## 2-methylpropane radical cation, (CH3)3CH+•, (CH3)2CHCH3+•

 H8 / H7 - C6 H14 H3 | \ | / H9 C1 - C2 / | \ H11 - C10 H4 H5 | \ H13 H12
The ion charge is 1. The multiplicity is 2.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.336
C2 charge=-0.644
H3 charge= 0.227
H4 charge= 0.244
H5 charge= 0.271
C6 charge=-0.522
H7 charge= 0.220
H8 charge= 0.220
H9 charge= 0.278
C10 charge=-0.650
H11 charge= 0.229
H12 charge= 0.272
H13 charge= 0.246
H14 charge= 0.270
with a dipole moment of 2.43141 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.498 ang___ between C1 and C6: distance=1.576 ang___
between C1 and C10: distance=1.498 ang___ between C1 and H14: distance=1.179 ang___
between C2 and H3: distance=1.101 ang___ between C2 and H4: distance=1.110 ang___
between C2 and H5: distance=1.119 ang___ between C2 and C10: distance=2.581 ang___
between C6 and H7: distance=1.101 ang___ between C6 and H8: distance=1.101 ang___
between C6 and H9: distance=1.125 ang___ between C6 and H14: distance=1.885 ang___
between C10 and H11: distance=1.101 ang___ between C10 and H12: distance=1.118 ang___
between C10 and H13: distance=1.111 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=113.4 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=112.1 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=109.8 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=116.6 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=113.7 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=113.5 deg___
for H9-C6-C1: angle=100.3 deg___ for C10-C1-C2: angle=118.9 deg___
for H11-C10-C1: angle=113.4 deg___ for H12-C10-C1: angle=109.9 deg___
for H13-C10-C1: angle=112.0 deg___ for H14-C1-C2: angle=105.9 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.999___ between C1 and C6: order=0.768___
between C1 and C10: order=0.997___ between C1 and H14: order=0.611___
between C2 and H3: order=0.939___ between C2 and H4: order=0.934___
between C2 and H5: order=0.930___ between C2 and C10: order=-0.067___
between C6 and H7: order=0.937___ between C6 and H8: order=0.937___
between C6 and H9: order=0.859___ between C6 and H14: order=0.063___
between C10 and H11: order=0.938___ between C10 and H12: order=0.931___
between C10 and H13: order=0.934___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

#### Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9955 electrons
__has 53.75% C 1 character in a sp2.18 hybrid
__has 46.25% C 2 character in a sp2.38 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9944 electrons
__has 51.98% C 1 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 48.02% C 6 character in a sp2.66 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9955 electrons
__has 53.75% C 1 character in a sp2.18 hybrid
__has 46.25% C10 character in a sp2.38 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H14 with 0.9830 electrons
__has 59.17% C 1 character in a s0.45 p3 hybrid
__has 40.83% H14 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9948 electrons
__has 61.45% C 2 character in a sp2.99 hybrid
__has 38.55% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9929 electrons
__has 61.51% C 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 38.49% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9929 electrons
__has 60.76% C 2 character in a s0.83 p3 hybrid
__has 39.24% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 62.79% C 6 character in a sp2.77 hybrid
__has 37.21% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 62.79% C 6 character in a sp2.77 hybrid
__has 37.21% H 8 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9966 electrons
__has 60.19% C 6 character in a s0.74 p3 hybrid
__has 39.81% H 9 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9948 electrons
__has 61.45% C10 character in a sp2.98 hybrid
__has 38.55% H11 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9930 electrons
__has 60.80% C10 character in a s0.83 p3 hybrid
__has 39.20% H12 character in a s orbital

13. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 0.9929 electrons
__has 61.48% C10 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 38.52% H13 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

#### Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 52.09% C 1 character in a sp2.07 hybrid
__has 47.91% C 2 character in a sp2.34 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.8804 electrons
__has 65.26% C 1 character in a sp1.87 hybrid
__has 34.74% C 6 character in a sp2.82 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 52.10% C 1 character in a sp2.07 hybrid
__has 47.90% C10 character in a sp2.34 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9949 electrons
__has 61.52% C 2 character in a s0.99 p3 hybrid
__has 38.48% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9724 electrons
__has 63.21% C 2 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 36.79% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9639 electrons
__has 63.57% C 2 character in a s0.85 p3 hybrid
__has 36.43% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 61.64% C 6 character in a sp2.92 hybrid
__has 38.36% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 61.63% C 6 character in a sp2.92 hybrid
__has 38.37% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.8797 electrons
__has 66.75% C 6 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 33.25% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9949 electrons
__has 61.52% C10 character in a s0.99 p3 hybrid
__has 38.48% H11 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9645 electrons
__has 63.56% C10 character in a s0.85 p3 hybrid
__has 36.44% H12 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 0.9712 electrons
__has 63.26% C10 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 36.74% H13 character in a s orbital

17. A lone pair orbital for C1 with 0.1921 electrons

18. A lone pair orbital for H14 with 0.1420 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H4 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 27.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H5 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 35.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C6-H9 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 135. kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 11, for C10-H12 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 34.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 12, for C10-H13 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 28.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 17, for C1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 146, for C1-C6 is 53.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for C1-C2 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for H14 is 17.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 2, for C1-C6 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for H14 is 324. kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-C10 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for H14 is 18.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C6-H9 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for H14 is 2.17 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 17, for C1 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for H14 is 420. kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 18, for H14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 146, for C1-C6 is 24.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 18, for H14 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 153, for C6-H9 is 5.10 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

21 ----- -2.722

20 ----- -3.004

19 ----- -3.461

18 ----- -4.806

17 -^--- -13.21

16 -^-v- -14.41

15 -^-v- -14.51

14 -^-v- -14.72

13 -^-v- -15.01

12 -^-v- -15.41

11 -^-v- -16.70

10 -^-v- -16.86

9 -^-v- -17.75

8 -^-v- -20.01

7 -^-v- -22.78

6 -^-v- -23.08

5 -^-v- -26.57

4 -^-v- -271.8 3 -^-v- -271.8

2 -^-v- -272.7

1 -^-v- -274.0

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -158.1235078327 Hartrees