## CH2(OH)2, Formaldehyde hydrate

 H4 | O3 / H7 - O1 - C2 | \ H5 H6
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

O1 charge=-0.647
C2 charge= 0.412
O3 charge=-0.647
H4 charge= 0.412
H5 charge= 0.098
H6 charge=-0.043
H7 charge= 0.413
with a dipole moment of 3.04707 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between O1 and C2: distance=1.428 ang___ between O1 and H7: distance=0.975 ang___
between C2 and O3: distance=1.428 ang___ between C2 and H5: distance=1.102 ang___
between C2 and H6: distance=1.111 ang___ between O3 and H4: distance=0.975 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for O3-C2-O1: angle=114.0 deg___ for H4-O3-C2: angle=109.2 deg___
for H5-C2-O1: angle=105.6 deg___ for H6-C2-O1: angle=110.5 deg___
for H7-O1-C2: angle=109.2 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between O1 and C2: order=0.869___ between O1 and H7: order=0.877___
between C2 and O3: order=0.871___ between C2 and H5: order=0.991___
between C2 and H6: order=0.996___ between O3 and H4: order=0.877___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for O1-C2 with 1.9963 electrons
__has 66.54% O 1 character in a sp2.53 hybrid
__has 33.46% C 2 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for O1-H7 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 73.02% O 1 character in a s0.81 p3 hybrid
__has 26.98% H 7 character in a s orbital

3. A bonding orbital for C2-O3 with 1.9963 electrons
__has 33.45% C 2 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 66.55% O 3 character in a sp2.54 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 1.9890 electrons
__has 58.00% C 2 character in a sp2.88 hybrid
__has 42.00% H 5 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H6 with 1.9937 electrons
__has 56.13% C 2 character in a sp2.86 hybrid
__has 43.87% H 6 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for O3-H4 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 73.02% O 3 character in a s0.81 p3 hybrid
__has 26.98% H 4 character in a s orbital

10. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9860 electrons

11. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9544 electrons

12. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.9862 electrons

13. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.9545 electrons

-With core pairs on: O 1 C 2 O 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 11, for O1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 93, for C2-O3 is 76.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 13, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 91, for O1-C2 is 76.3 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

17 ----- 3.150

16 ----- 2.322

15 ----- 1.226

14 ----- 0.013

13 -^-v- -6.909

12 -^-v- -7.066

11 -^-v- -8.405

10 -^-v- -9.031

9 -^-v- -11.27

8 -^-v- -12.89

7 -^-v- -13.25

6 -^-v- -16.79

5 -^-v- -24.76

4 -^-v- -26.28

3 -^-v- -268.9

2 -^-v- -506.7 1 -^-v- -506.7

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -191.0264248642 Hartrees