## ClGa=O, ClGaO

 CL3 - GA1 = O2
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

GA1 charge= 0.516
O2 charge=-0.455
CL3 charge=-0.060
with a dipole moment of 3.09502 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between GA1 and O2: distance=1.674 ang___ between GA1 and CL3: distance=2.132 ang___
between O2 and CL3: distance=3.805 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for CL3-GA1-O2: angle=179.6 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between GA1 and O2: order=1.683___ between GA1 and CL3: order=1.181___
between O2 and CL3: order=-0.100___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for Ga1-O2 with 1.9655 electrons
__has 23.36% Ga 1 character in a sp0.62 hybrid
__has 76.64% O 2 character in a s0.49 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for Ga1-O2 with 1.9995 electrons
__has 5.36% Ga 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 97.36% p 2.63% d)
__has 94.64% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.85% p 0.15% d)

3. A bonding orbital for Ga1-O2 with 1.9995 electrons
__has 5.36% Ga 1 character in a p3 d0.08 hybrid
__has 94.64% O 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.85% p 0.15% d)

4. A bonding orbital for Ga1-Cl3 with 1.9730 electrons
__has 18.82% Ga 1 character in a sp1.53 hybrid
__has 81.18% Cl 3 character in a s0.51 p3 hybrid

25. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9773 electrons

26. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9919 electrons

27. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9606 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.91% p 0.09% d)

28. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9606 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.91% p 0.09% d)

-With core pairs on:Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 Ga 1 O 2 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for Ga1-O2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 81, for Ga1-Cl3 is 51.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for Ga1-Cl3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 78, for Ga1-O2 is 54.1 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 25, for O2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 81, for Ga1-Cl3 is 24.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 27, for Cl3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 79, for Ga1-O2 is 48.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 28, for Cl3 with the third antibonding acceptor orbital, 80, for Ga1-O2 is 48.6 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

32 ----- 1.033

31 ----- -2.169 30 ----- -2.170

29 ----- -4.141

28 -^-v- -7.103 27 -^-v- -7.106

26 -^-v- -9.145

25 -^-v- -9.277 24 -^-v- -9.278

23 -^-v- -12.01

22 -^-v- -20.73

21 -^-v- -21.57

20 -^-v- -22.93 19 -^-v- -22.93
18 -^-v- -22.96 17 -^-v- -22.96

16 -^-v- -24.48

15 -^-v- -101.0

14 -^-v- -101.2 13 -^-v- -101.2

12 -^-v- -146.2

11 -^-v- -191.5 10 -^-v- -191.5

9 -^-v- -191.7

8 -^-v- -249.8

7 -^-v- -506.5

6 -^-v- -1096. 5 -^-v- -1096.
4 -^-v- -1097.

3 -^-v- -1235.

2 -^-v- -2731.

1 -^-v- -10078

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -2460.2608878523 Hartrees