## H2C=CH=CH2+, allyl cation

 H8 H3 \ / C1 = C2 // \ H7 - C5 H4 \ H6
The ion charge is 1.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge=-0.032
C2 charge= 0.036
H3 charge= 0.204
H4 charge= 0.185
C5 charge= 0.039
H6 charge= 0.184
H7 charge= 0.203
H8 charge= 0.178
with a dipole moment of 2.80854 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.393 ang___ between C1 and H4: distance=2.176 ang___
between C1 and C5: distance=1.393 ang___ between C1 and H6: distance=2.176 ang___
between C1 and H8: distance=1.098 ang___ between C2 and H3: distance=1.099 ang___
between C2 and H4: distance=1.100 ang___ between C2 and C5: distance=2.397 ang___
between C5 and H6: distance=1.100 ang___ between C5 and H7: distance=1.099 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=121.4 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=121.1 deg___
for C5-C1-C2: angle=118.7 deg___ for H6-C5-C1: angle=121.1 deg___
for H7-C5-C1: angle=121.5 deg___ for H8-C1-C2: angle=120.6 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=1.289___ between C1 and H4: order=-0.057___
between C1 and C5: order=1.289___ between C1 and H6: order=-0.057___
between C1 and H8: order=0.895___ between C2 and H3: order=0.937___
between C2 and H4: order=0.948___ between C2 and C5: order=0.478___
between C5 and H6: order=0.948___ between C5 and H7: order=0.937___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 1.9941 electrons
__has 51.62% C 1 character in a sp1.90 hybrid
__has 48.38% C 2 character in a sp1.60 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C5 with 1.9941 electrons
__has 51.62% C 1 character in a sp1.90 hybrid
__has 48.38% C 5 character in a sp1.60 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C5 with 1.5574 electrons
__has 71.59% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.89% p 0.11% d)
__has 28.41% C 5 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.76% p 0.24% d)

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H8 with 1.9826 electrons
__has 63.51% C 1 character in a sp2.19 hybrid
__has 36.49% H 8 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 61.48% C 2 character in a sp2.22 hybrid
__has 38.52% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 60.58% C 2 character in a sp2.24 hybrid
__has 39.42% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C5-H6 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 60.57% C 5 character in a sp2.24 hybrid
__has 39.43% H 6 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C5-H7 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 61.48% C 5 character in a sp2.22 hybrid
__has 38.52% H 7 character in a s orbital

12. A lone pair orbital for C2 with 0.4424 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.76% p 0.24% d)

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 5 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-C5 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C2 is 863. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-C5 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 97, for C1-C5 is 23.8 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 96, for C1-C5 is 24.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H4 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 98, for C1-H8 is 21.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 7, for C5-H6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 98, for C1-H8 is 21.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C5-H7 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 95, for C1-C2 is 24.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 12, for C2 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 97, for C1-C5 is 62.4 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

15 ----- -3.535

14 ----- -3.641

13 ----- -7.285

12 ----- -11.61

11 -^-v- -15.11

10 -^-v- -15.72

9 -^-v- -16.18

8 -^-v- -17.84

7 -^-v- -18.81

6 -^-v- -20.54

5 -^-v- -23.72

4 -^-v- -27.00

3 -^-v- -273.8

2 -^-v- -274.8 1 -^-v- -274.8

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -116.9950283293 Hartrees