## NaOH, Sodium hydroxide

 NA3 H2 \ / O1
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

O1 charge=-1.056
H2 charge= 0.298
NA3 charge= 0.758
with a dipole moment of 6.86371 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between O1 and H2: distance=0.970 ang___ between O1 and NA3: distance=2.072 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for NA3-O1-H2: angle=119.5 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between O1 and H2: order=0.917___ between O1 and NA3: order=0.349___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for O1-H2 with 1.9994 electrons
__has 70.67% O 1 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 29.33% H 2 character in a s orbital

8. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9981 electrons

9. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9963 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.98% p)

10. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9811 electrons
__made from a s0.41 p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: O 1 Na 3 Na 3 Na 3 Na 3 Na 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 8, for O1 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 11, for Na3 is 4.22 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the third lone pair donor orbital, 10, for O1 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 11, for Na3 is 32.0 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

14 ----- 1.325

13 ----- 0.786
12 ----- 0.721

11 ----- -1.939

10 -^-v- -3.828

9 -^-v- -4.137

8 -^-v- -7.621

7 -^-v- -19.93

6 -^-v- -28.41

5 -^-v- -28.68
4 -^-v- -28.69

3 -^-v- -55.90

2 -^-v- -502.6

1 -^-v- -1026.

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -238.1470698592 Hartrees