## ethanol, C2H6O

 H5 H4 \ | H9 C3 - H6 | / O1 - C2 | \ H8 H7
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

O1 charge=-0.677
C2 charge= 0.332
C3 charge=-0.406
H4 charge= 0.104
H5 charge= 0.119
H6 charge= 0.093
H7 charge=-0.027
H8 charge= 0.050
H9 charge= 0.411
with a dipole moment of 1.88558 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between O1 and C2: distance=1.446 ang___ between O1 and H9: distance=0.975 ang___
between C2 and C3: distance=1.533 ang___ between C2 and H7: distance=1.110 ang___
between C2 and H8: distance=1.104 ang___ between C3 and H4: distance=1.106 ang___
between C3 and H5: distance=1.104 ang___ between C3 and H6: distance=1.105 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for C3-C2-O1: angle=113.0 deg___ for H4-C3-C2: angle=111.6 deg___
for H5-C3-C2: angle=110.5 deg___ for H6-C3-C2: angle=110.5 deg___
for H7-C2-O1: angle=110.5 deg___ for H8-C2-O1: angle=105.0 deg___
for H9-O1-C2: angle=107.7 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between O1 and C2: order=0.786___ between O1 and H9: order=0.871___
between C2 and C3: order=0.849___ between C2 and H7: order=0.986___
between C2 and H8: order=0.998___ between C3 and H4: order=0.978___
between C3 and H5: order=0.980___ between C3 and H6: order=0.978___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for O1-C2 with 1.9965 electrons
__has 66.41% O 1 character in a sp2.51 hybrid
__has 33.59% C 2 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for O1-H9 with 1.9913 electrons
__has 72.86% O 1 character in a s0.78 p3 hybrid
__has 27.14% H 9 character in a s orbital

3. A bonding orbital for C2-C3 with 1.9966 electrons
__has 49.75% C 2 character in a sp2.31 hybrid
__has 50.25% C 3 character in a sp2.55 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H7 with 1.9905 electrons
__has 57.20% C 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 42.80% H 7 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H8 with 1.9867 electrons
__has 58.14% C 2 character in a s0.92 p3 hybrid
__has 41.86% H 8 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C3-H4 with 1.9926 electrons
__has 58.80% C 3 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.20% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C3-H5 with 1.9925 electrons
__has 59.69% C 3 character in a s0.96 p3 hybrid
__has 40.31% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C3-H6 with 1.9892 electrons
__has 59.30% C 3 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 40.70% H 6 character in a s orbital

12. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9862 electrons

13. A lone pair orbital for O1 with 1.9705 electrons

-With core pairs on: O 1 C 2 C 3 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C3-H6 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 101, for O1-C2 is 20.5 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 13, for O1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 103, for C2-C3 is 31.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 13, for O1 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 104, for C2-H7 is 31.1 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

17 ----- 2.830

16 ----- 1.997
15 ----- 1.841

14 ----- 0.780

13 -^-v- -6.273

12 -^-v- -7.711

11 -^-v- -8.918

10 -^-v- -9.226

9 -^-v- -10.47

8 -^-v- -11.06

7 -^-v- -12.31

6 -^-v- -15.25

5 -^-v- -18.32

4 -^-v- -25.06

3 -^-v- -266.1

2 -^-v- -267.5

1 -^-v- -506.3

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -155.0971412698 Hartrees