Impressionism and Gibbs' Free Energy

Before Impressionism
The music of the time is well represented by Alexander Borodin. Borodin was a famous chemist as well as composer. The first and second movements of his first string quartet:

Abstract Art and Quantum Mechanics

These three short pieces by Anton Webern are examples of "klangsfarben musik" or tone-color music. They show that the musical community was also searching for the inner-core and inner meaning of their art: