## ClCN

 CL3 - C1 E N2
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.254
N2 charge=-0.357
CL3 charge= 0.102
with a dipole moment of 2.95396 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and N2: distance=1.173 ang___ between C1 and CL3: distance=1.646 ang___
between N2 and CL3: distance=2.820 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for CL3-C1-N2: angle=179.9 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and N2: order=2.740___ between C1 and CL3: order=0.864___
between N2 and CL3: order=0.082___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-N2 with 1.9989 electrons
__has 43.36% C 1 character in a sp0.87 hybrid
__has 56.64% N 2 character in a sp1.23 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-N2 with 1.9970 electrons
__has 46.01% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.84% p 0.16% d)
__has 53.99% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.60% p 0.40% d)

3. A bonding orbital for C1-N2 with 1.9970 electrons
__has 46.01% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.84% p 0.16% d)
__has 53.99% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.60% p 0.40% d)

4. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl3 with 1.9975 electrons
__has 49.91% C 1 character in a sp1.15 hybrid
__has 50.09% Cl 3 character in a s0.59 p3 hybrid

12. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 1.9663 electrons

13. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9858 electrons

14. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9282 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.93% p 0.07% d)

15. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9282 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.93% p 0.07% d)

-With core pairs on: C 1 N 2 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 12, for N2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 79, for C1-Cl3 is 75.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 13, for Cl3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 76, for C1-N2 is 81.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 14, for Cl3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 77, for C1-N2 is 133. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 15, for Cl3 with the third antibonding acceptor orbital, 78, for C1-N2 is 133. kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

19 ----- 3.787

18 ----- -1.095 17 ----- -1.096

16 ----- -1.778

15 -^-v- -8.413 14 -^-v- -8.414

13 -^-v- -9.340

12 -^-v- -11.03 11 -^-v- -11.03

10 -^-v- -14.67

9 -^-v- -22.64

8 -^-v- -24.17

7 -^-v- -192.6 6 -^-v- -192.6

5 -^-v- -193.1

4 -^-v- -251.0

3 -^-v- -269.3

2 -^-v- -378.2

1 -^-v- -2732.

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -553.0889304256 Hartrees