History Department

Courses of Study

HI106f    Greek History Listed as Ancient History 158. Three or four credit hours. H. J. Roisman
[HI111]    The West from Antiquity to 1618 An interdisciplinary survey of European history from ancient Mesopotamia to the religious wars. Larger themes include the evolution of legal systems and the development of kingship; relations between church and state; the legacy of Rome and rise of cities; Crusades; discoveries in the New World; and the Renaissance, Reformation, and religious wars. Focus is on the interpretation and analysis of primary sources, class discussion, and development of writing skills. Throughout we will examine changing attitudes toward gender and sexuality; concepts of persecution, repression and tolerance; reactions to disease; and the results of economic disparity. Four credit hours. H.
HI112s    Revolutions of Modern Europe Does modern European history advance toward a specific goal (such as democracy, freedom, rationalization, social equality, secularization, mass consumerism, bureaucratization)? Using the revolutions theme broadly, we examine causes and patterns of change in mentalities, warfare, politics, and the economy. Special themes include the French Revolution of 1789, the European revolutions of 1848, the Russian revolutions of 1917, the world wars as revolutionary events, and the revolutions of 1989. Four credit hours. H, I. Scheck
[HI120]    Made in China Long before Walmart stitched the "Made in China" label into your T-shirt and Apple slapped a similar sticker on your iPhone, China was known for its stuff—for producing, trading, and consuming luxury items and everyday goods. Introduces students to China's long history of material culture covering "things" from ancient Bronze Age vessels to Mattel toys and offering a historical perspective on such contemporary issues as China's growing economy, labor practices, Chinese consumerism, and U.S.-China trade relations. Students will develop basic skills in critical thinking, historical argument, research, and writing. Four credit hours. H, W1.
HI120Af    Spotlight on History: The Lincoln Assassination On April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth shot Abraham Lincoln while the president was enjoying a play at Ford's Theater. The crime threw the nation—torn by civil war—into further chaos and, by bringing Andrew Johnson to the presidency, exerted a powerful effect on Reconstruction specifically and American history more broadly. Students will learn about the assassination and about the discipline of history: how historians do research using a variety of sources, analyze their findings, write in discipline-specific ways, and situate their scholarship within the pertinent literature. Students will also learn how to use the College libraries' abundant resources in the most effective way. Four credit hours. H, W1. Leonard
[HI120B]    Spotlight on History: America's First Ladies Since the founding of the United States, dozens of women have served as the nation's first lady. Long ignored as legitimate subjects of historical interest, these women have recently enjoyed fresh attention as historians have acknowledged their unique proximity to the men who served as president and their potential to influence the policies their husbands pursued in office. Students will learn about the first ladies and about the discipline of history: how historians do research using a variety of sources, analyze their findings, write in discipline-specific ways, and situate their scholarship within the pertinent literature. Students will also learn how to use the College libraries' abundant resources in the most effective way. Four credit hours. H, W1.
HI120Cf    Spotlight on History: The Holocaust and Genocide in Europe What do the Armenian genocide, mass violence in the Stalinist Soviet Union, the Holocaust, and "ethnic cleansing" in Yugoslavia have in common? What differentiates them? Focus is on survivor testimony and historians' debates on the motives of the perpetrators, the experience of victims, and ways of coming to terms with the past. Four credit hours. H, W1, I. Scheck
HI131f    Survey of U.S. History, to 1865 A general overview of key issues and events in U.S. history from the age of settlement through the Civil War. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
HI132s    Survey of U.S. History, 1865 to the Present The rise of national power and its implications for American democratic values. Four credit hours. H. Weisbrot
HI138f    America from the Roaring 20s to the Great Depression Why did racial, religious, cultural, and regional tensions tear at American society in the years after World War I, a time of soaring production, consumption, and living standards? Why did the nation's vaunted prosperity give way in 1929 to the greatest economic collapse in American history? How did people cope with hard times over the next decade? How did their responses transform American values, culture, and politics? Prerequisite: Concurrent enrollment in English and Philosophy 138. Elect Integrated Studies 138. Four credit hours. H. Weisbrot
HI140f    Sharia (Islamic) Law An introduction to how Islamic law functions and why it takes the shape that it does. We will explore the nature of religious, as opposed to secular, law. How is sharia formulated? Who has control over it? How is it applied and how have its applications changed over time? To answer those questions, we will consider different philosophies of law, explore a variety of approaches to the interpretation of law, and examine different institutional embodiments of law. We will see that the Islamic legal systems are pluralistic and see how they differ from the U.S. legal system. Four credit hours. H. Turner
HI141j    Genocide and Globalization: 20th-Century World History The terms genocide and globalization aptly describe the long 20th century in world history, which begins in the 19th century with the "opening" of China and Japan, German unification, and the onset of imperialism. By focusing on the roots and the context, the history of the 20th century as well as present tensions in the Middle East, Ukraine, South China Sea, etc. are easier to understand. The focus will shift from national (Germany, United States, China) to regional (Europe, Africa, Americas, Asia) to global perspectives. Introduces the major relevant ideologies and systems, such as nationalism, National-Socialism, fascism, communism, capitalism, social democracy, imperialism, decolonization, total war, genocide, and globalization. Three credit hours. H, I. van der Meer
HI154s    Roman History Listed as Ancient History 154. Three or four credit hours. H. J. Roisman
HI173f    History of Latin America, 1491 to 1900 Listed as Latin American Studies 173. Four credit hours. H, I. Fallaw
[HI183]    History of the Premodern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the rise of Muhammad to the rise of the Ottomans and Safavids. The spread of Islam, the development and application of religious and political authority, the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties and their successors, the development of Islam in both its formal and more folk forms, the development of literature, art, science, and society. Gives a broad and deep understanding of the Middle East that will allow for more nuanced interpretations of current events grounded in an understanding of the long historical context. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI184s    History of the Modern Middle East The history of the Middle East from the post-Suleymanic Ottoman Empire to the present. Examines the fall of the Ottoman and Safavid empires, the rise of Western dominance, the struggle for independence, attempts at reform, the Arab-Israeli conflict, oil, the Iranian revolution, the Gulf War, the rise of Islamist movements, and ongoing repercussions. Particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics and the nature of power and authority. Designed to give the historical background necessary for understanding current events in the Middle East in their proper context. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
[HI211]    Lawgivers, Pharaohs, and Philosophers: Ancient Civilizations Study of ancient civilizations (from c. 3100 BCE to 350 BCE) beginning with the first urban developments and legal systems of Mesopotamia, extensive study of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty of the Old Kingdom through the New Kingdom, Bronze and Archaic Age Greece, and the classical age. Emphasis will be on the concept of civilization, construction of laws and kingship, gender and ethnic diversity, and how the cultures of ancient civilizations influenced political, cultural, and economic developments in the Western past. Four credit hours. H.
[HI217]    Tudor England, 1485-1603 Focuses on the social, religious, political, economic, and nationalistic changes after the fall of the Plantagenet dynasty in 1485. After reading numerous biographies and primary sources, it will culminate in a research paper studying the history of one year based on primary sources from the period. Numerous out-of-class films will supplement class discussion and lectures. Previously listed as History 316. Four credit hours. H.
[HI224]    Germany and Europe, 1871-1945 What went wrong with Germany from the first unification to the catastrophe of Nazism? Examining the question of German peculiarities within the European context and the debate on continuities in recent German history. Focus on critical reading and writing skills and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI227f    Russian History, 900-1905: Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality The cultural and social history of Russia. Topics include Kievan Rus', the rise of Moscovy, the westernizing influence of Peter the Great, and the development of serfdom and autocracy. Focus on Russia's self-identity as Western or Eastern and on the challenges of building civil society. Four credit hours. H, I. Josephson
HI228s    The Russian Empire: Soviet History and 20th-Century Revolutions The people of the Soviet Union lived through three revolutions (1905, 1917, 1991) and two world wars. Their leaders forced the pace of modernization and subjected their own citizens to class war, arrest, and execution. An exploration of the last days of Tsarism, of Leninism and Stalinism, and of the forces leading to the Gorbachev revolution and breakup of the Soviet empire. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H, I. Josephson
[HI230C]    In Search of a Strong Man: Greece in the Fourth Century Listed as Classics 234. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI231f    American Women's History to 1870 An examination of key themes in the varied lives of women in America from colonial times to the end of the Civil War, such as their relationship to the public sphere and politics; women's work in the contexts of household production, early industrialization, and slavery; women and citizenship in the new republic; and women, religion, and social reform. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
HI232s    American Women's History, 1870 to the Present An exploration of critical topics in the history of women in America from Reconstruction to the present, including the struggle for suffrage, black women in the aftermath of slavery, women and the labor movement, the impact on women of two world wars, birth control and reproductive freedom, women's liberation, the feminization of poverty, and the backlash against feminism. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
[HI233]    Native Americans to 1850 Through readings, discussions, and films, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include pre-contact Indian societies; contact and conflict with explorers, traders, missionaries, and settlers; warfare and society; the struggle against early American expansion; Indian removal in the East; and the Trail of Tears. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI234s    Native Americans since 1850 Through reading, discussion, and film, students will examine how native peoples actively sought to preserve their lands, cultures, and identities and will consider their social and cultural contributions to American life. Topics may include warfare and removal in the West, cultural repression, boarding schools, Indian soldiers and code talkers, urban migration, termination, Indian activism and revival in the 1960s and 70s, and the ongoing struggle for sovereignty, recognition, and prosperity. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
[HI239]    The Era of the Civil War A social, political, and cultural survey of the Civil War, its origins, and its aftermath. Was the war a watershed in American history, as historians have commonly suggested? And if so, what kind of watershed? Four credit hours. H, U.
HI241f    History of Colby College Through readings, lectures, discussion, presentations, and independent research, students will learn about the history of Colby since its founding in 1813. Students will participate in writing the College's history by doing independent research projects on Colby's past using the abundant resources in Special Collections and elsewhere. Who is your residence hall named after? Why are our sports teams called the Mules? How did town-gown relations change when the College moved to Mayflower Hill? Who was Janitor Sam? Who was Mary Low? Discover answers to these and a multitude of other questions you never thought to ask. Four credit hours. H. Leonard
[HI242]    Colonial North America Through a continental perspective, explores the rich economic, social, and cultural diversity of the American colonies. We will consider the experiences, interactions, and conflicts of American Indians, Europeans, and Africans within the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English colonial empires in what is now the United States and Canada, from 1491 to the 1760s. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI245f    Science, Race, and Gender Historical analysis of the concepts of race and gender in four different ways: their institutional basis, their scientific content, epistemological issues that surround notions of race and gender, and the cultural and social background of the scientists and science that developed from 1800 to the present. Consideration of importance of historical issues for contemporary society. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. N, U. Josephson
[HI246]    Luddite Rantings: A Historical Critique of Big Technology Adopting a technologically determinist argument, the instructor will subject to withering criticism the way in which Westerners, and in particular Americans, have embraced such technologies as automobiles, computers, reproductive devices, rockets, and reactors, with nary a thought about their ethical, moral, political, or environmental consequences. Students will be encouraged to argue. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI247f    African-American History, from Slavery to Freedom Explores the experience of blacks in American society from colonial times through the present. Subjects focus on racism, slavery, the role of African Americans in shaping the nation's history, and the ongoing struggle for equality. In exploring these historical developments, the course aims to expose students to a range of primary and scholarly sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster clear, logical, and informed exchanges of ideas. Four credit hours. H, U. Weisbrot
HI248s    Nuclear Visions, Environmental Realities Examines the environmental history of nuclear power, peaceful and military. Using a variety of materials from a variety of disciplines and genres of human expression, students will consider the impact of military and civilian nuclear technologies on the environment, including human, machine (nuclear technology), and nature interactions. In a strongly interactive approach, using such primary sources as films, maps, archival documents, political cartoons, letters to the editor, beauty pageants ("Miss Atom!"), and photographs, they will engage questions of energy, nature, and landscape. Environmental humanities course. Four credit hours. H, I. Josephson
HI250f    History of Modern China: Everyday Life and Revolution Introduces students to the history of modern China from the Qing Dynasty to the present day, focusing on the changing relationship between revolution and everyday life. Lectures and discussions will introduce a big picture survey of Chinese history, as well as opportunities for in-depth investigation into select case studies that illuminate the everyday lives of Chinese people on the ground. Students will master the chronology of modern Chinese history and develop skills in critical historical analysis. Credit cannot be earned for both this course and History 197, History of Modern China (Fall 2015). Four credit hours. H, I. Parker
[HI251]    History of Southeast Asia: Crossroads of the World An examination of the phases of Southeast Asian history beginning with the development of cities and states (prehistory to c. 800); the rise of the great Southeast Asian empires such as Angkor in Cambodia (ca. 800 to ca. 1400); the age of trade and the rise of great trading states (ca. 1400 to ca. 1800); and concluding with a discussion of Europe's emerging power in the region in the 19th century. Includes important historical themes such as gender relations, trade, indigenous notions of power and prestige, and religious diversity. Four credit hours. H.
[HI255]    Histories of Southeast Asia: Slavery, Diasporas, and Revolutions Southeast Asia is one of the most dynamic economic and cultural regions in the world and central to Obama's pivot to Asia. Consisting of the modern states of Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam, the region has been a crossroads for people, cultures, flora, and fauna for millennia, making it one of the most diverse in the world. We trace its long history from the Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that produced Angkor Wat and the Borobudur to the present by focusing on three cohesive themes: slavery, diasporas, and revolutions. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI272f    History of Mexico: Rights, Resistance, and Justice Listed as Latin American Studies 272. Four credit hours. H, I. Fallaw
[HI275]    Strongmen and Populism in Modern Spain and Latin America Listed as Latin American Studies 275. Three credit hours. H, I.
HI276fs    Patterns and Processes in World History An introduction to patterns and processes in world history. Themes include the evolution of trade and empire, global balances in military and political power, impacts of disease, the evolution of capitalism, slavery and its abolition, global migrations, industrialization, imperialism, and decolonization. Students read essays and study maps of historical patterns and processes and write essays to hone their critical-thinking and writing skills. Four credit hours. H. Duff, Webb
[HI277]    History of the Maya from 200 B.C. Listed as Latin American Studies 277. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI283]    Golden Diaspora: Modern American Jewish History An exodus from Jewish ghettos of Eastern Europe began just as Orthodox Judaism and communal traditions were buckling, and alternative paths to modernity and equality such as socialism, Zionism, secular learning, labor solidarity, and religious reform were surging. Through readings in primary and scholarly sources, the course will help students understand American history, Jewish history, and the history of immigration in relation to each other, and hone students' ability to read critically, articulate sustained arguments, and write clearly, concisely, and precisely. Four credit hours. H, U.
HI285f    Foundations of Islam A comprehensive introduction to the Islamic religious tradition focusing on the formative early period (seventh-11th centuries CE) and to contemporary interpretations and adaptations. Explores the nature of religion, religious knowledge, practice, identity, law, gender, and the nature of the divine. Analyzes the foundational beliefs, diversity, and social constructions within Islam by examining the early texts (the Qur'an, hadith/sunna), their interpretations, and their application through time. No prior knowledge expected. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
HI297f    Children and Youth in African History Children and youth have long been at the center of key debates in African society and politics: from urbanization and labor policy to shifting attitudes towards sexuality and race. We look at the ways in which historians have written about colonial and post-colonial Africa through the thoughts and actions of young people. But we also pay attention to the making of the categories of 'childhood' and 'youth.' How do race, class, and gender intersect to define who was — and who was not — a 'child?' How does the category of 'youth' change over time? Four credit hours. H, I. Duff
HI297Aj    Into the Archive: The Politics and Practice of Archival Research Brings students into a range of archives — paper and digital, past and present — to explore how to critically analyze primary source documents and interpret evidence. Students will examine the history and politics of archives and deconstruct the narratives and silences inherent in them. They will investigate the ways in which archives have historically been used for political regimes, social movements, memory work, education, and scholarship, with an emphasis on case studies from 20th-century Latin America. Students will gain new methodological and analytical skills relevant for research in many fields. Three credit hours. H. Mack
HI297Bj    Maine in World War I In 1917, America entered World War I, an international conflict that helped to shape the United States as a global power. 35,000 Maine men served in the military, and tens of thousands of Mainers gave time and money to the war effort. We will explore the impact of World War I on Colby College, Waterville, and the State of Maine. With the goal of understanding the war through local experiences and events, primary research will be conducted using period newspapers, letters, diaries, military records, and photographs. Class lectures, films, field trips to museum exhibits, and readings about the history, literature, poetry, and art of the war will provide the broader context to the local scene. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Three credit hours. H. Shettleworth
HI297Jj    Freedom Now and Then: The Black Freedom Struggle and Its Legacies As the nation once again convulses with racial protest, students will explore how the 20th-century black freedom struggle challenged and reshaped American politics and culture. Focusing primarily on the decades between the March on Washington Movement in 1941 and the anti-busing riots of the mid-1970s, students will explore the legal basis of freedom embedded in the Constitution, the economic freedom advocated by black labor activists, the political freedom pursued during the "classic" civil rights era, and the cultural freedom expressed during the Black Power movement. Students will examine how the freedom struggle has transformed the nation, yet failed to uproot resilient patterns of inequality. Three credit hours. H, U. Asch
[HI306]    Alexander the Great Listed as Classics 356. Four credit hours. H.
[HI313]    Women in Medieval and Early Modern Europe The history of women and gender from the late antiquity to the early modern period, with attention to women of all classes and categories of society: virgins, wives, and widows; saints, nuns, and mothers; queens, intellectuals, physicians, and brewers; prostitutes, magicians, and witches. Changes in legal, family, and economic status over time; working opportunities and restrictions; attitudes toward sexuality; the querelle des femmes; male views of women; writings by women; church attitudes. Four credit hours. H.
[HI314]    Italian Renaissance An interdisciplinary seminar on the history and culture of the Renaissance in Italy, with special attention to Florence and Venice. Topics include culture (art, literature, music); civic life; gender, family, and sexuality; humanism; religion and popular culture; politics. Four credit hours. H.
[HI317]    Universities, Cathedrals, Courtly Love: 12th-Century Renaissance An exploration of the 12th-century renaissance—the moment during which universities first develop; Gothic cathedrals and churches are built all over northern Europe; literature in the form of Arthurian legends, courtly love, and fabliaux reach all levels of society; and speculative philosophy and theology engage the minds of the leading thinkers. Concentrating on Paris between 1100 and 1250, exploring the culture of this period through interdisciplinary studies. Four credit hours. H.
[HI319]    Sexuality and Disease in Premodern Europe An exploration of the attitudes toward the body from late antiquity to the end of the 19th century. We will focus on the attitudes of church, state, and ordinary people toward sexuality. How were men and women judged differently? How did medieval and early modern people conceive of their bodies in relation to others and to God? What were attitudes toward homosexuality, prostitution, and non-marital relations? How did law treat what they saw as sexual offenses? We will also study the growth of medical faculties at universities, diseases, gynecology, contraception/abortion, and childbirth. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI321]    The First World War Covers the origins of the war, its impact on European societies, the experience of soldiers and of civilians on the home front, and the war's long-term legacy in Europe and the wider world. Focus on the meaning of total war, patterns of intolerance and persecution, the crusading spirit, and the sheer scale of violence. Includes an individual research component. Prerequisite: A W1 course. Four credit hours. H, W2, I.
HI322s    Europe and the Second World War Seeks a deeper understanding of the origins of the war, its military, civilian, and diplomatic aspects, and its effects. Focuses on Nazi-dominated Europe and the dynamics of repression, resistance, collaboration, and accommodation. Includes debates on crucial aspects of the war and a strong research component. Goal is to understand historical processes in their dramatic and unsettling openness—important, as the outcome of the war was initially hard to predict, leading many Europeans to make decisions based on false expectations. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H, W2, I. Scheck
[HI327]    Daily Life under Stalin Many workers and peasants, and of course political elites, supported the Stalinist system, overlooking, discounting, or even justifying the great human costs of collectivization, industrialization, and the Great Terror as needed to create a great socialist fortress. An examination of the nature of regime loyalty under Stalin, making extensive use of primary sources. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
HI328f    Daily Life Under Putin Most students know of Vladimir Putin through American mass media and consider him to be undemocratic. Yet they know little of his domestic and foreign policy, or the sources and rationale behind them. Based on close reading and discussion of primary and secondary sources, we shall examine the importance of the Soviet cultural and political heritage for Putin and Putinism, Putin's efforts to recreate a new Russian superpower, and the sources of public approval for his rule. We will examine continuity and change in economic programs, institutions, political culture, and Russian values and beliefs. Four credit hours. H. Josephson
HI334f    The Great Depression: America in the 1930s The Depression of the 1930s was the most devastating economic collapse of modern times. How did it happen? The 1920s had been the most prosperous time in American history, and many forecast ever-higher living standards. Instead the economy went into a tailspin that affected every group and region and posed a crisis of faith in capitalism. How did Americans cope and how did the experience shape their values and behavior? In what ways did the federal government respond, to what ends, and with what consequences? In exploring these questions, the course will also help students to read critically and to write clearly, concisely, and precisely. Previously listed as HI398D (Spring 2016). Four credit hours. H, U. Weisbrot
HI337s    The Age of the American Revolution The American revolutionary period (c. 1760-1820), blending political, social, intellectual, and cultural history from 18th-century America as a society built on contradictions (liberty and slavery, property and equality, dependence and independence) through the rebellion against Britain to the democratic, slave-owning, egalitarian, libertarian, and hyper-commercial world of the early republic. Four credit hours. H, U. Reardon
[HI338]    History in Reverse: Backwards through the Records from Now to Then Professional historians are often drawn to the field by their interest in or concern about current affairs, whose historical roots they seek to understand. Similarly, we will begin by focusing collectively on a contemporary issue, problem, or development (such as the presidential candidacy of Hillary Clinton or the collapse of the paper industry in central Maine), and then trace backwards through the relevant historical records for evidence of causation and contingency. Students will then choose a topic of interest and repeat the process, developing skills in effective research, clear and precise writing, critical source analysis, and oral presentation. Four credit hours. H.
HI342s    Crisis and Reform: American Society and Politics in the 1960s The utopian hopes for government during the Kennedy and Johnson years, both in solving social problems and in containing communism around the world. Readings focus on the shaping of federal policies, their domestic and global impact, and the cultural and political legacy of this era. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H. Weisbrot
HI346f    Global Health History An exploration of humankind's historical experience with disease. Topics include the nature of disease and health, the origins of disease, the distribution of disease over time and space, therapeutic and prevention strategies, epidemics of infectious disease, international health interventions, epidemiological transitions, and behavior and disease. Students learn to integrate natural science and social science perspectives, writing weekly intellectual journals and engaging in seminar discussion. Previously listed as History 446. Four credit hours. H. Webb
[HI352]    Asian Migrations Since the Cold War, academics and policymakers have understood Asia as a map clearly delineated by the borders of modern nation-states and further divided into three Asias: South, Southeast, and East. Introduces migrations as a category of historical analysis to un-map Cold War-era understandings of Asia and generate a new trans-regional awareness of the Asian world. Examines the migrations of people, language and culture, capital, and things across Asia from early modern history through the Cold War. Students will engage with cutting-edge research on Asian migrations and contribute to this growing field with an original research project. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI354]    Skin-scapes: Beauty, Skin, and Cosmetics in East Asian History Examines the history of beauty, skin, and cosmetics in East Asia. Students will consider the similarities, differences, and interconnectedness of beauty practices across time and place, examining how they reveal global and local structures of gender, race, and class. Also how entrepreneurs shaped beauty markets, how advertisements visually represented ideals of feminine and racialized beauty, and how people have felt about their physical beauty. Students will complete an original research project using primary sources. Prerequisite: A prior course in history, East Asian Studies, or women's, gender, and sexuality studies. Four credit hours. H, I.
[HI375]    Religion and Unbelief in Modern Latin American History Listed as Latin American Studies 373. Four credit hours. H, W2, I.
[HI377]    Imperialism, Decolonization, and Modernity in Southeast Asia Explores the fascinating multicultural history of Southeast Asia—crossroads of the world and one of the fastest growing economic and cultural regions in the world today—from the 18th century to the present. By studying the processes of exchange beginning in the period of colonialism and imperialism, students will trace the emergence of Southeast Asian states—foremost Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar (Burma), Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam—and their hybrid national cultures through decolonization into our contemporary era. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI381s    Women and Gender in Islam A comprehensive introduction to the construction of gender in the Islamic Middle East. Puts the lives of contemporary Muslim women and men into a deeper historical perspective, examining the issues that influence definitions of gender in the Islamic world. Through monographs, essays, novels, stories, and film, examines the changing status and images of women and men in the Qur'an, hadith/sunna, theology, philosophy, and literature. Traces changes and developments in those constructions of identity beginning with the rise of Islam and continuing through contemporary understandings. Four credit hours. H, I. Turner
[HI388]    History of the Crusades Exploration of the historical circumstances of the Crusades primarily from a Middle Eastern perspective. The goal is to foster a broader understanding of the sociopolitical, religious, and economic forces driving the Crusades and their effects on the Middle East. Focus primarily on the Crusades of the 11th-13th centuries, but consideration is also given to their legacy and long-term effects. The nature of "holy war" from both Christian and Islamic perspectives, the nature of Christian-Muslim conflict, armed conflict in a premodern context, and whether there was such a thing as an East vs. West conflict. Three credit hours. H, I.
[HI389]    History of Iran Focus on the cultural, social, and political development of Iran from the rise of the Safavid dynasty to the election of Muhammad Khatami in 1997. Particular points of focus: state formation, the influence of the West on 19th-century economic and intellectual development, 20th-century internal struggles between the religious and political elite, the effects of oil and great power intervention, the rise of activist Islam and the revolution, the war with Iraq, and life after Khomeini. Four credit hours. H, I.
HI394f    Ecological History A seminar on major issues in ecological history. Topics include the relationship between ecological science and environmental history; the early impact of the agricultural revolutions; the "collapse" of early civilizations; processes of deforestation and desertification; the rise of the conservation movement; ecological costs and benefits of technological efforts to engineer nature; biological innovations and chemical controls; the paradox of population growth; and the contemporary crisis of modern agriculture and diet. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H. Webb
HI397f    U.S. Environmental History Examines the complex interplay between nature and culture throughout American history, illuminating humanity's evolving relationship with the natural world and the ways the environment has shaped human history. Following a survey of Native peoples and the changes brought about by European colonization, we will tackle themes associated with the Western frontier, industrial expansion, conservation, and the emergence of ecological thinking. Lastly, we will explore the historical roots of large-scale social and political movements including progressive era conservation, 20th-century environmentalism, and more recently, sustainability. Four credit hours. Reardon
HI398s    Global Histories of Food Food and food ways have long been globalized. Since at least the 15th century, ingredients, recipes, ideas, and taboos relating to food, cooking, and eating have circulated around the world. We trace these circulations, and we ask how food helps us to understand the ways in which societies and cultures change over time. We will use food to illuminate four key moments and themes in global history: imperialism, migration, nationalism, and postcolonial violence. Four credit hours. H, I. Duff
HI398Bs    History of Chinese Feminism Investigates the interconnected histories of feminism, family, and revolution in modern China, exploring how gender and sexuality are deeply embedded in culture and power relations. We will examine the origins of Chinese feminism and its forms during the Chinese Revolution's attempt to construct not just a new nation, but a new citizen. Using case studies we will explore how a gendered subjectivity emerged as a contested site of modern identity, often in radically divergent forms from its western counterparts. Topics include women's "pollution," women's liberation campaigns, free love, feminist revolution vs. family revolution, women workers, writers, soldiers, and state feminism. Four credit hours. H, I. Parker
HI398Cs    Waterways and Watershed Moments in North American History Beneath the surface, rivers offer stories of human interaction with the natural world. We will consider human impacts on river systems over time as well as the way rivers are woven into the social, cultural, and economic fabric of North American History. Humans have altered the very shape of rivers in clearing valleys of trees and vegetation. Dam projects flood river valleys and drown existing channels underneath massive reservoirs. Organisms that thrive in, or have disappeared from, these aquatic environments also offer evidence of human activity. Students will engage with scholarly literature from the humanities, social sciences, and environmental sciences. Four credit hours. H. Reardon
[HI413]    Research Seminar: Joan of Arc: History, Legend, and Film A critical examination of one of the most famous figures in history within the context of 15th-century French history and particularly the Hundred Years' War with England. Focus will be on the role of narrative and interpretation in the understanding of history from the time of Joan of Arc to our own. Prerequisite: History major; prior course in medieval history recommended. Four credit hours. H.
[HI414]    Research Seminar: History of Fear in Europe, 1300-1900 An exploration of how fear and different forms of communication or rumor influenced the course of European history in the medieval and early modern period. Case studies involve instances of anti-Judaism and anti-Islam, reactions to leprosy and syphilis, misogyny and demonology, xenophobia, and fear of death in all its forms from 1321 to 1888. Explores how changing communications from oral to semiliterate to journalistic culture influenced and changed history, marginalizing those outside the religious, gendered, ethnic, medical, and socioeconomic norms of society at a given time and place. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing; prior course in ancient, medieval, or early modern history recommended. Four credit hours. H.
HI421f    Research Seminar: Debating the Nazi Past Explores the political and social dynamics of the Third Reich, the charisma and importance of Hitler, the choices of ordinary Germans, the genesis and execution of the Holocaust, and the problems of postwar Germans in dealing with the Nazi past. Focus on critical research, reading, and writing skills, and on understanding historical processes including patterns of exclusion and intolerance and charismatically underpinned violence. Includes major individual writing project. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing. Four credit hours. H, W3, I. Scheck
[HI432]    Research Seminar: Native Americans in New England An exploration of the experiences of Native Americans in New England within the broader context of American and Native American history and culture. How have Native Americans confronted racism, ignorance, and indifference to preserve their cultures and identities? The literary, artistic, and social contributions of natives to New England and to American life are examined closely. Prerequisite: A W1 course. Four credit hours. H, W3, U.
HI435s    Research Seminar: The American Civil War An in-depth study of the Civil War in America, with a series of common readings on the war, including its causes, its aftermath, significant military and political leaders (e.g., Grant, Lee, Longstreet, Sherman, Lincoln, Davis), the experiences and impact of the war for women and African Americans, the impact of defeat on the South, and the ways in which Americans remember and reenact the war. Four credit hours. H, U. Leonard
[HI447]    Research Seminar: The Cold War Soon after World War II the Soviet Union and the United States began a struggle for military, diplomatic, economic, and ideological supremacy. Why did this confrontation develop? Why did it risk mutual nuclear annihilation and dominate global politics for more than 40 years? How did it shape and reflect the societies and governments that waged it? In exploring these issues, the seminar aims to expose students to diverse primary sources; to hone critical thinking and interpretive skills; to help students write and speak clearly, concisely, and precisely; and to foster independent research through a semester-long project. Prerequisite: Sophomore or higher standing. Four credit hours. H.
[HI461]    Research Seminar: The History and Development of Islamic Law An examination of questions—how law comes to be, who has control over it, what makes it Islamic, how is it different from other systems—leading to a deeper understanding of the functions, diversity, and trajectories of Islamic law. We will explore the roots, historical paths of formation, and development of the major schools of Islamic legal thought and their arguments over and elucidation of Shari'a. This will shed light on current Islamist movements and their claims to that heritage and to the law. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. Four credit hours. H.
[HI473]    Historical Roots of Violence in Modern Latin America Listed as Latin American Studies 473. Does not fulfill the senior seminar requirement for the history major. Four credit hours. H.
HI483Jj    History Honors Program Noncredit. Josephson, Scheck, Weisbrot
HI491f, 492s    Independent Study Individual projects in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work. Prerequisite: Permission of the instructor. One to four credit hours. Faculty