2,2-dimethylbutane radical cation, (CH3)3CCH2CH3+

H6H5
\ |
H10H12C3 - H4
\ / /
H20H11 - C9C2 - H8
\ | / \
H18 - C17 - C1H7
/ |
H19H16 - C13 - H15
\
H14
The ion charge is 1. The multiplicity is 2.

Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.498
C2 charge=-0.018
C3 charge=-0.399
H4 charge= 0.219
H5 charge= 0.165
H6 charge= 0.165
H7 charge= 0.138
H8 charge= 0.138
C9 charge=-0.581
H10 charge= 0.204
H11 charge= 0.227
H12 charge= 0.195
C13 charge=-0.721
H14 charge= 0.224
H15 charge= 0.225
H16 charge= 0.268
C17 charge=-0.579
H18 charge= 0.226
H19 charge= 0.205
H20 charge= 0.195
with a dipole moment of 3.80730 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=2.048 ang___ between C1 and C9: distance=1.503 ang___
between C1 and C13: distance=1.504 ang___ between C1 and C17: distance=1.503 ang___
between C2 and C3: distance=1.477 ang___ between C2 and H7: distance=1.099 ang___
between C2 and H8: distance=1.099 ang___ between C3 and H4: distance=1.122 ang___
between C3 and H5: distance=1.103 ang___ between C3 and H6: distance=1.103 ang___
between C9 and H10: distance=1.104 ang___ between C9 and H11: distance=1.114 ang___
between C9 and H12: distance=1.102 ang___ between C13 and H14: distance=1.103 ang___
between C13 and H15: distance=1.103 ang___ between C13 and H16: distance=1.114 ang___
between C17 and H18: distance=1.114 ang___ between C17 and H19: distance=1.103 ang___
between C17 and H20: distance=1.102 ang___

Bond Angles:

for C3-C2-C1: angle=113.5 deg___ for H4-C3-C2: angle=104.6 deg___
for H5-C3-C2: angle=114.5 deg___ for H6-C3-C2: angle=114.5 deg___
for H7-C2-C1: angle=94.07 deg___ for H8-C2-C1: angle=94.27 deg___
for C9-C1-C2: angle=100.8 deg___ for H10-C9-C1: angle=113.4 deg___
for H11-C9-C1: angle=106.3 deg___ for H12-C9-C1: angle=113.5 deg___
for C13-C1-C2: angle=99.25 deg___ for H14-C13-C1: angle=113.4 deg___
for H15-C13-C1: angle=113.6 deg___ for H16-C13-C1: angle=106.6 deg___
for C17-C1-C2: angle=101.1 deg___ for H18-C17-C1: angle=106.3 deg___
for H19-C17-C1: angle=113.5 deg___ for H20-C17-C1: angle=113.5 deg___

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Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.469___ between C1 and C9: order=0.959___
between C1 and C13: order=0.956___ between C1 and C17: order=0.959___
between C2 and C3: order=0.954___ between C2 and H7: order=0.946___
between C2 and H8: order=0.946___ between C3 and H4: order=0.931___
between C3 and H5: order=0.966___ between C3 and H6: order=0.966___
between C9 and H10: order=0.966___ between C9 and H11: order=0.944___
between C9 and H12: order=0.968___ between C13 and H14: order=0.966___
between C13 and H15: order=0.966___ between C13 and H16: order=0.947___
between C17 and H18: order=0.944___ between C17 and H19: order=0.966___
between C17 and H20: order=0.968___

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Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.*

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9909 electrons
__has 49.41% C 1 character in a sp2.27 hybrid
__has 50.59% C 2 character in a sp2.00 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9905 electrons
__has 49.58% C 1 character in a sp2.27 hybrid
__has 50.42% C 6 character in a sp2.00 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9909 electrons
__has 49.43% C 1 character in a sp2.26 hybrid
__has 50.57% C10 character in a sp2.00 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-C14 with 0.9670 electrons
__has 42.36% C 1 character in a s0.28 p3 hybrid
__has 57.64% C14 character in a s0.50 p3 hybrid

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.53% C 2 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.47% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9848 electrons
__has 60.13% C 2 character in a s0.75 p3 hybrid
__has 39.87% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.64% C 2 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 39.36% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.54% C 6 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.46% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.57% C 6 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.43% H 8 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9847 electrons
__has 60.25% C 6 character in a s0.76 p3 hybrid
__has 39.75% H 9 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9847 electrons
__has 60.13% C10 character in a s0.75 p3 hybrid
__has 39.87% H11 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9920 electrons
__has 60.55% C10 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.45% H12 character in a s orbital

13. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.64% C10 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 39.36% H13 character in a s orbital

14. A bonding orbital for C14-C15 with 0.9972 electrons
__has 50.98% C14 character in a sp1.89 hybrid
__has 49.02% C15 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

15. A bonding orbital for C14-H19 with 0.9928 electrons
__has 60.32% C14 character in a sp2.88 hybrid
__has 39.68% H19 character in a s orbital

16. A bonding orbital for C14-H20 with 0.9928 electrons
__has 60.33% C14 character in a sp2.88 hybrid
__has 39.67% H20 character in a s orbital

17. A bonding orbital for C15-H16 with 0.9868 electrons
__has 60.12% C15 character in a s0.76 p3 hybrid
__has 39.88% H16 character in a s orbital

18. A bonding orbital for C15-H17 with 0.9941 electrons
__has 60.48% C15 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 39.52% H17 character in a s orbital

19. A bonding orbital for C15-H18 with 0.9941 electrons
__has 60.49% C15 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 39.51% H18 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 C14 C15 -

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Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for C1-C2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 366, for C6-H8 is 5.27 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for C1-C2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 369, for C10-H12 is 5.23 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 2, for C1-C6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 364, for C2-H5 is 5.27 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 2, for C1-C6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 370, for C10-H13 is 5.23 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-C10 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 362, for C2-H3 is 5.18 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-C10 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 365, for C6-H7 is 5.23 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 362, for C2-H3 is 1.12 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 363, for C2-H4 is 12.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 367, for C6-H9 is 11.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 368, for C10-H11 is 12.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 369, for C10-H12 is 1.08 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-C14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 374, for C15-H16 is 8.36 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 360, for C1-C10 is 16.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 1.08 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 24.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 7, for C2-H5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 359, for C1-C6 is 15.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C6-H7 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 360, for C1-C10 is 15.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C6-H8 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 358, for C1-C2 is 15.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 10, for C6-H9 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 24.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 11, for C10-H11 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 24.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 12, for C10-H12 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 358, for C1-C2 is 16.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 12, for C10-H12 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 1.04 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 13, for C10-H13 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 359, for C1-C6 is 15.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 13, for C10-H13 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 1.04 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 15, for C14-H19 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 360, for C1-C10 is 2.46 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 15, for C14-H19 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 376, for C15-H18 is 8.40 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 16, for C14-H20 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 358, for C1-C2 is 2.42 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 16, for C14-H20 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 375, for C15-H17 is 8.40 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 17, for C15-H16 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 361, for C1-C14 is 18.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 18, for C15-H17 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 373, for C14-H20 is 10.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 19, for C15-H18 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 372, for C14-H19 is 10.0 kJ/mol.

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Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

29 ----- -2.627

28 ----- -2.925

27 ----- -3.615


26 ----- -6.234


25 -^--- -11.45


24 -^-v- -13.56
23 -^-v- -13.58
22 -^-v- -13.61

21 -^-v- -13.82

20 -^-v- -14.09
19 -^-v- -14.17

18 -^-v- -14.56

17 -^-v- -15.13

16 -^-v- -15.85

15 -^-v- -16.03

14 -^-v- -16.48

13 -^-v- -16.63


12 -^-v- -18.15


11 -^-v- -20.23


10 -^-v- -22.04
9 -^-v- -22.07


8 -^-v- -23.96


7 -^-v- -25.67


6 -^-v- -271.0
5 -^-v- -271.1 4 -^-v- -271.1

3 -^-v- -271.2


2 -^-v- -272.9

1 -^-v- -273.4

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Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -236.8007139879 Hartrees

*The calculation of the best Lewis Structure (NBO analysis) was done without diffuse functions to save time.

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