of power and prestige, and religious diversity.     Four credit hours.  H.    BEEMER
HI306f    Alexander the Great      Listed as Classics 356.     Four credit hours.  H.    J. ROISMAN
[HI311]    Sainthood and Popular Devotion in the Middle Ages      Exposes the religious beliefs and practices of the people of the ancient and medieval world, looking beyond what was prescribed by the institutional church. How did religious behaviors structure people's lives? Why did some go so far outside of the accepted norms that they were considered heretics? Examines the role of women and non-Christians in medieval religious life. After extensive reading and discussion of secondary sources, students work on their own research projects using primary sources and present their final product to the class. Prerequisite:  Prior course in medieval history recommended.     Four credit hours.  H.  
[HI312]    Medieval England, 1066-1485      The history of England from the Norman Conquest until the end of the Plantagenet dynasty in 1485. Topics include the impact of the Norman Conquest, the Anarchy, the spread of the king's justice and the church/state controversy, Magna Carta and the rise of parliament, women and gender, the Hundred Years' War, religion and culture, and the mystery surrounding the last Yorkist king, Richard III. Prerequisite:  Junior or senior standing or previous medieval history course.     Four credit hours.  H.  
HI313f    Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe      The history of women and gender from the early Middle Ages to the French Revolution, with attention to women of all classes and categories of society: virgins, wives, and widows; saints, nuns, and mothers; queens, intellectuals, physicians, and brewers; prostitutes, magicians, and witches. Changes in legal, family, and economic status over time; working opportunities and restrictions; attitudes toward sexuality; the querelle des femmes; male views of women; writings by women; church attitudes.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TAYLOR
[HI314]    Italian Renaissance      An interdisciplinary seminar on the history and culture of the Renaissance in Italy, with special attention to Florence and Venice. Topics include culture (art, literature, music); civic life; gender, family and sexuality; humanism; religion and popular culture; politics.     Four credit hours.  H.  
[HI315]    Heresy, Humanism, and Reform      Why would someone be willing to kill or be killed for religious beliefs? The question is as relevant in the modern world as it was in the century of the Reformations. Using microhistories and mentalités as the basis for our study, this seminar will use discussion and extensive writing exercises to examine this issue as it related to the inquisition, anti-Jewish sentiment at the end of the Middle Ages, and the development of Lutheranism and the reformed religions. How did changes in belief restructure and challenge the very bases of European societies? What role did women play in religious change? We will also look at the beginnings of "toleration" and the ambiguous meanings of the word. Prerequisite:  Junior or senior standing or a prior course in medieval history or religion.     Four credit hours.  H.  
HI316s    Tudor England, 1485-1603      Seminar examines a period of major change in English history, not only with a new dynasty, but also with the Renaissance and Reformation, social and cultural changes, parliamentary developments, poor relief, the beginnings of colonialism, and the problem of women, including the significant number of female monarchs, the women accused of witchcraft, and family life.     Four credit hours.  H.    TAYLOR
[HI317]    The Gothic Moment: Paris and the Ile-de-France, 1100-1250      An exploration of the 12th-century renaissance—the moment during which universities first develop, Gothic cathedrals and churches are built all over northern Europe, literature in the form of Arthurian legends, courtly love, and fabliaux reach all levels of society, and when speculative philosophy and theology engage the minds of the leading thinkers. Concentrating on Paris between 1100 and 1250, exploring the culture of this period through interdisciplinary studies.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
[HI321]    The First World War      Covers the origins of the war, its impact on European societies, the experience of soldiers and of civilians on the home front, and the war's long-term legacy in Europe and the wider world. Focus on the meaning of total war, patterns of intolerance and persecution, the crusading spirit, and the sheer scale of violence. Includes an individual research component.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
[HI322]    Europe and the Second World War      Seeks a deeper understanding of the origins of the war, its military, civilian, and diplomatic aspects, and its effects. Starts with an intensive look at the First World War and its aftermath, because the Second World War is hardly imaginable without the "Great War." Includes targeted debates on crucial aspects of the war and a strong research component. Focus is on Europe, but global dimensions receive ample consideration. Goal is to understand historical processes in their dramatic and unsettling openness—important, as the outcome was initially hard to predict, leading many Europeans to make decisions based on false expectations.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI325f    Prisoners of War and Civilian Internees in the 20th Century      The detention camp was a prominent feature of the age of total war (1914-1945). In an age of mass armies, millions of people became prisoners of war. The fear of enemy aliens and "unreliable" populations led to the mass internment of civilians. Totalitarian regimes used concentration and forced labor camps to "reeducate," discipline, or decimate millions. How did international law try to adapt to these developments, and how did international organizations intervene? Internment experiences left a powerful legacy and inspired many works in philosophy, literature, and the arts. Focuses on Europe but makes rich global comparisons.     Four credit hours.  I.    SCHECK
HI327f    Daily Life Under Stalin      Many workers and peasants, and of course political elites, supported the Stalinist system, overlooking, discounting, or even justifying the great human costs of collectivization, industrialization, and the Great Terror as needed to create a great socialist fortress. An examination of the nature of regime loyalty under Stalin, making extensive use of primary sources. Prerequisite:  Sophomore or higher standing.     Four credit hours.  H.    JOSEPHSON
HI336f    After Appomattox      An examination of America from the Confederacy's collapse in April 1865 to the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. What were the major issues facing the nation once the shooting war was over? What did Reconstruction accomplish? How much did emancipation change the lives of African Americans? Did women's activism on behalf of the war effort accelerate their expectations for equality in the postwar period? Where did all those soldiers go? We will address these and many other important questions. Enhances critical historical reading and thinking, excellence in research and writing, and competence in oral presentation.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    LEONARD
[HI337]    The Age of the American Revolution      The American revolutionary period (c. 1760-1820), blending political, social, intellectual, and cultural history, from 18th-century America as a society built on contradictions (liberty and slavery, property and equality, dependence and independence) through the rebellion against Britain to the democratic, slave-owning, egalitarian, libertarian, and hyper-commercial world of the early republic.     Four credit hours.  H, U.  
HI342s    Crisis and Reform: American Society and Politics in the 1960s      The utopian hopes for government during the Kennedy and Johnson years, both in solving social problems and in containing communism around the world. Readings focus on the shaping of federal policies, their domestic and global impact, and the cultural and political legacy of this era.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    WEISBROT
HI350s    Women and Gender in East Asia      A seminar on the history of women, gender, and sexuality in China, Japan, and Korea. Offers students new insights into theoretical, cultural, and historical issues pertaining to sex and gender by looking outside contemporary and Euro-American contexts. Begins by examining early modern concepts of gender, culture, and the body and concludes with the rise of consumer capitalism and the "new woman." Readings cover a range of primary and secondary materials, including literature, visual and material culture, theoretical works, and historical monographs. Students will engage in active discussion, write an analytical essay, and complete an original research paper on a related topic.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    LACOUTURE
HI362s    History of Egypt      Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Egypt from the 7th century conquest to the fall of Mubarak. Particular points of focus are state formation, development of nationalism, definition of religious and political identities, power relations, the struggles for control over resources and for independence, and Egypt's place in the power matrix of the Middle East. Through reading primary sources and secondary scholarship, students will come to a deeper understanding of the nature of history and historical processes. They will learn how to critically assess the arguments of history and the deployment of historical memory and how to articulate their assessments through writing papers and sitting exams.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TURNER
HI364s    Environmental and Health History in Africa      A seminar on major issues in African environmental and health history. Topics include the impacts of the horticultural, agricultural, and livestock revolutions; the "Columbian Exchange" and the "Monsoon Exchange"; the rinderpest pandemic; colonial-era campaigns to control sleeping sickness, TB, and malaria; the colonial-era transformations of African disease environments; African and Western conceptions of disease etiologies; the interface between allopathic, traditional, and religious healing; and postcolonial campaigns against HIV.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    WEBB
[HI381]    Women and Gender in Islam      A comprehensive introduction to the construction of gender in the Islamic Middle East. Puts the lives of contemporary Muslim women and men into a deeper historical perspective, examining the issues that influence definitions of gender in the Islamic world. Through monographs, essays, novels, stories, and film, examines the changing status and images of women and men in the Qur'an, hadith/sunna, theology, philosophy, and literature. Traces changes and developments in those constructions of identity beginning with the rise of Islam and continuing through contemporary understandings.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
[HI388]    History of the Crusades      Exploration of the historical circumstances of the Crusades primarily from a Middle Eastern perspective. The goal is to foster a broader understanding of the sociopolitical, religious, and economic forces driving the Crusades and their effects on the Middle East. Focus primarily on the Crusades of the 11th-13th centuries, but consideration is also given to their legacy and long-term effects. The nature of "holy war" from both Christian and Islamic perspectives, the nature of Christian-Muslim conflict, armed conflict in a premodern context, and whether there was such a thing as an East vs. West conflict.     Three credit hours.  H, I.  
[HI389]    History of Iran      Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Iran from the rise of the Safavid dynasty to the election of Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Particular points of focus: state formation, the influence of the West on 19th-century economic and intellectual development, 20th-century internal struggles between the religious and political elite, the effects of oil and great power intervention, the rise of activist Islam and the revolution, the war with Iraq, and life after Khomeini.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI394s    Ecological History      A seminar on major issues in ecological history. Topics include the relationship between ecological science and environmental history; the early impact of the agricultural revolutions; the "collapse" of early civilizations; processes of deforestation and desertification; the rise of the conservation movement; ecological costs and benefits of technological efforts to engineer nature; biological innovations and chemical controls; the paradox of population growth; and the contemporary crisis of modern agriculture and diet.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    WEBB
HI413f    Research Seminar: Joan of Arc: History, Legend, and Film      A critical examination of one of the most famous figures in history within the context of 15th-century French history and particularly the Hundred Years' War with England. Focus will be on the role of narrative and interpretation in the understanding of history from the time of Joan of Arc to our own. Prerequisite:  Permission of the instructor.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    TAYLOR
[HI414]    Research Seminar: History of Fear in Europe, 1300-1900      An exploration of how fear and different forms of communication or rumor influenced the course of European history in the medieval and early modern period. Case studies involve instances of anti-Judaism and anti-Islam; reactions to leprosy and syphilis; misogyny and demonology; xenophobia; and fear of death in all its forms from 1321 to 1888. Explores how changing communications from oral to semiliterate to journalistic culture influenced and changed history, marginalizing those outside the religious, gendered, ethnic, medical, and socioeconomic norms of society at a given time and place. Prerequisite:  A course in medieval or early modern history.     Four credit hours.  H, I.  
HI421s    Research Seminar: Debating the Nazi Past      Explores the political and social dynamics of the Third Reich, the charisma and importance of Hitler, the choices of ordinary Germans, the genesis and execution of the Holocaust, and the problems of postwar Germans in dealing with the Nazi past. Focus on critical research, reading, and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance and charismatically underpinned violence.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    SCHECK
HI432s    Research Seminar: Native Americans in New England      An exploration of the experiences of Native Americans in New England within the broader context of American and Native American history and culture. How have Native Americans confronted racism, ignorance, and indifference to preserve their cultures and identities? The literary, artistic, and social contributions of natives to New England and to American life are examined closely.     Four credit hours.  H, U.    TORTORA
[HI435]    Research Seminar: The American Civil War      An in-depth study of the Civil War in America, with a series of common readings on the war, including its causes, its aftermath, significant military and political leaders (e.g., Grant, Lee, Longstreet, Sherman, Lincoln, Davis), the experiences and impact of the war for women and African Americans, the impact of defeat on the South, the ways in which Americans remember and reenact the war.     Four credit hours.  H, U.  
HI443s    Research Seminar: 20th-Century Environmental History      Students will consider the role of scientists, engineers, state officials, and the public in shaping the natural world in the 20th century. The focus will include major hydroelectric, nuclear, agriculture, and transportation infrastructure in North America, Europe, and South America. Students will complete an original research paper. Previously offered as History 498A (Spring 2012).     Four credit hours.  H, U.    JOSEPHSON
[HI445]    Research Seminar: Nuclear Madness      An examination of the place of nuclear technologies in the modern world, using social, cultural, and institutional history and focusing on the USSR and the United States. Nuclear technologies are symbols of national achievement, yet significant scientific uncertainties accompanied their creation, they require significant public outlays, and they have led to dangerous pollution. What explains their great momentum?     Four credit hours.  H.  
[HI446]    Research Seminar: Global Health History      An exploration of humankind's historical experience with disease. Topics include the nature of disease and health, the origins of disease, the distribution of disease over time and space, therapeutic and prevention strategies, epidemics of infectious disease, international health interventions, epidemiological transitions, and behavior and disease. Students learn to integrate natural science and social science perspectives, writing weekly intellectual journals, engaging in seminar discussion, undertaking a research project on the history of disease, and making a public presentation of their research. Prerequisite:  History 276, 364, or 394.     Four credit hours.  H.  
HI447f    Research Seminar: The Cold War      Soon after World War II the Soviet Union and the United States began a struggle for military, diplomatic, economic, and ideological supremacy. Why did this confrontation develop? Why did it risk mutual nuclear annihilation and dominate global politics for more than 40 years? How did it shape and reflect the societies and governments that waged it? In exploring these issues, the seminar aims to expose students to diverse primary sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write and speak clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster independent research through a semester-long project.     Four credit hours.  H.    WEISBROT
HI461f    Research Seminar: The History and Development of Islamic Law      An examination of questions—how law comes to be, who has control over it, what makes it Islamic, how is it different from other systems—leading to a deeper understanding of the functions, diversity, and trajectories of Islamic law. We will explore the roots, historical paths of formation, and development of the major schools of Islamic legal thought and their arguments over and elucidation of Shari'a. This will shed light on current Islamist movements and their claims to that heritage and to the law. Prerequisite:  Permission of the instructor.     Four credit hours.  H.    TURNER
[HI472]    Research Seminar: Daily Life Under Khrushchev      Nikita Khrushchev was Soviet premier from 1954 until Communist Party conservatives deposed him in 1964. He presided over a series of reforms under the banner of de-Stalinization. These reforms led consumers, intellectuals, and other citizens to anticipate the construction of communism within their lifetimes. In this seminar we examine daily life under Khrushchev. Readings consist of primary sources (in translation). Students will learn research and writing skills and complete an original research paper. Major foci include urbanization, political reform, the arts, consumer society, and the nature of Soviet socialism.     Four credit hours.  H.  
HI473f    Research Seminar: Historical Roots of Violence in Modern Latin America     Listed as Latin American Studies 473.     Four credit hours.  H, I.    FALLAW
HI483f, 484s    History Honors Program      Majors should begin to plan late in their junior year for admission into the History Honors Program. A detailed research proposal must be completed by the third week of the fall semester of the senior year. Requires research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of a thesis. Upon successful completion of the thesis and the major, the student will graduate "With Honors in History." Prerequisite:  Senior standing, a 3.5 grade point average in the history major at the end of the junior year, and permission of the instructor. Please see history department website for complete information and research proposal guidelines.     Four credit hours.    FACULTY
HI491f, 492s    Independent Study      Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite:  Permission of the instructor.     One to four credit hours.    FACULTY