History Department


Courses of Study

[HI106]    Greek History Listed as Ancient History 158. Three or four credit hours. H.
HI111f    Europe from the Classical World to the Religious Wars An interdisciplinary survey of European history from preclassical Greece to 1618. We will examine changing attitudes toward gender and sexuality; concepts of persecution, repression, and tolerance; religious conflict; reactions to disease; and economic disparity and slavery. Larger themes include the classical legacy; development of law codes; church and state; revival of cities; Crusades; the New World; and the Renaissance, Reformation, and religious wars. Focus is on the critical analysis of primary sources, class discussion, and development of writing skills. Four credit hours. H, I. Taylor
HI112s    Revolutions of Modern Europe Does modern European history advance toward a specific goal (such as democracy, freedom, rationalization, social equality, secularization, mass consumerism, bureaucratization)? Using the revolutions theme broadly, we examine causes and patterns of change in mentalities, warfare, politics, and the economy. Special themes include the French Revolution of 1789, the European revolutions of 1848, the Russian revolutions of 1917, the world wars as revolutionary events, and the revolutions of 1989. Four credit hours. H, I. Hollander
[HI120A]    Spotlight on History: The Lincoln Assassination On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln while the president was enjoying a play at Ford's Theater. The crime threw the nation—torn by civil war—into further chaos and, by bringing Andrew Johnson to the presidency, exerted a powerful effect on Reconstruction specifically and American history more broadly. Students will learn about the assassination and about the discipline of history: how historians do research using a variety of sources, analyze their findings, write in discipline-specific ways, and situate their scholarship within the pertinent literature. Students will also learn how to use the College libraries' abundant resources in the most effective way. Four credit hours. H, W1.
[HI120B]    Spotlight on History: America's First Ladies Since the founding of the United States, dozens of women have served as the nation's first lady. Long ignored as legitimate subjects of historical interest, these women have recently enjoyed fresh attention as historians have acknowledged their unique proximity to the men who served as president and their potential to influence the policies their husbands pursued in office. Students will learn about the first ladies and about the discipline of history: how historians do research using a variety of sources, analyze their findings, write in discipline-specific ways, and situate their scholarship within the pertinent literature. Students will also learn how to use the College libraries' abundant resources in the most effective way. Four credit hours. H, W1.
[HI120C]    Spotlight on History: The Holocaust and Genocide in Europe What do the Armenian genocide, mass violence in the Stalinist Soviet Union, the Holocaust, and "ethnic cleansing" in Yugoslavia have in common? What differentiates them? Focus is on survivor testimony and historians' debates on the motives of the perpetrators, the experience of victims, and ways of coming to terms with the past. Four credit hours. H, W1, I.
HI120Dfs    Spotlight on History: Becoming Chinese American In mines and factories, on plantations and railroads, Chinese immigrants helped build the United States. Driven abroad by turmoil in China, but often intending to return home, they found themselves caught between competing nations, their stories often wrapped in and erased by Orientalist discourses of exoticism, peril and deviancy. This process-oriented writing course explores the contested spaces of Chinese American history, with particular focus on the relationship between writing and the production of historical knowledge. Student research and daily writing will focus on archival and primary source materials including newspapers, congressional hearings, photographs, memoirs, and Chinese American literature. Four credit hours. H, W1, U. Parker
HI131s    Survey of U.S. History, to 1865 A general overview of key issues and events in U.S. history from the age of settlement through the Civil War. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
HI132f    Survey of U.S. History, 1865 to the Present The rise of national power and its implications for American democratic values. Four credit hours. H. Weisbrot
HI138f    America from the Roaring 20s to the Great Depression Why did racial, religious, cultural, and regional tensions tear at American society in the years after World War I, a time of soaring production, consumption, and living standards? Why did the nation's vaunted prosperity give way in 1929 to the greatest economic collapse in American history? How did people cope with hard times over the next decade? How did their responses transform American values, culture, and politics? Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in English 138. Elect Integrated Studies 138. Four credit hours. H. Weisbrot
[HI140]    Sharia (Islamic) Law An introduction to how Islamic law functions and why it takes the shape that it does. We will explore the nature of religious, as opposed to secular, law. How is sharia formulated? Who has control over it? How is it applied and how have its applications changed over time? To answer those questions, we will consider different philosophies of law, explore a variety of approaches to the interpretation of law, and examine different institutional embodiments of law. We will see that the Islamic legal systems are pluralistic and see how they differ from the U.S. legal system. Four credit hours. H.
HI141f    Genocide and Globalization: 20th-Century World History The terms genocide and globalization aptly describe the long 20th century in world history, which begins in the 19th century with the "opening" of China and Japan, German unification, and the onset of imperialism. By focusing on the roots and the context, the history of the 20th century as well as present tensions in the Middle East, Ukraine, South China Sea, etc. are easier to understand. The focus will shift from national (Germany, United States, China) to regional (Europe, Africa, Americas, Asia) to global perspectives. Introduces the major relevant ideologies and systems, such as nationalism, National-Socialism, fascism, communism, capitalism, social democracy, imperialism, decolonization, total war, genocide, and globalization. Four credit hours. H, I. van der Meer
HI149f    Modern Utopias: From the Satanic Mills to Silicon Valley Looking at England's "dark Satanic Mills" in the early 1800s, the poet William Blake proclaimed that he would not sleep "till we have built Jerusalem in England's green and pleasant land." We will examine attempts to reshape states, economies, urban space, and individuals during the last two centuries. Topics will include early forms of "utopian" socialism, the modernization of 19th-century Paris, the New Town movement in Britain, Hitler's plans for Berlin, Soviet cities, industrial and agrarian utopias in post-colonial Africa, and Silicon Valley's techno-utopianism. Satisfies the Historical Studies (H) requirement. Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in Government 149A and 149B; elect IS149. Four credit hours. H. Meredith
[HI154]    Roman History Listed as Ancient History 154. Three or four credit hours. H.
HI173f    History of Latin America, 1491 to 1900 Listed as Latin American Studies 173. Four credit hours. H, I. Fallaw
HI183f    History of the Premodern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the rise of Muhammad to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids. The spread of Islam, the development and application of religious and political authority, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and their successors, the development of Islam in both its formal and more folk forms, the development of literature, art, science, and society. Gives a broad and deep understanding of the Middle East that will allow for more nuanced interpretations of current events grounded in an understanding of the long historical context. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
HI184s    History of the Modern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the post-Suleymanic Ottoman Empire to the present. Examines the fall of the Ottoman and Safavid empires, the rise of Western dominance, the struggle for independence, attempts at reform, the Arab-Israeli conflict, oil, the Iranian revolution, the Gulf War, the rise of Islamist movements, and ongoing repercussions. Particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics and the nature of power and authority. Designed to give the historical background necessary for understanding current events in the Middle East in their proper context. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
HI211s    Lawgivers, Pharaohs, and Philosophers: Ancient Civilizations Study of ancient civilizations (from c. 3100 BCE to 350 BCE) beginning with the first urban developments and legal systems of Mesopotamia, extensive study of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty of the Old Kingdom through the New Kingdom, Bronze and Archaic Age Greece, and the classical age. Emphasis will be on the concept of civilization, construction of laws and kingship, gender and ethnic diversity, and how the cultures of ancient civilizations influenced political, cultural, and economic developments in the Western past. Four credit hours. H. Taylor
[HI217]    Tudor England, 1485-1603 Focuses on the social, religious, political, economic, and nationalistic changes after the fall of the Plantagenet dynasty in 1485. After reading numerous biographies and primary sources, it will culminate in a research paper studying the history of one year based on primary sources from the period. Numerous out-of-class films will supplement class discussion and lectures. Previously listed as History 316. Four credit hours. H.
HI224f    Germany and Europe, 1871-1945 What went wrong with Germany from the first unification to the catastrophe of Nazism? Examining the question of German peculiarities within the European context and the debate on continuities in recent German history. Focus on critical reading and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance. Four credit hours. H, I. Hollander
[HI227]    Russian History, 900-1905: Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality The cultural and social history of Russia. Topics include Kievan Rus', the rise of Moscovy, the westernizing influence of Peter the Great, and the development of serfdom and autocracy. Focus on Russia's self-identity as Western or Eastern and on the challenges of building civil society. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI228s    The Russian Empire: Soviet History and 20th-Century Revolutions The people of the Soviet Union lived through three revolutions (1905, 1917, 1991) and two world wars. Their leaders forced the pace of modernization and subjected their own citizens to class war, arrest, and execution. An exploration of the last days of Tsarism, of Leninism and Stalinism, and of the forces leading to the Gorbachev revolution and breakup of the Soviet empire. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H, I. Josephson
[HI230C]    In Search of a Strong Man: Greece in the Fourth Century Listed as Classics 234. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI231f    American Women's History to 1870 An examination of key themes in the varied lives of women in America from colonial times to the end of the Civil War, such as their relationship to the public sphere and politics; women's work in the contexts of household production, early industrialization, and slavery; women and citizenship in the new republic; and women, religion, and social reform. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
HI232s    American Women's History, 1870 to the Present An exploration of critical topics in the history of women in America from Reconstruction to the present, including the struggle for suffrage, black women in the aftermath of slavery, women and the labor movement, the impact on women of two world wars, birth control and reproductive freedom, women's liberation, the feminization of poverty, and the backlash against feminism. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
HI233f    Native Americans to 1850 Through readings, discussions, and films, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include pre-contact Indian societies; contact and conflict with explorers, traders, missionaries, and settlers; warfare and society; the struggle against early American expansion; Indian removal in the East; and the Trail of Tears. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
HI234s    Native Americans since 1850 Through reading, discussion, and film, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include warfare and removal in the West, cultural repression, boarding schools, Indian soldiers and code talkers, urban migration, termination, Indian activism and revival in the 1960s and 70s, and the ongoing struggle for sovereignty, recognition, and prosperity. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
HI239f    The Era of the Civil War A social, political, and cultural survey of the Civil War, its origins, and its aftermath. Was the war a watershed in American history, as historians have commonly suggested? And if so, what kind of watershed? Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
[HI241]    History of Colby College Through readings, lectures, discussion, presentations, and independent research, students will learn about the history of Colby since its founding in 1813. Students will participate in writing the College's history by doing independent research projects on Colby's past using the abundant resources in Special Collections and elsewhere. Who is your residence hall named after? Why are our sports teams called the Mules? How did town-gown relations change when the College moved to Mayflower Hill? Who was Janitor Sam? Who was Mary Low? Discover answers to these and a multitude of other questions you never thought to ask. Four credit hours. H.
[HI242]    Colonial North America Through a continental perspective, explores the rich economic, social, and cultural diversity of the American colonies. We will consider the experiences, interactions, and conflicts of American Indians, Europeans, and Africans within the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English colonial empires in what is now the United States and Canada, from 1491 to the 1760s. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI245f    Science, Race, and Gender Historical analysis of the concepts of race and gender in four different ways: their institutional basis, their scientific content, epistemological issues that surround notions of race and gender, and the cultural and social background of the scientists and science that developed from 1800 to the present. Consideration of importance of historical issues for contemporary society. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. N, U. Josephson
HI246s    Luddite Rantings: A Historical Critique of Big Technology Adopting a technologically determinist argument, the instructor will subject to withering criticism the way in which Westerners, and in particular Americans, have embraced such technologies as automobiles, computers, reproductive devices, rockets, and reactors, with nary a thought about their ethical, moral, political, or environmental consequences. Students will be encouraged to argue. Four credit hours. H, U. Josephson
HI247f    African-American History, from Slavery to Freedom Explores the experience of blacks in American society from colonial times through the present. Subjects focus on racism, slavery, the role of African Americans in shaping the nation's history, and the ongoing struggle for equality. In exploring these historical developments, the course aims to expose students to a range of primary and scholarly sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas. Four credit hours. H, U. Weisbrot
HI248f    Nuclear Visions, Environmental Realities Examines the environmental history of nuclear power, peaceful and military. Using a variety of materials from a variety of disciplines and genres of human expression, students will consider the impact of military and civilian nuclear technologies on the environment, including human, machine (nuclear technology), and nature interactions. In a strongly interactive approach, using such primary sources as films, maps, archival documents, political cartoons, letters to the editor, beauty pageants ("Miss Atom!"), and photographs, they will engage questions of energy, nature, and landscape. Environmental humanities course. Four credit hours. H, I. Josephson
[HI250]    History of Modern China: Everyday Life and Revolution Introduces students to the history of modern China from the Qing Dynasty to the present day, focusing on the changing relationship between revolution and everyday life. Lectures and discussions will introduce a big picture survey of Chinese history, as well as opportunities for in-depth investigation into select case studies that illuminate the everyday lives of Chinese people on the ground. Students will master the chronology of modern Chinese history and develop skills in critical historical analysis. Credit cannot be earned for both this course and History 197, History of Modern China (Fall 2015). Four credit hours. H, I.
HI255s    Histories of Southeast Asia: Slavery, Diasporas, and Revolutions Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic economic and cultural regions in the world and central to Obama's pivot to Asia. Consisting of the modern states of Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, the region has been a crossroads for people, cultures, flora, and fauna for millennia, making it one of the most diverse in the world. We trace its long history from the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that produced Angkor Wat and the Borobudur to the present by focusing on three cohesive themes: slavery, diasporas, and revolutions. Four credit hours. H, I. van der Meer
[HI259]    Into the Archive: The Politics and Practice of Archival Research Brings students into a range of archives—paper and digital, past and present—to explore how to critically analyze primary source documents and interpret evidence. Students will examine the history and politics of archives and deconstruct the narratives and silences inherent in them. They will investigate the ways in which archives have historically been used for political regimes, social movements, memory work, education, and scholarship, with an emphasis on case studies from 20th-century Latin America. Students will gain new methodological and analytical skills relevant for research in many fields. Previously listed as HI297A (Jan Plan 2018). Three credit hours. H.
[HI272]    History of Mexico: Rights, Resistance, and Justice Listed as Latin American Studies 272. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI275]    Strongmen and Populism in Modern Spain and Latin America Listed as Latin American Studies 275. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI276fs    Patterns and Processes in World History An introduction to patterns and processes in world history. Themes include the evolution of trade and empire, global balances in military and political power, impacts of disease, the evolution of capitalism, slavery and its abolition, global migrations, industrialization, imperialism, and decolonization. Students read essays and study maps of historical patterns and processes and write essays to hone their critical-thinking and writing skills. Four credit hours. H. Duff, van der Meer
HI277f    The Maya Listed as Latin American Studies 277. Four credit hours. H, I. Fallaw
[HI283]    Golden Diaspora: Modern American Jewish History An exodus from Jewish ghettos of Eastern Europe began just as Orthodox Judaism and communal traditions were buckling, and alternative paths to modernity and equality such as socialism, Zionism, secular learning, labor solidarity, and religious reform were surging. Through readings in primary and scholarly sources, the course will help students understand American history, Jewish history, and the history of immigration in relation to each other, and hone students' ability to read critically, articulate sustained arguments, and write clearly, concisely, and precisely. Four credit hours. H, U.
[HI285]    Foundations of Islam A comprehensive introduction to the Islamic religious tradition focusing on the formative early period (seventh-11th centuries CE) and to contemporary interpretations and adaptations. Explores the nature of religion, religious knowledge, practice, identity, law, gender, and the nature of the divine. Analyzes the foundational beliefs, diversity, and social constructions within Islam by examining the early texts (the Qur'an, hadith/sunna), their interpretations, and their application through time. No prior knowledge expected. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI297Af    Modern Japan Familiarizes students with the modern history of Japan, the world's third-largest economy and a most dynamic influence on global culture. Opens during the Edo Period (1600-1868) and concludes in the present day. Students will study the social and political transformation of Japan from a feudal status society into a modern empire and into a mass democracy. Centers on the themes of identity, obedience and disobedience to authority, and Japan's relationship with the wider world. Four credit hours. H. Shmagin
HI297Bf    Introduction to African History to 1800 What do we mean when we refer to "Africa" and "Africans?" We answer these questions by tracing the history of the continent between c.800 and 1800, focusing on texts by Africans themselves and on themes raised by the scholarship on the continent: early empires, connections with Europe and Asia, Islam, gender, and the slave trade. Students will acquire a grasp of the scholarship on pre-colonial Africa; an understanding of the origins of the field of African history; and a knowledge of the methods developed by historians to write African history, ranging from oral sources to linguistic analysis. Four credit hours. H, I. Duff
HI297Cj    Cities from Scratch: A Global History of New Towns What does an ideal city look like? During the twentieth century, urban reformers believed that they could answer that question. They created holistic new towns that countered the sprawling, squalid, unjust, and polluted conditions of the metropolis. This course will explore the planners' goals for their cities and the messier realities, as well as how planned cities often became vehicles for political propaganda. Students will acquire a grasp of modern urban history, methods of analyzing both written and visual sources, and conduct a historical research project on a new town. Three credit hours. H. Meredith
HI297Dj    Revolutionary Culture in Contemporary China A study of the Cultural Revolution, investigating how present discourses of revolutionary heritage and nationalism shape and define its history. Combines historicizing interpretations with original documents: photojournalism with poster art, present day news with revolutionary speeches, films with their revolutionary predecessors, memoirs with diaries. Placing culture at the center of historiography, we bring into focus the competing epistemologies of the Cultural Revolution itself — its anti-Party, grassroots and anarchic visions — to grapple with how the Chinese Communist Party deploys competing versions of its own historical legitimacy. The Presence of the Past humanities theme course. Three credit hours. H, I. Parker
HI297Ej    New Perspectives on the American Revolution Patriotic narratives associated with the birth of the republic are deeply engrained within the American political identity. Recently, the hit Broadway musical Hamilton brought the production's namesake and the familiar cast of Founding Fathers back to the center stage of American pop culture. The contributions of political elites of course merit popular and scholarly attention, but should we also consider the experiences, perspectives, and contributions of those outside centers of formal political power? This course will ask that students examine the ways African-Americans, Native Americans, women, loyalists, common farmers, and urban artisans experienced and contributed to the Revolutionary Era. Three credit hours. H, U. Reardon
HI297Jj    America's Whitest State? Immigration in Maine, Yesterday and Today Maine is often called "America's whitest state," a term that obscures the state's rich history of immigration. In this interactive, discussion-based course, students will explore how the state and its residents have responded to and been shaped by various waves of immigration to the state, from English and French farmers in the early 19th century to Irish and French Canadian mill workers and Lebanese Christians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries to Somali, Iraqi, and Syrian immigrants today. In addition to studying books, articles, and films, students will deliver an oral, multimedia presentation. They also will have the opportunity to meet many ʕNew Mainersʡ as guest speakers and explore the diverse cultures of Waterville, Augusta, Lewiston, and Portland. Three credit hours. H, U. Asch
HI298s    Introduction to African History, 1800 to 1994 Traces the history of Africa from colonization to decolonization and beyond. We attend to Africans' resistance to colonization and the emergence of African nationalism, as well as to major themes within the scholarship on modern African history, including childhood and youth, gender and sexuality, medicine and technology, migration and urbanization, poverty, memory and reparation, and labor. Students will acquire a grasp of modern African history; an understanding of how the field of African history has changed over time; and a knowledge of the methods developed by historians to study African history. Four credit hours. H, I. Duff
[HI306]    Alexander the Great Listed as Classics 356. Four credit hours. H.
[HI313]    Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe The history of women and gender from the late antiquity to the early modern period, with attention to women of all classes and categories of society: virgins, wives, and widows; saints, nuns, and mothers; queens, intellectuals, physicians, and brewers; prostitutes, magicians, and witches. Changes in legal, family, and economic status over time; working opportunities and restrictions; attitudes toward sexuality; the querelle des femmes; male views of women; writings by women; church attitudes. Four credit hours. H.
[HI314]    Italian Renaissance An interdisciplinary seminar on the history and culture of the Renaissance in Italy, with special attention to Florence and Venice. Topics include culture (art, literature, music); civic life; gender, family, and sexuality; humanism; religion and popular culture; politics. Four credit hours. H.
[HI317]    Universities, Cathedrals, Courtly Love: 12th-Century Renaissance An exploration of the 12th-century renaissance—the moment during which universities first develop; Gothic cathedrals and churches are built all over northern Europe; literature in the form of Arthurian legends, courtly love, and fabliaux reach all levels of society; and speculative philosophy and theology engage the minds of the leading thinkers. Concentrating on Paris between 1100 and 1250, exploring the culture of this period through interdisciplinary studies. Four credit hours. H.
[HI319]    Sexuality and Disease in Premodern Europe An exploration of the attitudes toward the body from late antiquity to the end of the 19th century. We will focus on the attitudes of church, state, and ordinary people toward sexuality. How were men and women judged differently? How did medieval and early modern people conceive of their bodies in relation to others and to God? What were attitudes toward homosexuality, prostitution, and non-marital relations? How did law treat what they saw as sexual offenses? We will also study the growth of medical faculties at universities, diseases, gynecology, contraception/abortion, and childbirth. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI320s    Joan of Arc: History, Legend, and Film A critical examination of one of the most famous figures in history within the context of 15th-century French history and particularly the Hundred Years War with England. Focus will be on the role of narrative and interpretation in the understanding of history from the time of Joan of Arc to our own through extensive reading of primary sources. Four credit hours. H, I. Taylor
[HI321]    The First World War Covers the origins of the war, its impact on European societies, the experience of soldiers and of civilians on the home front, and the war's long-term legacy in Europe and the wider world. Focus on the meaning of total war, patterns of intolerance and persecution, the crusading spirit, and the sheer scale of violence. Includes an individual research component. Prerequisite: A W1 course. Four credit hours. H, W2, I.
[HI322]    Europe and the Second World War Seeks a deeper understanding of the origins of the war, its military, civilian, and diplomatic aspects, and its effects. Focuses on Nazi-dominated Europe and the dynamics of repression, resistance, collaboration, and accommodation. Includes debates on crucial aspects of the war and a strong research component. Goal is to understand historical processes in their dramatic and unsettling openness—important, as the outcome of the war was initially hard to predict, leading many Europeans to make decisions based on false expectations. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H, W2, I.
[HI324]    History of Gender and Sexuality in Antiquity This seminar will focus on ideals and realities of gender and sexual roles in the classical tradition of Greece and Rome and the impact of Christianity in its first four centuries. In the classical world, how were masculine and feminine roles defined? How did society deal with transgression of gender norms? How did philosophers, playwrights, satirists and commentators address pederasty, same-sex relations, and heterosexual behavior? In the first two centuries of Christianity, women had a prominent role that became circumscribed as the Church Fathers delineated the 'proper' roles of men and women and increasingly emphasized virginity and chastity as the desirable goal for Christians. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI327]    Daily Life under Stalin Many workers and peasants, and of course political elites, supported the Stalinist system, overlooking, discounting, or even justifying the great human costs of collectivization, industrialization, and the Great Terror as needed to create a great socialist fortress. An examination of the nature of regime loyalty under Stalin, making extensive use of primary sources. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
HI328f    Daily Life Under Putin Most students know of Vladimir Putin through American mass media and consider him to be undemocratic. Yet they know little of his domestic and foreign policy, or the sources and rationale behind them. Based on close reading and discussion of primary and secondary sources, we shall examine the importance of the Soviet cultural and political heritage for Putin and Putinism, Putin's efforts to recreate a new Russian superpower, and the sources of public approval for his rule. We will examine continuity and change in economic programs, institutions, political culture, and Russian values and beliefs. Four credit hours. H. Josephson
[HI334]    The Great Depression: America in the 1930s The Depression of the 1930s was the most devastating economic collapse of modern times. How did it happen? The 1920s had been the most prosperous time in American history, and many forecast ever-higher living standards. Instead the economy went into a tailspin that affected every group and region and posed a crisis of faith in capitalism. How did Americans cope and how did the experience shape their values and behavior? In what ways did the federal government respond, to what ends, and with what consequences? In exploring these questions, the course will also help students to read critically and to write clearly, concisely, and precisely. Previously listed as HI398D (Spring 2016). Four credit hours. H, U.
[HI337]    The Age of the American Revolution The American revolutionary period (c. 1760-1820), blending political, social, intellectual, and cultural history from 18th-century America as a society built on contradictions (liberty and slavery, property and equality, dependence and independence) through the rebellion against Britain to the democratic, slave-owning, egalitarian, libertarian, and hyper-commercial world of the early republic. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI338f    History in Reverse: Backwards through the Records from Now to Then Professional historians are often drawn to the field by their interest in or concern about current affairs, whose historical roots they seek to understand. Similarly, we will begin by focusing collectively on a contemporary issue, problem, or development (such as the presidential candidacy of Hillary Clinton or the collapse of the paper industry in central Maine), and then trace backwards through the relevant historical records for evidence of causation and contingency. Students will then choose a topic of interest and repeat the process, developing skills in effective research, clear and precise writing, critical source analysis, and oral presentation. Four credit hours. H. Leonard
[HI342]    Crisis and Reform: American Society and Politics in the 1960s The utopian hopes for government during the Kennedy and Johnson years, both in solving social problems and in containing communism around the world. Readings focus on the shaping of federal policies, their domestic and global impact, and the cultural and political legacy of this era. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
[HI352]    Asian Migrations Since the Cold War, academics and policymakers have understood Asia as a map clearly delineated by the borders of modern nation-states and further divided into three Asias: South, Southeast, and East. Introduces migrations as a category of historical analysis to un-map Cold War-era understandings of Asia and generate a new trans-regional awareness of the Asian world. Examines the migrations of people, language and culture, capital, and things across Asia from early modern history through the Cold War. Students will engage with cutting-edge research on Asian migrations and contribute to this growing field with an original research project. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI362s    History of Egypt Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Egypt from the seventh-century conquest to the fall of Mubarak. Particular points of focus are state formation, development of nationalism, definition of religious and political identities, power relations, the struggles for control over resources and for independence, and Egypt's place in the power matrix of the Middle East. Through reading primary sources and secondary scholarship, students will come to a deeper understanding of the nature of history and historical processes. They will learn how to critically assess the arguments of history and the deployment of historical memory and how to articulate their assessments through writing papers and sitting exams. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
[HI375]    Religion and Unbelief in Modern Latin American History Listed as Latin American Studies 373. Four credit hours. H, W2, I.
HI377s    Imperialism, Decolonization, and Modernity in Southeast Asia Explores the fascinating multicultural history of Southeast Asia—crossroads of the world and one of the fastest growing economic and cultural regions in the world today—from the 18th century to the present. By studying the processes of exchange beginning in the period of colonialism and imperialism, students will trace the emergence of Southeast Asian states—foremost Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam—and their hybrid national cultures through decolonization into our contemporary era. Four credit hours. H, I. van der Meer
[HI381]    Women and Gender in Islam A comprehensive introduction to the construction of gender in the Islamic Middle East. Puts the lives of contemporary Muslim women and men into a deeper historical perspective, examining the issues that influence definitions of gender in the Islamic world. Through monographs, essays, novels, stories, and film, examines the changing status and images of women and men in the Qur'an, hadith/sunna, theology, philosophy, and literature. Traces changes and developments in those constructions of identity beginning with the rise of Islam and continuing through contemporary understandings. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI388]    History of the Crusades Exploration of the historical circumstances of the Crusades primarily from a Middle Eastern perspective. The goal is to foster a broader understanding of the sociopolitical, religious, and economic forces driving the Crusades and their effects on the Middle East. Focus primarily on the Crusades of the 11th-13th centuries, but consideration is also given to their legacy and long-term effects. The nature of "holy war" from both Christian and Islamic perspectives, the nature of Christian-Muslim conflict, armed conflict in a premodern context, and whether there was such a thing as an East vs. West conflict. Three credit hours. H, I.
[HI389]    History of Iran Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Iran from the rise of the Safavid dynasty to the election of Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Particular points of focus: state formation, the influence of the West on 19th-century economic and intellectual development, 20th-century internal struggles between the religious and political elite, the effects of oil and great power intervention, the rise of activist Islam and the revolution, the war with Iraq, and life after Khomeini. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI397f    U.S. Environmental History Examines the complex interplay between nature and culture throughout American history, illuminating humanity's evolving relationship with the natural world and the ways the environment has shaped human history. Following a survey of Native peoples and the changes brought about by European colonization, we will tackle themes associated with the Western frontier, industrial expansion, conservation, and the emergence of ecological thinking. Lastly, we will explore the historical roots of large-scale social and political movements including progressive era conservation, 20th-century environmentalism, and more recently, sustainability. Four credit hours. Reardon
HI397Bf    Violence, Atrocity, and Trauma: Europe, 1914-1945 Covers the period when war twice consumed the European subcontinent and spread over the globe. We explore this period through lived experience, memory, and representation in memoir, literature, graphic art, and other media, with focus on Germany, France, Britain, Scandinavia, and the Soviet Union. Students will deepen their understanding of the history and experience of the European World Wars while exploring a range of historical methodologies to investigate different ways of preserving and presenting memories of war. Readings include historical essays and a monograph, memoir, experimental graphic drama, and contemporary novel. Four credit hours. H. Hollander
HI398As    Minorities in East Asia Puts the history of minorities, long marginalized in nation-state-focused East Asian historiographies, center stage. Students will explore their unique contributions to the history of this rich and vibrant region from the 12th century C.E. to the present day. Focus is on the Ainu of Japan, the "Small People" of Siberia, the people of Tibet and Western China, migrants, mixed-race people, sexual minorities, and other groups. Four credit hours. H, I. Shmagin
HI398Bs    South African Women's Memoir Critical thinking about the entanglement of the past and the present, focusing on a selection of memoirs written by South African women during the segregationist, apartheid, and post-apartheid periods. Memoir was a powerful tool for these women, allowing them to set the (historical) record straight and to describe and rewrite familiar histories from radically new points of view. Provides students with a thorough introduction to modern South African history; they will learn about the politics, uses, and limitations of memoir as genre and will explore the multiple uses of the past in the present. The Presence of the Past humanities theme course. Four credit hours. H, I. Duff
HI398Cs    Weimar Culture: Germany Between the World Wars In 1918 the Great War ended and the German Empire fell; in 1933 Hitler came to power and initiated the Third Reich. Between these two events, Germany experienced the Weimar Republic: Fourteen exhilarating and painful years of democratic governance, artistic experimentation, economic crisis, and social reordering. Films, plays, and paintings pushed the boundaries of "art;" cabarets combined song, dance, and spectacle; and ordinary people experimented with the limits of gender and sexual expression. Critics excoriated the government while radicals demanded a new revolution. We investigate Weimar's successes and failures through music, film, newspaper articles, political manifestos, and drama. Four credit hours. H. Hollander
HI414f    Research Seminar: History of Fear in Europe, 1300-1900 An exploration of how fear and different forms of communication or rumor influenced the course of European history in the medieval and early modern period. Case studies involve instances of anti-Judaism and anti-Islam, reactions to leprosy and syphilis, misogyny and demonology, xenophobia, and fear of death in all its forms from 1321 to 1888. Explores how changing communications from oral to semiliterate to journalistic culture influenced and changed history, marginalizing those outside the religious, gendered, ethnic, medical, and socioeconomic norms of society at a given time and place. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing; prior course in ancient, medieval, or early modern history recommended. Four credit hours. H. Taylor
[HI421]    Research Seminar: Debating the Nazi Past Explores the political and social dynamics of the Third Reich, the charisma and importance of Hitler, the choices of ordinary Germans, the genesis and execution of the Holocaust, and the problems of postwar Germans in dealing with the Nazi past. Focus on critical research, reading, and writing skills, and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance and charismatically underpinned violence. Includes major individual writing project. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. Four credit hours. H, W3, I.
[HI432]    Research Seminar: Native Americans in New England An exploration of the experiences of Native Americans in New England within the broader context of American and Native American history and culture. How have Native Americans confronted racism, ignorance, and indifference to preserve their cultures and identities? The literary, artistic, and social contributions of natives to New England and to American life are examined closely. Prerequisite: A W1 course. Four credit hours. H, W3, U.
HI435s    Research Seminar: The American Civil War An in-depth study of the Civil War in America, with a series of common readings on the war, including its causes, its aftermath, significant military and political leaders (e.g., Grant, Lee, Longstreet, Sherman, Lincoln, Davis), the experiences and impact of the war for women and African Americans, the impact of defeat on the South, and the ways in which Americans remember and reenact the war. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
[HI447]    Research Seminar: The Cold War Soon after World War II the Soviet Union and the United States began a struggle for military, diplomatic, economic, and ideological supremacy. Why did this confrontation develop? Why did it risk mutual nuclear annihilation and dominate global politics for more than 40 years? How did it shape and reflect the societies and governments that waged it? In exploring these issues, the seminar aims to expose students to diverse primary sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write and speak clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster independent research through a semester-long project. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
[HI473]    Historical Roots of Violence in Modern Latin America Listed as Latin American Studies 473. Does not fulfill the senior seminar requirement for the history major. Four credit hours. H.
HI483Jj    History Honors Program Noncredit. Josephson
HI491f, 492s    Independent Study Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. One to four credit hours. Faculty