HNCNH

C3
/ |
N1 - N2
/ \
H4H5
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

N1 charge=-0.332
N2 charge=-0.331
C3 charge=-0.137
H4 charge= 0.400
H5 charge= 0.400
with a dipole moment of 2.01427 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between N1 and N2: distance=1.525 ang___ between N1 and C3: distance=1.396 ang___
between N1 and H4: distance=1.029 ang___ between N2 and C3: distance=1.396 ang___
between N2 and H5: distance=1.029 ang___

Bond Angles:

for C3-N1-N2: angle=56.90 deg___ for H4-N1-N2: angle=110.0 deg___
for H5-N2-N1: angle=110.0 deg___

Top of page.

Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between N1 and N2: order=1.093___ between N1 and C3: order=0.991___
between N1 and H4: order=0.867___ between N2 and C3: order=0.992___
between N2 and H5: order=0.866___

Top of page.

Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 1.9839 electrons
__has 49.99% N 1 character in a s0.34 p3 hybrid
__has 50.01% N 2 character in a s0.34 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for N1-C3 with 1.9809 electrons
__has 65.77% N 1 character in a sp2.97 hybrid
__has 34.23% C 3 character in a s0.65 p3 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for N1-H4 with 1.9708 electrons
__has 69.32% N 1 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 30.68% H 4 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for N2-C3 with 1.9810 electrons
__has 65.77% N 2 character in a sp2.97 hybrid
__has 34.23% C 3 character in a s0.65 p3 hybrid

5. A bonding orbital for N2-H5 with 1.9708 electrons
__has 69.32% N 2 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 30.68% H 5 character in a s orbital

9. A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9081 electrons
__made from a sp1.41 hybrid

10. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 1.9080 electrons
__made from a sp1.41 hybrid

11. A lone pair orbital for C3 with 1.9958 electrons
__made from a sp0.51 hybrid

12. A lone pair orbital for C3 with 0.2029 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 98.97% p 1.03% d)

-With core pairs on: N 1 N 2 C 3 -

Top of page.

Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for N1-N2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 81, for N1-C3 is 29.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 1, for N1-N2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 83, for N2-C3 is 29.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 2, for N1-C3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 80, for N1-N2 is 25.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 3, for N1-H4 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C3 is 33.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for N2-C3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 80, for N1-N2 is 25.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for N2-H5 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C3 is 33.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 9, for N1 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C3 is 138. kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 10, for N2 with the second lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C3 is 138. kJ/mol.

Top of page.

Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

15 ----- 1.518

14 ----- 1.150


13 ----- -0.505


12 ----- -3.253


11 -^-v- -6.261

10 -^-v- -7.040


9 -^-v- -9.159


8 -^-v- -11.74

7 -^-v- -12.55


6 -^-v- -15.54


5 -^-v- -19.21


4 -^-v- -26.97


3 -^-v- -268.9


2 -^-v- -379.1 1 -^-v- -379.1

Top of page.

Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -148.7011932082 Hartrees

Top of page.

-> Return to Molecular Structure Page. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page