## NH2NH2, hydrazine

 H3 | N1 - N2 - H6 | | H4 H5
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

N1 charge=-0.719
N2 charge=-0.725
H3 charge= 0.376
H4 charge= 0.344
H5 charge= 0.380
H6 charge= 0.344
with a dipole moment of 2.13678 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between N1 and N2: distance=1.446 ang___ between N1 and H3: distance=1.023 ang___
between N1 and H4: distance=1.027 ang___ between N2 and H5: distance=1.023 ang___
between N2 and H6: distance=1.027 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-N1-N2: angle=107.8 deg___ for H4-N1-N2: angle=112.7 deg___
for H5-N2-N1: angle=107.9 deg___ for H6-N2-N1: angle=112.8 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between N1 and N2: order=0.938___ between N1 and H3: order=0.933___
between N1 and H4: order=0.949___ between N2 and H5: order=0.932___
between N2 and H6: order=0.949___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 1.9954 electrons
__has 49.99% N 1 character in a sp2.82 hybrid
__has 50.01% N 2 character in a sp2.81 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for N1-H3 with 1.9938 electrons
__has 67.47% N 1 character in a sp2.84 hybrid
__has 32.53% H 3 character in a s orbital

3. A bonding orbital for N1-H4 with 1.9953 electrons
__has 66.69% N 1 character in a sp2.86 hybrid
__has 33.31% H 4 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for N2-H5 with 1.9939 electrons
__has 67.48% N 2 character in a sp2.83 hybrid
__has 32.52% H 5 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for N2-H6 with 1.9953 electrons
__has 66.70% N 2 character in a sp2.86 hybrid
__has 33.30% H 6 character in a s orbital

8. A lone pair orbital for N1 with 1.9800 electrons
__made from a s0.86 p3 hybrid

9. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 1.9800 electrons
__made from a s0.85 p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: N 1 N 2 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 8, for N1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 72, for N2-H6 is 25.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 9, for N2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 70, for N1-H4 is 25.7 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

13 ----- 3.691

12 ----- 3.106

11 ----- 1.488

10 ----- 1.117

9 -^-v- -5.639

8 -^-v- -5.787

7 -^-v- -11.20

6 -^-v- -11.92

5 -^-v- -12.38

4 -^-v- -18.33

3 -^-v- -23.35

2 -^-v- -377.4 1 -^-v- -377.4

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -111.9157424318 Hartrees

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