## N3

 N3 = N1 = N2
The multiplicity is 2.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

N1 charge= 0.653
N2 charge=-0.326
N3 charge=-0.326
with a dipole moment of 0.00103 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between N1 and N2: distance=1.194 ang___ between N1 and N3: distance=1.194 ang___
between N2 and N3: distance=2.387 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for N3-N1-N2: angle=179.9 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between N1 and N2: order=2.019___ between N1 and N3: order=2.017___
between N2 and N3: order=1.101___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

#### Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9990 electrons
__has 57.42% N 1 character in a sp1.00 hybrid
__has 42.58% N 2 character in a sp2.90 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9989 electrons
__has 29.60% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.63% p 0.37% d)
__has 70.40% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.70% p 0.30% d)

3. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9984 electrons
__has 36.57% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.70% p 0.30% d)
__has 63.43% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.69% p 0.31% d)

4. A bonding orbital for N1-N3 with 0.9990 electrons
__has 57.42% N 1 character in a sp1.00 hybrid
__has 42.58% N 3 character in a sp2.90 hybrid

8. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 0.9883 electrons
__made from a sp0.33 hybrid

9. A lone pair orbital for N3 with 0.9883 electrons
__made from a sp0.33 hybrid

10. A lone pair orbital for N3 with 0.7697 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.72% p 0.28% d)

11. A lone pair orbital for N3 with 0.7298 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.71% p 0.29% d)

70. A antibonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.2243 electrons
__has 70.40% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.63% p 0.37% d)
__has 29.60% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.70% p 0.30% d)

71. A antibonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.2632 electrons
__has 63.43% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.70% p 0.30% d)
__has 36.57% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.69% p 0.31% d)

-With core pairs on: N 1 N 2 N 3 -

#### Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9991 electrons
__has 61.31% N 1 character in a sp1.00 hybrid
__has 38.69% N 2 character in a sp2.59 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9976 electrons
__has 46.42% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.78% p 0.22% d)
__has 53.58% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.68% p 0.32% d)

3. A bonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.9134 electrons
__has 90.52% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital (100.00% p)
__has 9.48% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.40% p 0.60% d)

4. A bonding orbital for N1-N3 with 0.9991 electrons
__has 61.31% N 1 character in a sp1.00 hybrid
__has 38.69% N 3 character in a sp2.59 hybrid

8. A lone pair orbital for N2 with 0.9879 electrons
__made from a sp0.38 hybrid

9. A lone pair orbital for N3 with 0.9879 electrons
__made from a sp0.38 hybrid

10. A lone pair orbital for N3 with 0.6799 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.72% p 0.28% d)

70. A antibonding orbital for N1-N2 with 0.3118 electrons
__has 53.58% N 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.78% p 0.22% d)
__has 46.42% N 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.68% p 0.32% d)

-With core pairs on: N 1 N 2 N 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the third bonding donor orbital, 3, for N1-N2 with the third lone pair acceptor orbital, 11, for N3 is 230. kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 8, for N2 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 72, for N1-N3 is 45.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 9, for N3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 69, for N1-N2 is 45.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 10, for N3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 70, for N1-N2 is 865. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 11, for N3 with the third antibonding acceptor orbital, 71, for N1-N2 is 26.6 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

15 ----- 4.677

14 ----- 3.215

13 ----- -1.709

12 ----- -2.273

11 -^--- -7.557

10 -^-v- -8.386

9 -^-v- -11.38

8 -^-v- -12.69

7 -^-v- -13.36

6 -^-v- -13.84

5 -^-v- -25.52

4 -^-v- -29.40

3 -^-v- -380.4 2 -^-v- -380.4

1 -^-v- -382.5

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -164.2070786993 Hartrees