Acrolein, C2H3CHO

H7H5
\ /
C3 = C4
/ \
O1 = C2H6
\
H8
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

O1 charge=-0.453
C2 charge= 0.427
C3 charge=-0.148
C4 charge=-0.398
H5 charge= 0.209
H6 charge= 0.185
H7 charge= 0.159
H8 charge= 0.016
with a dipole moment of 3.48858 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between O1 and C2: distance=1.230 ang___ between O1 and C3: distance=2.397 ang___
between O1 and C4: distance=3.593 ang___ between C2 and C3: distance=1.480 ang___
between C2 and C4: distance=2.458 ang___ between C2 and H8: distance=1.125 ang___
between C3 and C4: distance=1.349 ang___ between C3 and H6: distance=2.132 ang___
between C3 and H7: distance=1.098 ang___ between C3 and H8: distance=2.204 ang___
between C4 and H5: distance=1.095 ang___ between C4 and H6: distance=1.099 ang___
between C4 and H8: distance=2.645 ang___

Bond Angles:

for C3-C2-O1: angle=124.1 deg___ for C4-C3-C2: angle=120.6 deg___
for H5-C4-C3: angle=122.0 deg___ for H6-C4-C3: angle=120.8 deg___
for H7-C3-C2: angle=116.7 deg___ for H8-C2-O1: angle=120.9 deg___

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Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between O1 and C2: order=1.855___ between O1 and C3: order=-0.118___
between O1 and C4: order=0.114___ between C2 and C3: order=0.815___
between C2 and C4: order=0.223___ between C2 and H8: order=1.010___
between C3 and C4: order=1.621___ between C3 and H6: order=-0.077___
between C3 and H7: order=0.932___ between C3 and H8: order=-0.182___
between C4 and H5: order=0.966___ between C4 and H6: order=0.994___
between C4 and H8: order=0.081___

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Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for O1-C2 with 1.9978 electrons
__has 64.54% O 1 character in a sp1.51 hybrid
__has 35.46% C 2 character in a sp1.94 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for O1-C2 with 1.9844 electrons
__has 69.45% O 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.82% p 0.18% d)
__has 30.55% C 2 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.45% p 0.55% d)

3. A bonding orbital for C2-C3 with 1.9893 electrons
__has 48.51% C 2 character in a sp1.73 hybrid
__has 51.49% C 3 character in a sp2.22 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H8 with 1.9876 electrons
__has 56.57% C 2 character in a sp2.32 hybrid
__has 43.43% H 8 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C3-C4 with 1.9934 electrons
__has 51.25% C 3 character in a sp1.56 hybrid
__has 48.75% C 4 character in a sp1.52 hybrid

6. A bonding orbital for C3-C4 with 1.9237 electrons
__has 53.02% C 3 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.87% p 0.13% d)
__has 46.98% C 4 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.84% p 0.16% d)

7. A bonding orbital for C3-H7 with 1.9806 electrons
__has 61.01% C 3 character in a sp2.32 hybrid
__has 38.99% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C4-H5 with 1.9882 electrons
__has 59.87% C 4 character in a sp2.26 hybrid
__has 40.13% H 5 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C4-H6 with 1.9871 electrons
__has 59.29% C 4 character in a sp2.34 hybrid
__has 40.71% H 6 character in a s orbital

14. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9837 electrons
__made from a sp0.65 hybrid

15. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9103 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.92% p 0.08% d)

-With core pairs on: O 1 C 2 C 3 C 4 -

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Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 2, for O1-C2 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 117, for C3-C4 is 27.1 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 6, for C3-C4 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 113, for O1-C2 is 112. kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 7, for C3-H7 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 120, for C4-H6 is 20.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C4-H5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 114, for C2-C3 is 25.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C4-H6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 118, for C3-H7 is 26.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 114, for C2-C3 is 95.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 115, for C2-H8 is 123. kJ/mol.

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Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

19 ----- 1.623
18 ----- 1.489


17 ----- -0.551


16 ----- -3.311


15 -^-v- -6.087


14 -^-v- -7.658


13 -^-v- -9.657

12 -^-v- -10.15

11 -^-v- -10.28


10 -^-v- -11.75
9 -^-v- -11.85


8 -^-v- -14.17


7 -^-v- -16.06


6 -^-v- -19.97


5 -^-v- -25.97


4 -^-v- -267.2

3 -^-v- -267.4


2 -^-v- -268.8


1 -^-v- -506.5

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Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -191.9798774593 Hartrees

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