Divisions, Departments, and Programs
Colby College academic departments and programs are classified in the following
Division of Humanities, Professor Patrick Brancaccio, chair, includes
the departments of Art, Classics, East Asian Studies, English, French, German
and Russian, Music, Philosophy, Spanish, Theater and Dance.
Social Sciences, Professor James Neehan, chair, includes
the departments of Administrative Science, Anthropology, Economics, Government,
History, Psychology, Religious Studies, Sociology.
Division of Natural Sciences, Associate Professor Duncan Tate, chair,
includes the departments of Biology, Chemistry, Computer Science, Geology,
Mathematics, Physics and Astronomy.
Division of Interdisciplinary Studies, Professor thomas Tietenburg, chair, includes the department of Physical Education and the programs
of African Studies, African-American Studies, American Studies, Creative Writing, Education
and Human Development, Environmental Studies, International Studies, Jewish
Studies, Latin American Studies, Science, Technology, and Society, and Women's
Integrated Studies, first offered in the spring of 1997, is a pioneering program in liberal arts education, designed to explore an era or aspect of world civilization from the perspective of several disciplines. The Integrated Studies semester provides an opportunity for students to learn about a subject in depth and to make broad connections between disciplines that will help reveal the essential unity of human knowledge and experience. Structured around clusters of courses, the program is open to all classes. The program and the individual courses are described under "Integrated Studies" in the "Courses of Study" section of this catalogue.
Opportunities to Study Abroad
Colby maintains an Office of Off-Campus Study to help students make plans to study abroad or at a few domestic off-campus programs that are integrated into each student's major and academic program. Applications are processed through this office in advance of the student's enrollment in a program of study away from Colby. Students who transfer credits for full-time study in a non-Colby program are subject to a fee of $1,000 per semester. Financial aid may be applied, for qualified students only, to Colby programs and approved non-Colby programs. Students are required to consult their major and minor advisors, as well as the off-campus faculty liaison in their major department, before making plans for study abroad. Sophomores will receive a handbook detailing procedures and listing approved Colby and non-Colby programs early in the fall semester. Applications for off-campus study during the year 2002-2003 are due by March 15, 2002, regardless of the semester for which the student is applying. With some limited exceptions, Colby students normally study abroad for one semester. See the Office of Off-Campus Study for details.
Colby-Sponsored Foreign-Language Semesters
Colby offers an opportunity for students to satisfy the College's language requirement (and earn a semester's credit) by living abroad and studying the language intensively. These programs are available to sophomores and juniors.
Colby in Salamanca: This program provides the opportunity for students to learn Spanish at the University of Salamanca, one of the oldest universities in Europe. Students reside with families, attend intensive language courses, and have a full schedule of excursions to enrich their knowledge of Spanish life and culture. The program is under the supervision of a resident Colby director and is offered in the fall and spring semesters. Students must have completed Spanish 125 or at least two years of high school Spanish.
Colby in Dijon: This program offers students the opportunity to study French language, history, and art in Dijon, France, at the University of Burgundy. Cultural activities and excursions are included. Students live with French families. To qualify, students normally should have completed French 125 at Colby or have taken two years of high school French. The program is offered in the fall semester.
Colby-Sponsored First-Year Programs
The College offers the following programs abroad designed specifically for entering first-year students:
Colby in Salamanca: Refer to description above.
Colby in Dijon: Refer to description above.
Colby-Sponsored Programs Abroad for Juniors
While courses needed for most liberal arts majors are offered at the College, many students are attracted by the opportunity to study abroad for a comparative examination of their major field or a different perspective on their studies. Such programs are generally undertaken during the junior year. Colby offers study programs in Ireland, France, Spain, and Russia.
Colby in Cork: This is a program for students with any major in the natural sciences, social sciences, or humanities. Students live in flats and take regular university courses at University College Cork, where a Colby professor, the resident director of the program, teaches in his or her discipline. There are frequent group activities and excursions. Students may apply for the fall or spring semester.
Colby in Salamanca: This program offers complete integration into the Universidad de Salamanca, where students can take courses in any division alongside Spanish students. Students with any major may be accepted, but they must have taken at least Spanish 231 and one reading course. Participants choose to live with Spanish families or in apartments with Spanish students and agree to speak only Spanish for the duration of the program. The program is offered for the academic year or the fall or spring semester.
Colby in Dijon: For students who have satisfied the language requirement, Colby in Dijon offers advanced French language courses as well as courses in literature and history. Students live with French families and participate in a rich program of cultural excursions. This program is offered during the fall semester only.
Colby in St. Petersburg (Russia): This program, offered either semester, is available to students who have had at least two years of college Russian. It is small (maximum five students) and includes a set program of instruction in Russian language (grammar, phonetics, conversation, and composition), literature, and history (readings in Russian and English). Teaching is done by qualified instructors and takes place at the St. Petersburg Classical Gymnasium, where United States students teach two classes in English to Russian high school students. Students live with Russian families, and a full cultural program is offered, including excursions.
Colby-Bates-Bowdoin (CBB) Study Abroad Programs
A major grant by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation has enabled Colby, Bates, and Bowdoin colleges to establish a study abroad consortium. There are three CBB centers abroad, each offering a variety of study programs under the supervision and direction of faculty members from all three colleges. CBB centers include:
CBB London Center: Administered by Colby College, the CBB London Center is located on Bloomsbury Square, near the British Museum. In 2001-2002 it will offer programs in biology, English literature, government, and performing arts. Elective courses and internships are offered each semester.
CBB Quito Center:Administered by Bates College, the CBB Center in Quito, Ecuador, is housed at the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS). In 2001-2002 it will offer a program in tropical ecology.
CBB Cape Town Center: Administered by Bowdoin College, the CBB Cape Town Center is located in a secure residential neighborhood. Students take two courses at the center and two with South African faculty at the University of Cape Town. In 2001-2002 it will offer programs in history, art history, and archaeology.
Courses for the CBB London Center, Fall Semester 2001
Biology Program (Mr. Greenwood, Colby)
The Cell Cycle and Its Control (Mr. Greenwood, Colby)
Studies recent biomedical research into the cellular mechanisms that control the cell cycle, the tightly regulated process by which cells reproduce. Investigates the signal transduction pathways that trigger cell cycle events, the anomalies that frequently occur in the cell cycle control of cancerous cells, and how cancer cell lines persist. Researchers from the London area will address the class on specific topics. Prerequisites: one (preferably two) years of biology and one year of chemistry.
One or two of the following courses offered at the University of East London: immunology, toxicology, medical parasitology, infectious disease process, pharmacology (University of East London faculty).
English Literature Program (Mr. Freedman, Bates)
The English Stage: 1580 to 1725 (Mr. Freedman, Bates)
Drawing equally on Elizabethan, Jacobean, Restoration, and 18th-century plays, explores the continuation of theater after Shakespeare and the explosion of playwrights by the early 1700s, reflecting on Samuel Johnson's comments about the barbarity of Elizabethan drama compared with the refinement of his own. Considers the growing ethnic, racial, and marital changes that London undergoes during this period and their appearance in performance. Contemporary productions in London's environs by both well-known and lesser-known companies, as well as theatrical and costume museums, will be attended. The nature of the viewing audience and its class representation may also be discussed.
Disease and the City (Mr. Freedman, Bates)
Considers fictional writings that contextualize London, as well as other cities, by authors such as Defoe (Journal of the Plague Year), DeQuincey (Confessions of an Opium Eater), Dickens (Bleak House), Dostoevksy (Crime and Punishment), Woolf (Mrs. Dalloway), and Eliot (The Wasteland). Investigates changes in the concepts of physical and mental illnesses and the complex social structures denoted in fiction by prostitution, homosexuality, lesbianism, asylums, consumption, and syphilis. Works by critics such as Foucault, Gilman, Hyam, and Hackings will serve to introduce these topics.
Art: The Growth of a World-Class City (Mr. Plant)
Traces the artistic transformation of the medieval town of London into a major city. Examines such topics as urban planning, public buildings, palaces, churches, sanitation systems, emigration patterns, monasteries and hospitals, trade and craft in the course of an exploration of the growth of London from 50,000 inhabitants in the mid-16th century to well over one million inhabitants by the mid-19th century. Students will be asked to envisage by way of painting, drawing, map, or other documented means the žold LondonÓ amidst the new.
Other Options offered at the CBB London Center, Fall Semester 2001
Art History: Britain and the Baroque (Mr. Harwood, Bates)
Examines the significant change of direction for British artistic culture when the British elite of the 17th and early 18th centuries embraced and patronized the forms and meanings of European baroque painting, architecture, and landscape architecture. Consideration of how late 16th-century British painting (especially portraiture) and architecture (Hatfield House) set the stage for understanding later transformations under the influence of European painters and designers. Particular attention is paid to Anthony Van Dyck and the transformation of the portrait, and to the architects Inigo Jones, Christopher Wren, and John Vanbrugh. Operates almost entirely outside of the classroom, taking full advantage of such sites and museums in and around London as the National Gallery, Hatfield House, Hampton Court, Greenwich, Chiswick House, and Blenheim Palace.
Art History: Nature, Nationalism, and New Money: British Art 1750-1850 (Mr. Harwood, Bates)
Considers British painting from William Hogarth to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, following several interconnected themes related to nature, nationalism, and new money: the startling rise to social, economic, and political prominence in the 18th century of numerous individuals who had made considerable money through trade and manufacturing; the emergence of a public discussion of the concept of taste; the transformation of the art market in painting; the relationship of evolving conceptions of nature to the emergence of great landscape painting in England, most notably with Constable and Turner; and the definition of the Gothic style in architecture as both rooted in natural forms and expressive of national character and the national past. Meets almost entirely outside of the classroom and takes full advantage of London's museums.
Theater and Dance: Text and Performance (Ms. Sullivan and Mr. Gordon)
Designed to make students into informed theatergoers. Through attendance at 12 major professional productions and the reading of the texts upon which the productions are based, gives an overview of London's current theater season as well as a taste of various types of theater. Enrollment limited to 15 students.
English: Postcolonial Fiction in English (adjunct British faculty)
Covers novels and short stories written in English by the citizens of former British colonies. The regions will be as various as the fiction itself and may include Canada, Australasia, the Caribbean, India, and Africa.
Government: Contemporary British Politics (Mr. Lodge)
A comparative politics course examining the British system of government and the most important issues and developments in British politics since 1945. Topics include parliamentary government, the evolving party system, electoral behavior, the rise and fall of the welfare state, Thatcher's economic revolution, race relations, the break-up of the Empire, NATO, the European Union, Welsh and Scottish devolution, and North Ireland.
Economics: Economic Integration of the European Union (Mr. Staab)
Provides a comprehensive examination of the processes of European economic integration and offers a critical analysis of EU policies in their broader political-economic context. Also focuses on the external dimension of Europe in the global economy and is therefore divided into four parts: a historical overview of the main economic events and currents is followed by a brief introduction to the key institutions and processes. Then shifts attention to the analysis of the main economic policies that continue to shape the integration processes of the EU, including the Single Market, Economic and Monetary Union, or the Common Agricultural Policy. Closes with a look at the EU and its impact on global economics, ranging from the WTO to EU enlargement and the Third World.
History: Archaeology of Roman Britain (Mr. Casey)
The course examines the impact of the Roman Conquest on Britain in the first to fifth centuries a.d. in the light of modern studies of cultural and technological interaction. Emphasis is placed upon the archaeological evidence for cultural change, adaptation, and resistance through detailed studies of key monuments and excavations. Material cultural evidence such as coins, pottery, glass, and other artifacts is examined. Contemporary historical narratives are examined and contrasted with less formal written evidence such as inscriptions and graffiti. A program of site and museum visits is an essential element of the course. Recent visits have included Hadrian's Wall, Fishbourne Villa, the Roman Baths at Bath, and the British and London museums. No knowledge of Latin is needed as sources will be studied in translation.
English: The History of London through Literature (Mr. Crane)
This course will explore the history of London through its literature and art. It will look at the ways in which writers over the last 300 years have responded to the city and also will look at the works of contemporary novelists who are turning to its past in order to understand the cultural and political challenges of modern London.
Courses for the CBB London Center, Spring Semester 2002
Government Program: The New Europe (Ms. Yoder, Colby)
Subnational Politics in Europe: A Europe of the Regions (Ms. Yoder, Colby)
Focuses on regionalism in Western Europe, examining the cases of northern Italy, Brittany, the Basque country and Catalonia, eastern Germany, and of course, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.
Supranational Politics in Europe: The European Union (Ms. Yoder, Colby)
Introduction to the theories of integration, the evolution of the EU, and the current controversies over widening the scope of EU membership to include postcommunist countries and over deepening the extent of EU authority to include, for example, foreign policy and security matters.
British Politics in the Post-World War II Period (adjunct British faculty)
Introduction to the challenges to and changes in British politics in the post-World War II period and to the main actors, institutions, and policy debates in Britain today, in particular concerning the issues of subnational and supranational challenges to central political authority. Provides the British perspective on devolution and European integration, two of the most important political issues in the country today.
Performing Arts Program (Ms. Wing, Colby)
Comedy and Revolution: London Style (Ms. Wing, Colby)
Focuses on the generic imperatives of comedy and how playwrights have used comic shape for social and political critique throughout the ages. Begins with a study of the origins of comedy within the Western tradition, examining both its ritual and its structural components; readings traverse several centuries, starting with Aristophanes and theories of early fertility rituals. Then turns specifically to British playwrights, from Ben Jonson through Oscar Wilde, from George Bernard Shaw through Joe Orton. Includes visits to comedy clubs and improvisational žTheatresportÓ venues in London and to other pertinent productions.
Women Playwrights in Britain Since the 1970s (Ms. Wing, Colby)
Considers the work of Caryl Churchill and less well-known playwrights and cooperative theater groups whose experimental approaches to theater and investigation of the intersection of sexual, social, and theatrical politics were stimulated by political and social unrest throughout Europe and the United States in the late '60s and early '70s. Also investigates the new generation of women writers whose works are just now being staged throughout London, from žpub theatresÓ to the West End. Examines the theatrical process from a feminist perspective, with guest speakers from the wide range of women working in all aspects of London theater.
Other Options offered at the CBB London Center, Spring Semester 2002
Theater and Dance: Text and Performance (Ms. Sullivan and Mr. Gordon) (see description above)
English: Postcolonial Fiction in English (adjunct British faculty) (see description above)
Government: Contemporary British Politics (Mr. Lodge) (see description above)
Economics: Economic Integration of the European Union (Mr. Staab) (see description above)
History: Archaeology of Roman Britain (Mr. Casey) (see description above)
English: The History of London through Literature (Mr. Crane) (see description above)
Courses for CBB Quito Center, Fall Semester 2001
Tropical Ecology Program (Mr. Wheelwright, Bowdoin)
Tropical Ecology: Concepts and Methods (Mr. Wheelwright, Bowdoin)
Covers the fundamental principles of ecology with special reference to tropical systems. Through integrated lectures, readings of the primary literature, and field exercises, emphasizes three aspects of the study of ecology, in a tropical context: theoretical concepts (population dynamics, biogeography, ecosystem classifications, etc.); natural history (classification and evolutionary relationships of the major Ecuadorian groups of plants and animals, etc.); and methods (hypothesis formulation and testing of experimental design, statistical analysis, graphics, etc.). Seminar presentations in English and Spanish are an important part of the course; course work is concentrated at the beginning of the semester in order to prepare students for independent research projects. Classroom concepts are illustrated through field trips.
Tropical Ecology: Independent Research Project (Mr. Wheelwright, Bowdoin)
Students work independently or in small groups to explore specific questions in tropical biology, in consultation with the instructor or possibly local and visiting faculty and graduate students. Different prospective study sites are visited; the semester begins with one or two short-term research projects focused on discrete questions. With a better idea of the sorts of systems and taxa they enjoy working withůand of the types of pitfalls involved in field researchůstudents are expected to write up independent research projects in the form of a paper for publication and to present the results of their research to their peers and perhaps to Ecuadorian students as well.
Environmental Issues in Ecuador (adjunct faculty)
Introduces students to environmental issues in Ecuador, particularly the complicated ones that confront developing countries, tropical countries, and countries with large indigenous populations. Investigates questions and concepts such as the roles of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), indigenous and European attitudes toward nature, economic pressures and incentives, political institutions, citizen involvement, environmental education, land ownership patterns, population growth, and environmental legislation. Possible field trips may include visits to waste treatment plants, NGOs, or the legislature as well as interviews with students, agricultural workers, and policy makers.
All courses except Spanish language are taught in English. Spanish language courses are taught by faculty of the Andean Center for Latin American Studies (ACLAS). Students are required to take one Spanish language course unless they can demonstrate fluency in the language, in which case a Spanish literature course is substituted. Spanish language skills are tested upon arrival at Quito.
Courses for CBB Cape Town Center, Fall Semester 2001
Art History Program (Ms. McGee, Bowdoin)
Arts of Resistance (Ms. McGee, Bowdoin)
Using a comparative model, examines the various ways in which artists have used and continue to use the visual arts as a vehicle of protest, to give voice to various forms of oppression, or to spawn change. Examines South African art in the context of varying art movements, such as Chicano art and the art of Black Power, and investigates the relationship of art to issues of race, gender, class, and other systems of power.
Contemporary South African Art (Ms. McGee, Bowdoin)
An introduction to South African art, followed by close examination of the contemporary arts of South Africa. The particular focus is Cape Town and the surrounding townships. Field trips to museums, galleries, and artists' cooperatives are an intrinsic part of the course, in which the academic side of art history comes face to face with the commercial, the communal, the personal, and the professional. Students will develop a relationship with a practicing artist, curator, gallery, or museum professional or with a community arts center. Final projects will bring together the experiential, historical, and theoretical.
History Program (Mr. Webb, Colby)
Environmental History of Africa: Major Issues in African Environmental History (Mr. Webb, Colby)
Examines the significance of the introduction of domesticated animals, plants, and technologies; biological imperialism; historical epidemiology; European and African images of the natural world; the international conservation movement and the creation of game parks; and the environmental justice movement. Students write short weekly response papers that analyze the assigned readings. Some day travel within the Cape Town region is planned.
AIDS in Southern Africa: History, Politics, Epidemiology, and Cultures of the Epidemic (Mr. Webb, Colby)
Investigates what is thought in South Africa about the origin(s) and transmission of AIDS; what accounts for the high percentage of HIV-positive people in South Africa; why the government has been reluctant to adopt Western strategies for coping with the epidemic; and how South Africans deal with people who have AIDS. An array of local experts will address various aspects of Southern Africa's biggest public health problem. Students will carry out an independent research project working with local NGOs in the Cape Town area.
Students also take two courses at the University of Cape Town.
Courses for CBB Cape Town Center, Spring Semester 2002
Archaeology Program (Mr. MacEachern, Bowdoin)
The Emergence of Civilizations (Mr. MacEachern, Bowdoin)
Considers the reason for the fall from favor of the concept of žcivilizationsÓ among many professional archaeologists; considers more generally the characteristics of state-level societies. Examines the development of complex societies in different areas of the world where these societies developed with few outside influences, concentrating primarily upon the Near East and sub-Saharan Africa but with consideration also given to Mesoamerica, the Indus Valley, and China. Investigates the attributes of a žcivilization,Ó the utility of a distinction between "primary" and "secondary" states, and the importance of factors such as trade, warfare, and population density and subsistence strategies in the rise of politically complex societies.
Culture and Archaeology: Using the Present to Understand the Past (Mr. MacEachern, Bowdoin)
Employs ethnoarchaeology, the discipline through which archaeologists use information collected from ethnographic and historical sources, and present-day observations to gain insights into the functioning of past societies. First examines the use of ethnographic analogy by archaeologists and then how ethnoarchaeologists use studies of present-day material culture to inform and enrich archaeological reconstructions. Uses a number of examples from southern Africa as well as from other areas of the continent, the Americas, and Asia. Also discusses the relationships and discontinuities between historical and anthropological accounts of past lifeways.
Students also take two courses at the University of Cape Town.
Other Study Programs Abroad
For programs not sponsored by Colby, the College requires that students obtain approval for their course of study before the stated deadline; without such prior approval, credit will not be transferred to Colby. Approval forms and a handbook of approved programs are available from the Office of Off-Campus Study. For study abroad during the academic year 2002-2003, a preliminary application must be filed with the Off-Campus Study Office by November 15, 2001, and a final application submitted by March 15, 2002. Students receiving financial aid continue to receive that aid if they attend a Colby-approved program.
In addition to its own programs and CBB programs, the College approves study at a number of institutions and programs throughout the world that meet Colby's standards for academic rigor. With the exception of Colby's language acquisition programs in Salamanca and Dijon, students who wish to study in a country whose language is taught at Colby must have taken the equivalent of at least four semesters of the language before departure (some programs require more advanced preparation). In other countries, students are required to take courses in the host-country language for the duration of their program.
Colby has an exchange program with the äcole Normale Sup»rieure in Lyon, France. Each year, a student of this school comes to Colby as the French assistant, and Colby sends a student (normally a recently graduated French major) to France, where he or she may take courses or serve as an English-language assistant in a French high school.
Agreements with the Universidad de Salamanca and University College Cork, in conjunction with Colby's junior-year abroad programs at these universities, allow Spanish and Irish students to spend a year at Colby.
Approved Domestic Programs
Students wishing to participate in approved domestic programs must meet the same deadlines for preliminary and final applications as students who wish to study abroad. These programs are listed in the žOff-Campus Study HandbookÓ available each fall and on the Off-Campus Studies Web site. Opportunities include:
Colby participates in student exchange programs with Howard University in Washington, D.C., and Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia. Ordinarily, exchanges are arranged for a single semester of the junior year. Each student pays tuition, board, and room charges at the home institution; travel is at the student's expense.
A course exchange program is in effect with Bates, Bowdoin, and Thomas colleges. Students may obtain information from the registrar.
Colby in Washington:
This semester program is designed to provide an academically rigorous and pedagogically diversified intellectual and cultural experience for Colby students. It is administered in cooperation with The Washington Center, with direct oversight by a Colby faculty member. Students with a variety of majors take advantage of the program, which is open to a maximum of 15 students from the junior and sophomore classes. Information is available from the Government Department.
Colby has coordinated programs with Dartmouth College, the University of Rochester, and Case Western Reserve University as an alternative to graduate work in engineering. Both a bachelor of arts and a bachelor of science in engineering can be earned upon successful completion of three years at Colby and two years in engineering at one of the above institutions. Students graduating in this program are exempt from Colby's senior year in residence requirement, but all other graduation requirements must be met. Information is available through the Department of Physics.
Qualified students may earn academic credit by undertaking off-campus field experiences or internships as participants in approved programs or by obtaining faculty sponsorship of an individual project or course of study. Refer to the section žField ExperienceÓ under žCourses of StudyÓ in this catalogue. Information on a wide variety of field experience opportunities as well as application forms for obtaining credit for field experience and internships are available in the Office of Career Services. Students planning to participate in field experience must be aware of deadlines for filing applications.
Colby students may participate in Reserve Officer Training programs offered at other Maine sites. Information about these programs is available in the Dean of Students Office.
Many Colby graduates go on to study for advanced degrees in specialized areas of concentration. Specific committees of the College are available for professional preparation advice in the following areas:
Law and Government Service:
The prelaw advisor counsels students preparing for careers in these areas. Prelaw students may major in any field, but they will profit from early consultation with the prelaw advisor on courses that provide the strongest possible liberal arts background for the study of law.
Medicine and Dentistry:
Medical schools do not require a particular major but do require high academic standing and the inclusion of biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and English in the student's college program. The Health Professions Preparation Committee provides formal advising and other support to assist students throughout their years at Colby.
Members of the Department of Religious Studies, in cooperation with the College chaplains, serve as advisors to students who plan to enter seminaries.
The Farnham Writers' Center
The Farnham Writers' Center is available as a resource for all Colby students, faculty, and staff. The center is staffed by trained peer tutors and operates with the philosophy that writing is not a discrete skill but an important part of thinking and learning. The Writers' Center can help writers at all levels of development at any point during their writing process, from first ideas to final draft. Since writing occurs in courses across the curriculum at Colby, the tutors are trained to work with various forms of writingůlab reports, case studies, application essays, and response writing, for example, as well as the standard academic essay. In addition to using the center from time to time on particular pieces of work, students can enter into extended tutorials and meet regularly with any one of the tutors to work more intensively on their writing. The Writers' Center serves all Colby students: among them, first-year composition students; students with particular writing difficulties, including learning differences; senior scholars; students for whom English is not their first language; job and graduate school applicants; Watson Fellowship candidates, and many others. The Farnham Writers' Center schedule includes both daytime and evening hours. The center is located in Miller Library 9C.