Physical Chemistry Lecture Notes

for T. W. Shattuck, Physical Chemistry

Thermodynamics, Electrochemistry, and Equilibrium

Most of the lecture notes have the same format: formula lines for the proofs but without the reasons for each step. Room is provided in the right-hand column for you to fill in with the reasons each step was taken. In this way you can concentrate on the flow of the proofs and the meaning of each formula and not worry about copying down each formula correctly for your notes.

Reactivity, Ch. 1 and 2

Barometric Formula
First-Order Homogeneous Differential Equations, General Pattern P1
Concentration Measures, Molarity, Molality, Mole Fraction
Absorption Spectrsocopy, Beer-Lambert Law
Electrolytic Conductivity
Electric Flux
Absorbance of Mixtures
Linear Curve Fitting
Error Analysis
Excel linest function Excel 2007    Excel linest function (earlier versions)


1st and 2nd Order Reactions
Progress to Equilibrium
Exponential Temperature Dependence, e-E/RT
Temperature Jump Kinetics
Parallel Reactions-Competitive Reactions
Consecutive Reactions Reactions
Integrating Rate Laws Using the Finite Difference Approximation
Kinetics Mechanism Simulation Introduction
First Order Rate Laws and Stella
SN1 Mechanism
Pre-Equilibrium Mechanism - Michaelis - Menten Mechanisim
Chain Mechanisms
Briggs-Rauscher Oscillating Iodine Clock Mechanism
Unimolecular Reactions- Lindemann-Henshelwood Mechanism
Detailed Balance: Molecularity
Detailed Balance: Activation Energy for a Reaction Sequence
Dynamic NMR
Photochemical Steady State and Stern Volmer Quenching
Langmuir Adsorption
Formula Sheet 1


First Law

Kinetics of Thermal Transfer
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Van der Waals Liquifaction
Taylor Series and the Virial Equation
Basic Derivatives, Isothermal Compressibility and Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Integrating the Basic Derivatives
Non PV Work
Meaning of the Reaction Enthalpy
Temperature Dependence of the Enthalpy of Reaction
Equipartition Theorem Predictions for Internal Energy and Cv
Normal Mode Analysis
Joule-Thomson Expansion
Partial Derivative Conversion
First Law and Ideal Gases

Entropy and Free Energy

Entropy (Chapter 10)
Entropy, Temperature, and Heat Transfer
Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy (Chapter 11)
Carnot Cycle
Ideal Gas Carnot Cycle
Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy
Statistical Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy (Chapter 12)
Entropy and Probability
Boltzmann Distribution and the Most Proable State
The Thermodynamic Definition of Temperature: b=1/kT
The Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy
Entropy and Applications
The Second Law: Entropy and the Clausius Inequality
Ideal Gas Entropy Changes
Entropy and Phase Transitions
Absolute Entropy
Temperature Dependence of the Reaction Entropy
Entropy and Spontaneous Processes
Entropy and the Surroundings for the Ideal Gas
Spontaneity and the Foundations of Thermodynamics: Free Energy
Thermodynamic Potential Functions
Foundations of Thermodynamics
Thermodynamic Equations of State
Chemical Potential
Thermodynamics of Mixing of Ideal Gases
Non-PV work and Gibbs Free Energy
Formula Sheet 2
The Fine Arts and Science

Phase Equilibria

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation
Ehrenfest Criteria, Second Order Phase Transitions


Concentration Measures, Molarity, Molality, Mole Fraction
Chemical Potentials in Solution
Boiling Point Elevation
Osmotic Pressure
Variable Pressure and Temperature Distillation
Gibb's Phase Rule
Hammett Free Energy Relationships
Isonarcotic Activity of Esters, Alcohols, Ketones, and Ethers
Visual Approach to Activity Coefficients and Henry's Law Standard States
Henry's Law constants and Free Energies of solvation
Activity of a Non-Volatile Solute: Osmotic Coefficient
Activities of Ions in Solution
Debye-Huckel Theory
Gibbs Free Energy of Solvation and the Poisson Equation
Debye-Huckel Theory: Dilute Point Charge in a Continuum Dielectric
Poisson-Boltzmann Equation

Chemical Equilibrium

Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Equilibrium
Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant, Kp
Temperature Dependence of the Equilibrium Constant, Kp, and Entropy
Standard States and Different Concentration Measures
Molarity vs. Molality Standard States
Equilibria with Pure Liquids and Solids and the Solvent in Dilute Solution
Biochemist's Standard State

Electrochemistry and Electrolyte Solutions

Photosynthesis Z-scheme
Ionic Activities from Electrochemical Cells
Metal Insoluble Salt Electrodes
Standard Reduction Potentials

Formula Sheet 3

For more information or corrections contact Tom Shattuck at

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Last modified: 4/28/2013