# Physics Department

## Courses of Study

**[PH120] Space ... The Final Frontier**This writing-intensive course will use the exploration of other worlds, real and imagined, as an opportunity to investigate the shifting relationships between science, science fiction, and fantasy. Students will consider the social and political implications of human exploration, together with the science behind space travel and the historical development of the NASA space program in particular. Literature and films will be treated as texts, illustrating key elements of written craftsmanship such as word choice, style, structure, and narrative.

*Four credit hours.*

**W1.**

**PH141f Foundations of Mechanics**A calculus-based survey of classical Newtonian mechanics, including kinematics, forces, work and energy, momentum, gravity, oscillations, and waves. These topics are developed further in discussions, labs, and problem-solving assignments. May not be taken for credit if the student has earned credit for Physics 143.

*Prerequisite:*A working knowledge of high school or college calculus, or concurrent enrollment in Mathematics 121 or 161.

*Four credit hours.*

**N, Lb.**McCoy

**PH143f Honors Physics**An accelerated, calculus-based, introductory course on Newtonian mechanics supplemented with some coverage of additional special topics. Intended for students who have had substantial courses in physics and calculus in high school. Topics in Newtonian mechanics include kinematics, dynamics, conservation laws, oscillations, and waves. Additional topics include special relativity and nuclear physics. Students acquire knowledge in these areas and skills for solving mathematical problems and doing laboratory work. May not be taken for credit if the student has earned credit for Physics 141.

*Four credit hours.*

**N, Lb.**Bluhm

**PH145s Foundations of Electromagnetism and Optics**Explores the foundations of electrical and magnetic forces, electromagnetic waves, and optics. Students will learn how electric and magnetic fields are described mathematically, how they are interrelated, and how the interrelations lead to a wide variety of physical phenomena. Practical applications in electric circuits and optical devices are explored. These topics are developed further in discussions, laboratory exercises, and out-of-class assignments.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 141 or 143, and Mathematics 102, 121, or 161.

*Four credit hours.*

**N, Lb.**Conover

**PH231f Introduction to Astrophysics**Listed as Astronomy 231.

*Four credit hours.*

**N, Lb.**McGrath

**PH241f Modern Physics I**An introduction to the two central paradigms of non-Newtonian physics: Einstein's special theory of relativity and the quantum behavior of light and matter. The postulates of Einstein are presented and the consequences explored theoretically along with experimental evidence for relativity. The experimental evidence for quantum mechanics is considered from a historical perspective, beginning with Planck's quantum hypothesis for blackbody radiation through to the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom and the experimental evidence for the Schrödinger equation. Students will acquire skills in solving mathematical problems, advanced laboratory work, and scientific writing. Lecture, discussion, and laboratory. Students must be available for a self-scheduled lab outside of class time for approximately three hours every second week.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 145 and Mathematics 122 or 162.

*Four credit hours.*Conover

**PH242s Modern Physics II**An intermediate-level introduction to quantum mechanics and atomic physics. Topics include the Schrödinger equation, interpretation of the wave function, one-dimensional potentials, hydrogen atom, electron spin, exclusion principle, atomic structure, and atomic spectra. Lectures, discussions, and labs. Enrolled students must be available for a self-scheduled lab outside of class time for approximately three hours every second week.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 241.

*Four credit hours.*Bluhm

**PH253j Electronic Measurement in the Sciences**Electronic measurements are used in all of the sciences as well as interdisciplinary research areas such as environmental science. Provides an introduction to experiment control and measurement instrumentation using modern electronics. Emphasizes laboratory work and includes design and implementation of electronic measurement and signal processing methods. Advanced analysis techniques will be introduced. Normally offered every other year.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 145.

*Three credit hours.*Tiernan

**PH311s Classical Mechanics**Newton's laws, oscillatory motion, noninertial reference systems, classical gravitation, motion of rigid bodies, and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. Lecture and discussion.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 145 and Mathematics 122 or 162.

*Four credit hours.*Chakdar

**PH312s Physics of Fluids**All living things, from the smallest cells to the largest communities, are soaking in or swimming through the fluid environment of liquids and gases that covers the planet. Our understanding of fluid motion helps us build better airplanes, debate climate change, and discover new design principles in biology. We will view this subject as an exciting, interdisciplinary opportunity to see the laws of physics in action. Emphasis will be on a core set of basic concepts and mathematical tools used to describe fluids and explore a range of applications drawn from biology, chemistry, geophysics, and engineering.

*Prerequisite:*Mathematics 262 and Physics 242.

*Four credit hours.*McCoy

**PH321f Electricity and Magnetism**A theoretical treatment of electrostatics and magnetostatics in vacuum and material media through Maxwell's equations. Lecture and discussion.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 145 and Mathematics 262.

*Four credit hours.*Kocevski

**PH332f Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics**Examines the concepts of temperature, energy, heat, work, and entropy. Thermodynamic relations between these quantities are studied from both a microscopic and macroscopic point of view. The laws of thermodynamics are developed from an underlying statistical treatment. Topics such as heat flows, heat engines, phase transitions, chemical reactions, Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics, and blackbody radiation are discussed. Lecture and discussion.

*Prerequisite:*Mathematics 122 (or 162) and either Physics 242 (may be taken concurrently) or Chemistry 342 (may be taken concurrently).

*Four credit hours.*McGrath

**[PH333] Experimental Soft Matter Physics**An introduction to scientific research, focusing on soft matter physics and nonlinear science. Uses advanced experimental topics such as Brownian motion, pattern formation, hydrodynamic instabilities, and chaos to provide basic training in modern interdisciplinary research methods. Strong emphasis will be placed on the use of computers and computer programming, image analysis, wet lab techniques, and other broadly applicable skills, including the reading and writing of scientific research articles.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 242 and Mathematics 262.

*Four credit hours.*

**[PH334] Experimental Atomic Physics**Laboratory projects in modern atomic, molecular, and optical (AMO) physics. Experiments include observing the Zeeman effect in mercury using a grating spectrometer, Doppler-free diode laser spectroscopy, and magneto-optical trapping of rubidium atoms. Through these and other projects, students will learn cutting-edge techniques of modern AMO physics. In addition they will become familiar with, and be expected to engage in, communication of results both orally and in written form. Laboratory and tutorial. Some out-of-class participation required.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 242.

*Three credit hours.*

**[PH335] General Relativity and Cosmology**An introduction to Einstein's general theory of relativity, including a treatment of tensor analysis, Einstein's equations, Schwarzschild metric, black holes, expansion of the universe, and cosmology.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 241.

*Four credit hours.*

**[PH338] Nuclear and Particle Physics**An overview of nuclear and particle physics. Topics in nuclear physics include radioactivity, nuclear reactions and decays, and nuclear models. In particle physics, topics include relativistic particle interactions, the strong and weak interactions, the standard model description of quarks, leptons, and gauge fields, and ideas for new physics that goes beyond the standard model.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 242.

*Four credit hours.*

**PH342s Galaxies and Cosmology**Listed as Astronomy 342.

*Four credit hours.*Kocevski

**PH401f, 402s Senior Physics and Astronomy Colloquium**A colloquium series with presentations by visiting scientists, department faculty, and senior physics majors. Visitors and faculty present their current research. Seniors present formal oral presentations on their senior projects or honors theses. Non-graded.

*One credit hour for the year.*

*Noncredit.*Bluhm

**PH415f, 416js Physics and Astronomy Research**A guided research project on a topic in physics, astronomy, or a related area. Students may choose from a range of approaches, including literature searches, analytical and computational analyses, experimental data collection and analysis, and theoretical investigation. Some project components can be conducted off campus or as part of a team project. Physics 415 is required for all senior physics majors.

*One or two credit hours.*Faculty

**PH431f Quantum Mechanics**Study of the structure and interpretation of quantum mechanics at an advanced level. Quantum states and observables are described in terms of abstract state vectors and operators. Students learn about representations of state vectors and operators in terms of wave functions and differential operators in addition to the tools of linear algebra: vectors and matrices. We will approach the abstract representation of quantum objects using the concrete example of spin-1/2 particles and photons to provide insight into fundamental principles. Deep issues concerning the nature of locality and realism are explored. Weekly discussions and problem-solving assignments are used to clarify concepts. Should be taken by students intending to go to graduate school in physics or a related area.

*Prerequisite:*Physics 242 and Mathematics 253.

*Four credit hours.*Chakdar

**PH483fj Independent Honors Project**Research conducted under the guidance of a faculty member and focused on an approved topic leading to the writing of an honors thesis.

*Two to four credit hours.*Faculty

**PH491f, 492s Independent Study**Individual topics or research in areas where the student has demonstrated the interest and competence necessary for independent work.

*Prerequisite:*Permission of the instructor.

*One to five credit hours.*Faculty