H6 H10 H9 | | / C5 C8 - H11 H3 | \ | / H7 C1 - N2 | | H12 H4
The multiplicity is 2.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.649
N2 charge=-0.964
H3 charge= 0.367
H4 charge= 0.364
C5 charge=-0.750
H6 charge= 0.220
H7 charge= 0.210
C8 charge=-0.574
H9 charge= 0.168
H10 charge= 0.135
H11 charge= 0.144
H12 charge= 0.028
with a dipole moment of 0.86355 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and N2: distance=1.509 ang___ between C1 and C5: distance=1.496 ang___
between C1 and C8: distance=1.536 ang___ between C1 and H12: distance=1.107 ang___
between N2 and H3: distance=1.029 ang___ between N2 and H4: distance=1.027 ang___
between N2 and C5: distance=2.460 ang___ between N2 and C8: distance=2.468 ang___
between N2 and H12: distance=2.098 ang___ between C5 and H6: distance=1.098 ang___
between C5 and H7: distance=1.095 ang___ between C5 and C8: distance=2.533 ang___
between C5 and H12: distance=2.150 ang___ between C8 and H9: distance=1.107 ang___
between C8 and H10: distance=1.103 ang___ between C8 and H11: distance=1.103 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-N2-C1: angle=109.1 deg___ for H4-N2-C1: angle=109.9 deg___
for C5-C1-N2: angle=109.9 deg___ for H6-C5-C1: angle=119.6 deg___
for H7-C5-C1: angle=120.9 deg___ for C8-C1-C5: angle=113.3 deg___
for H9-C8-C1: angle=110.5 deg___ for H10-C8-C1: angle=110.9 deg___
for H11-C8-C1: angle=110.2 deg___ for H12-C1-N2: angle=105.6 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and N2: order=0.852___ between C1 and C5: order=0.943___
between C1 and C8: order=0.956___ between C1 and H12: order=1.025___
between N2 and H3: order=0.940___ between N2 and H4: order=0.933___
between N2 and C5: order=-0.162___ between N2 and C8: order=-0.073___
between N2 and H12: order=-0.053___ between C5 and H6: order=0.937___
between C5 and H7: order=0.953___ between C5 and C8: order=-0.081___
between C5 and H12: order=-0.053___ between C8 and H9: order=0.966___
between C8 and H10: order=0.987___ between C8 and H11: order=0.979___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

#### Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-N2 with 0.9971 electrons
__has 39.33% C 1 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid
__has 60.67% N 2 character in a sp2.17 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C5 with 0.9970 electrons
__has 50.31% C 1 character in a sp2.60 hybrid
__has 49.69% C 5 character in a sp1.80 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C8 with 0.9955 electrons
__has 51.10% C 1 character in a sp2.53 hybrid
__has 48.90% C 8 character in a sp2.56 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H12 with 0.9893 electrons
__has 58.10% C 1 character in a s0.82 p3 hybrid
__has 41.90% H12 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for N2-H3 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 67.39% N 2 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 32.61% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for N2-H4 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 67.61% N 2 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 32.39% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C5-H6 with 0.9956 electrons
__has 60.02% C 5 character in a sp2.18 hybrid
__has 39.98% H 6 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C5-H7 with 0.9957 electrons
__has 60.26% C 5 character in a sp2.15 hybrid
__has 39.74% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C8-H9 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 58.82% C 8 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.18% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C8-H10 with 0.9956 electrons
__has 59.30% C 8 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.70% H10 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C8-H11 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 59.92% C 8 character in a s0.96 p3 hybrid
__has 40.08% H11 character in a s orbital

16. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 0.9901 electrons
__made from a s0.72 p3 hybrid

17. A lone pair orbital for C5 with 0.9738 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 N 2 C 5 C 8 -

#### Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-N2 with 0.9890 electrons
__has 43.66% C 1 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 56.34% N 2 character in a sp2.67 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C5 with 0.9965 electrons
__has 55.34% C 1 character in a sp2.49 hybrid
__has 44.66% C 5 character in a sp1.80 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C8 with 0.9946 electrons
__has 51.95% C 1 character in a sp2.62 hybrid
__has 48.05% C 8 character in a sp2.58 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H12 with 0.9884 electrons
__has 59.02% C 1 character in a s0.79 p3 hybrid
__has 40.98% H12 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for N2-H3 with 0.9958 electrons
__has 66.78% N 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 33.22% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for N2-H4 with 0.9957 electrons
__has 67.01% N 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 32.99% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C5-H6 with 0.9967 electrons
__has 54.61% C 5 character in a sp2.13 hybrid
__has 45.39% H 6 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C5-H7 with 0.9967 electrons
__has 54.85% C 5 character in a sp2.10 hybrid
__has 45.15% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C8-H9 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 58.69% C 8 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.31% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C8-H10 with 0.9954 electrons
__has 59.17% C 8 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.83% H10 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C8-H11 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 59.92% C 8 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 40.08% H11 character in a s orbital

16. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 0.9775 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 N 2 C 5 C 8 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

21 ----- 2.264
20 ----- 2.112
19 ----- 1.935

18 ----- 1.188

17 -^--- -4.430

16 -^-v- -6.317

15 -^-v- -8.182

14 -^-v- -8.793

13 -^-v- -8.952

12 -^-v- -10.09

11 -^-v- -10.68

10 -^-v- -11.07

9 -^-v- -12.31

8 -^-v- -14.10

7 -^-v- -16.50

6 -^-v- -18.38

5 -^-v- -22.02

4 -^-v- -265.9

3 -^-v- -266.4

2 -^-v- -267.2

1 -^-v- -377.1

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -173.8768236550 Hartrees