## H2CO2, carbonous acid

 C3 H5 / \ / O1 O2 | H4
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

O1 charge=-0.216
O2 charge=-0.242
C3 charge=-0.275
H4 charge= 0.364
H5 charge= 0.370
with a dipole moment of 2.57383 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between O1 and C3: distance=1.326 ang___ between O1 and H4: distance=0.999 ang___
between O2 and C3: distance=1.363 ang___ between O2 and H5: distance=0.979 ang___
between C3 and H4: distance=1.930 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for C3-O1-O2: angle=37.12 deg___ for H4-O1-O2: angle=74.33 deg___
for H5-O2-O1: angle=142.5 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between O1 and C3: order=1.040___ between O1 and H4: order=0.830___
between O2 and C3: order=0.919___ between O2 and H5: order=0.837___
between C3 and H4: order=0.058___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for O1-C3 with 1.9992 electrons
__has 90.88% O 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.91% p 0.09% d)
__has 9.12% C 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 98.70% p 1.30% d)

2. A bonding orbital for O1-C3 with 1.9945 electrons
__has 71.24% O 1 character in a sp1.82 hybrid
__has 28.76% C 3 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for O1-H4 with 1.9901 electrons
__has 75.06% O 1 character in a s0.82 p3 hybrid
__has 24.94% H 4 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for O2-C3 with 1.9933 electrons
__has 71.93% O 2 character in a sp2.25 hybrid
__has 28.07% C 3 character in a s0.78 p3 hybrid

5. A bonding orbital for O2-H5 with 1.9907 electrons
__has 75.35% O 2 character in a s0.85 p3 hybrid
__has 24.65% H 5 character in a s orbital

9. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9830 electrons

10. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.9862 electrons

11. A lone pair orbital for O2 with 1.8589 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.93% p 0.07% d)

12. A lone pair orbital for C3 with 1.9801 electrons

80. A antibonding orbital for O1-C3 with 0.1358 electrons
__has 9.12% O 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.91% p 0.09% d)
__has 90.88% C 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 98.70% p 1.30% d)

-With core pairs on: O 1 O 2 C 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 11, for O2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 80, for O1-C3 is 279. kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 12, for C3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 82, for O1-H4 is 30.9 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

16 ----- 3.637

15 ----- 0.793

14 ----- 0.468

13 ----- -1.949

12 -^-v- -5.728

11 -^-v- -8.731

10 -^-v- -9.838

9 -^-v- -11.15

8 -^-v- -11.71

7 -^-v- -14.82

6 -^-v- -16.60

5 -^-v- -26.13

4 -^-v- -28.33

3 -^-v- -269.2

2 -^-v- -508.2
1 -^-v- -508.3

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -189.7716749798 Hartrees