## C2Cl2 singlet carbene, Cl2C=C

 C3 \\ C1 - CL2 / CL4
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.107
CL2 charge= 0.062
C3 charge=-0.216
CL4 charge= 0.046
with a dipole moment of 1.93912 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and CL2: distance=1.720 ang___ between C1 and C3: distance=1.334 ang___
between C1 and CL4: distance=1.769 ang___ between C3 and CL4: distance=2.477 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for C3-C1-CL2: angle=131.9 deg___ for CL4-C1-CL2: angle=123.0 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and CL2: order=0.793___ between C1 and C3: order=1.827___
between C1 and CL4: order=0.832___ between C3 and CL4: order=0.145___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl2 with 1.9935 electrons
__has 50.52% C 1 character in a sp2.09 hybrid
__has 49.48% Cl 2 character in a s0.56 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C3 with 1.9976 electrons
__has 59.42% C 1 character in a sp1.27 hybrid
__has 40.58% C 3 character in a sp2.28 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C3 with 1.9942 electrons
__has 60.71% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.81% p 0.19% d)
__has 39.29% C 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.55% p 0.45% d)

4. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl4 with 1.9739 electrons
__has 48.20% C 1 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 51.80% Cl 4 character in a s0.50 p3 hybrid

17. A lone pair orbital for Cl2 with 1.9904 electrons

18. A lone pair orbital for Cl2 with 1.9503 electrons

19. A lone pair orbital for Cl2 with 1.9489 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.97% p)

20. A lone pair orbital for C3 with 1.9751 electrons

22. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9933 electrons

23. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9697 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.98% p)

24. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9319 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 Cl 2 Cl 2 Cl 2 Cl 2 Cl 2 C 3 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-Cl4 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 21, for C3 is 58.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 17, for Cl2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 108, for C1-C3 is 20.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 18, for Cl2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 110, for C1-Cl4 is 64.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 19, for Cl2 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 109, for C1-C3 is 83.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 20, for C3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 107, for C1-Cl2 is 31.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 23, for Cl4 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 109, for C1-C3 is 48.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 24, for Cl4 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 21, for C3 is 41.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 24, for Cl4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 107, for C1-Cl2 is 39.6 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

27 ----- 0.534

26 ----- -1.671

25 ----- -2.114

24 ----- -5.235

23 -^-v- -6.905

22 -^-v- -7.596

21 -^-v- -9.022 20 -^-v- -9.023

19 -^-v- -9.458

18 -^-v- -10.83

17 -^-v- -12.79

16 -^-v- -14.03

15 -^-v- -18.77

14 -^-v- -22.11

13 -^-v- -23.87

12 -^-v- -191.7
11 -^-v- -191.8
10 -^-v- -191.8
9 -^-v- -191.9

8 -^-v- -192.2
7 -^-v- -192.3

6 -^-v- -250.2
5 -^-v- -250.3

4 -^-v- -268.9

3 -^-v- -269.9

2 -^-v- -2731.

1 -^-v- -2731.

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -996.5473380645 Hartrees