## N2O4, dinitrogen tetroxide

 O3 O6 \\ // N1 - N2 // \\ O4 O5
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

N1 charge= 0.491
N2 charge= 0.501
O3 charge=-0.246
O4 charge=-0.246
O5 charge=-0.249
O6 charge=-0.250
with a dipole moment of 0.00242 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between N1 and N2: distance=1.868 ang___ between N1 and O3: distance=1.208 ang___
between N1 and O4: distance=1.209 ang___ between N2 and O5: distance=1.209 ang___
between N2 and O6: distance=1.209 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for O3-N1-N2: angle=112.8 deg___ for O4-N1-N2: angle=112.6 deg___
for O5-N2-N1: angle=112.8 deg___ for O6-N2-N1: angle=112.7 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between N1 and N2: order=0.533___ between N1 and O3: order=1.599___
between N1 and O4: order=1.598___ between N2 and O5: order=1.598___
between N2 and O6: order=1.598___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 1.9571 electrons
__has 49.99% N 1 character in a s0.66 p3 hybrid
__has 50.01% N 2 character in a s0.66 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for N1-O3 with 1.9915 electrons
__has 50.05% N 1 character in a sp1.40 hybrid
__has 49.95% O 3 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for N1-O3 with 1.9966 electrons
__has 33.15% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.58% p 0.42% d)
__has 66.85% O 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.81% p 0.19% d)

4. A bonding orbital for N1-O4 with 1.9915 electrons
__has 50.06% N 1 character in a sp1.40 hybrid
__has 49.94% O 4 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid

5. A bonding orbital for N2-O5 with 1.9915 electrons
__has 50.06% N 2 character in a sp1.40 hybrid
__has 49.94% O 5 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid

6. A bonding orbital for N2-O6 with 1.9915 electrons
__has 50.05% N 2 character in a sp1.40 hybrid
__has 49.95% O 6 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid

7. A bonding orbital for N2-O6 with 1.9966 electrons
__has 33.16% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.58% p 0.42% d)
__has 66.84% O 6 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.81% p 0.19% d)

14. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.9806 electrons

15. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.8164 electrons

16. A lone pair orbital for O4 with 1.9806 electrons

17. A lone pair orbital for O4 with 1.8170 electrons

18. A lone pair orbital for O4 with 1.4977 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.82% p 0.18% d)

19. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.9806 electrons

20. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.8166 electrons

21. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.4980 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.82% p 0.18% d)

22. A lone pair orbital for O6 with 1.9806 electrons

23. A lone pair orbital for O6 with 1.8170 electrons

138. A antibonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.6041 electrons
__has 50.01% N 1 character in a s0.66 p3 hybrid
__has 49.99% N 2 character in a s0.66 p3 hybrid

140. A antibonding orbital for N1-O3 with 0.4909 electrons
__has 66.85% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.58% p 0.42% d)
__has 33.15% O 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.81% p 0.19% d)

144. A antibonding orbital for N2-O6 with 0.4907 electrons
__has 66.84% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.58% p 0.42% d)
__has 33.16% O 6 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.81% p 0.19% d)

-With core pairs on: N 1 N 2 O 3 O 4 O 5 O 6 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 3, for N1-O3 with the third lone pair acceptor orbital, 18, for O4 is 55.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 3, for N1-O3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 140, for N1-O3 is 20.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 7, for N2-O6 with the third lone pair acceptor orbital, 21, for O5 is 55.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 7, for N2-O6 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 144, for N2-O6 is 20.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 14, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 141, for N1-O4 is 40.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 138, for N1-N2 is 337. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 141, for N1-O4 is 61.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 16, for O4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 139, for N1-O3 is 40.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 17, for O4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 138, for N1-N2 is 335. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 17, for O4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 139, for N1-O3 is 61.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 18, for O4 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 140, for N1-O3 is 1174 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 19, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 143, for N2-O6 is 40.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 20, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 138, for N1-N2 is 336. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 20, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 143, for N2-O6 is 61.7 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 21, for O5 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 144, for N2-O6 is 1173 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 22, for O6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 142, for N2-O5 is 40.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 23, for O6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 138, for N1-N2 is 335. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 23, for O6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 142, for N2-O5 is 61.7 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

27 ----- 3.036

26 ----- -3.694

25 ----- -3.887

24 ----- -4.703

23 -^-v- -7.776

22 -^-v- -8.512

21 -^-v- -9.496
20 -^-v- -9.573

19 -^-v- -9.777

18 -^-v- -12.30

17 -^-v- -14.06

16 -^-v- -14.26 15 -^-v- -14.27

14 -^-v- -15.10

13 -^-v- -15.36

12 -^-v- -16.05

11 -^-v- -18.30

10 -^-v- -28.56

9 -^-v- -28.88

8 -^-v- -32.22

7 -^-v- -32.79

6 -^-v- -384.6 5 -^-v- -384.6

4 -^-v- -509.5 3 -^-v- -509.5 2 -^-v- -509.5 1 -^-v- -509.5

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -410.3841977985 Hartrees