(CH3)2CHCH2OH, 2-methylpropanol

H10H11
\ |
H6H7C3 - H12
\ | /
C1 - C2H14
/ | \ |
H8H9C4 - H13
/
H15 - O5
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge=-0.554
C2 charge= 0.358
C3 charge=-0.640
C4 charge= 0.042
O5 charge=-0.641
H6 charge= 0.147
H7 charge= 0.144
H8 charge= 0.114
H9 charge= 0.017
H10 charge= 0.176
H11 charge= 0.153
H12 charge= 0.135
H13 charge= 0.100
H14 charge= 0.032
H15 charge= 0.412
with a dipole moment of 1.84940 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.541 ang___ between C1 and C3: distance=2.545 ang___
between C1 and C4: distance=2.550 ang___ between C1 and H6: distance=1.104 ang___
between C1 and H7: distance=1.108 ang___ between C1 and H8: distance=1.106 ang___
between C2 and C3: distance=1.542 ang___ between C2 and C4: distance=1.542 ang___
between C2 and O5: distance=2.505 ang___ between C2 and H9: distance=1.109 ang___
between C3 and C4: distance=2.522 ang___ between C3 and H10: distance=1.104 ang___
between C3 and H11: distance=1.107 ang___ between C3 and H12: distance=1.105 ang___
between C4 and O5: distance=1.444 ang___ between C4 and H13: distance=1.106 ang___
between C4 and H14: distance=1.113 ang___ between O5 and H15: distance=0.975 ang___

Bond Angles:

for C3-C2-C1: angle=111.2 deg___ for C4-C2-C1: angle=111.6 deg___
for O5-C4-C2: angle=113.9 deg___ for H6-C1-C2: angle=111.2 deg___
for H7-C1-C2: angle=111.0 deg___ for H8-C1-C2: angle=111.8 deg___
for H9-C2-C1: angle=108.3 deg___ for H10-C3-C2: angle=111.1 deg___
for H11-C3-C2: angle=110.9 deg___ for H12-C3-C2: angle=111.6 deg___
for H13-C4-C2: angle=109.6 deg___ for H14-C4-C2: angle=109.5 deg___
for H15-O5-C4: angle=107.9 deg___

Top of page.

Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.909___ between C1 and C3: order=-0.113___
between C1 and C4: order=-0.126___ between C1 and H6: order=0.977___
between C1 and H7: order=0.971___ between C1 and H8: order=0.995___
between C2 and C3: order=0.918___ between C2 and C4: order=0.944___
between C2 and O5: order=0.061___ between C2 and H9: order=0.919___
between C3 and C4: order=-0.065___ between C3 and H10: order=0.987___
between C3 and H11: order=0.977___ between C3 and H12: order=0.974___
between C4 and O5: order=0.815___ between C4 and H13: order=0.983___
between C4 and H14: order=0.980___ between O5 and H15: order=0.866___

Top of page.

Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 1.9901 electrons
__has 49.24% C 1 character in a sp2.45 hybrid
__has 50.76% C 2 character in a sp2.69 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-H6 with 1.9925 electrons
__has 59.52% C 1 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.48% H 6 character in a s orbital

3. A bonding orbital for C1-H7 with 1.9925 electrons
__has 58.91% C 1 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 41.09% H 7 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H8 with 1.9923 electrons
__has 59.03% C 1 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 40.97% H 8 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-C3 with 1.9874 electrons
__has 51.07% C 2 character in a sp2.70 hybrid
__has 48.93% C 3 character in a sp2.47 hybrid

6. A bonding orbital for C2-C4 with 1.9889 electrons
__has 50.95% C 2 character in a sp2.94 hybrid
__has 49.05% C 4 character in a sp2.34 hybrid

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H9 with 1.9755 electrons
__has 58.92% C 2 character in a s0.79 p3 hybrid
__has 41.08% H 9 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C3-H10 with 1.9924 electrons
__has 59.39% C 3 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.61% H10 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C3-H11 with 1.9924 electrons
__has 58.98% C 3 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 41.02% H11 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C3-H12 with 1.9923 electrons
__has 59.29% C 3 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.71% H12 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C4-O5 with 1.9957 electrons
__has 33.47% C 4 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid
__has 66.53% O 5 character in a sp2.45 hybrid

12. A bonding orbital for C4-H13 with 1.9870 electrons
__has 58.24% C 4 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.76% H13 character in a s orbital

13. A bonding orbital for C4-H14 with 1.9907 electrons
__has 57.11% C 4 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 42.89% H14 character in a s orbital

14. A bonding orbital for O5-H15 with 1.9905 electrons
__has 73.01% O 5 character in a s0.78 p3 hybrid
__has 26.99% H15 character in a s orbital

20. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.9861 electrons
__made from a sp0.98 hybrid

21. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.9692 electrons
__made from a p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 O 5 -

Top of page.

Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 21, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 172, for C2-C4 is 35.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 21, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 179, for C4-H14 is 26.9 kJ/mol.

Top of page.

Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

25 ----- 2.061
24 ----- 1.886

23 ----- 1.322

22 ----- 0.524


21 -^-v- -6.233


20 -^-v- -7.599

19 -^-v- -8.046

18 -^-v- -8.300

17 -^-v- -8.934

16 -^-v- -9.205

15 -^-v- -9.496

14 -^-v- -10.48

13 -^-v- -10.90

12 -^-v- -11.16


11 -^-v- -12.64


10 -^-v- -13.89


9 -^-v- -16.46

8 -^-v- -16.88


7 -^-v- -19.71


6 -^-v- -25.08


5 -^-v- -266.1
4 -^-v- -266.1

3 -^-v- -266.5

2 -^-v- -267.4


1 -^-v- -506.3

Top of page.

Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -233.7449754484 Hartrees

Top of page.

-> Return to Molecular Structure Page. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page