## COCl2, phosgene

 CL3 \ C1 = O2 / CL4
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.342
O2 charge=-0.265
CL3 charge=-0.039
CL4 charge=-0.038
with a dipole moment of 1.25180 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and O2: distance=1.193 ang___ between C1 and CL3: distance=1.776 ang___
between C1 and CL4: distance=1.775 ang___ between CL3 and CL4: distance=2.943 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for CL3-C1-O2: angle=123.9 deg___ for CL4-C1-O2: angle=124.1 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and O2: order=1.974___ between C1 and CL3: order=0.988___
between C1 and CL4: order=0.987___ between CL3 and CL4: order=-0.099___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-O2 with 1.9988 electrons
__has 33.86% C 1 character in a sp1.62 hybrid
__has 66.14% O 2 character in a sp1.29 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-O2 with 1.9985 electrons
__has 32.00% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.48% p 0.52% d)
__has 68.00% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.76% p 0.24% d)

3. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl3 with 1.9841 electrons
__has 46.59% C 1 character in a sp2.20 hybrid
__has 53.41% Cl 3 character in a s0.45 p3 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl4 with 1.9841 electrons
__has 46.62% C 1 character in a sp2.20 hybrid
__has 53.38% Cl 4 character in a s0.45 p3 hybrid

17. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9725 electrons

18. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.8210 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.85% p 0.15% d)

19. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9907 electrons

20. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9722 electrons

21. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9241 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.93% p 0.07% d)

22. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9907 electrons

23. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9720 electrons

24. A lone pair orbital for Cl4 with 1.9238 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.93% p 0.07% d)

108. A antibonding orbital for C1-O2 with 0.1439 electrons
__has 68.00% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.48% p 0.52% d)
__has 32.00% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.76% p 0.24% d)

109. A antibonding orbital for C1-Cl3 with 0.1164 electrons
__has 53.41% C 1 character in a sp2.20 hybrid
__has 46.59% Cl 3 character in a s0.45 p3 hybrid

110. A antibonding orbital for C1-Cl4 with 0.1159 electrons
__has 53.38% C 1 character in a sp2.20 hybrid
__has 46.62% Cl 4 character in a s0.45 p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: C 1 O 2 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 Cl 4 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 18, for O2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 109, for C1-Cl3 is 195. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 18, for O2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 110, for C1-Cl4 is 194. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 20, for Cl3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 107, for C1-O2 is 28.1 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 20, for Cl3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 110, for C1-Cl4 is 32.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 21, for Cl3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 108, for C1-O2 is 115. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 23, for Cl4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 107, for C1-O2 is 28.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 23, for Cl4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 109, for C1-Cl3 is 32.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 24, for Cl4 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 108, for C1-O2 is 115. kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

28 ----- 3.331

27 ----- 0.349

26 ----- -2.600

25 ----- -3.166

24 -^-v- -7.957

23 -^-v- -8.739

22 -^-v- -8.843

21 -^-v- -8.993

20 -^-v- -9.309

19 -^-v- -12.23

18 -^-v- -12.45

17 -^-v- -13.16

16 -^-v- -15.05

15 -^-v- -21.65

14 -^-v- -22.87

13 -^-v- -28.26

12 -^-v- -191.4 11 -^-v- -191.4
10 -^-v- -191.5
9 -^-v- -191.5

8 -^-v- -191.8
7 -^-v- -191.9

6 -^-v- -249.9
5 -^-v- -249.9

4 -^-v- -272.1

3 -^-v- -508.2

2 -^-v- -2731. 1 -^-v- -2731.

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -1033.8615884060 Hartrees