(CH3)2CHCH2•, isobutyl radical

H7
/
H8 - C6 - H9H3
\ /
H13 - C1 - C2
/ | \
H12 - C10H5H4
\
H11
The multiplicity is 2.

Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.662
C2 charge=-0.549
H3 charge= 0.117
H4 charge= 0.138
H5 charge= 0.126
C6 charge=-0.545
H7 charge= 0.116
H8 charge= 0.125
H9 charge= 0.138
C10 charge=-0.676
H11 charge= 0.198
H12 charge= 0.197
H13 charge=-0.050
with a dipole moment of 0.42067 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.547 ang___ between C1 and C6: distance=1.549 ang___
between C1 and C10: distance=1.496 ang___ between C1 and H13: distance=1.119 ang___
between C2 and H3: distance=1.104 ang___ between C2 and H4: distance=1.105 ang___
between C2 and H5: distance=1.104 ang___ between C2 and C6: distance=2.557 ang___
between C6 and H7: distance=1.105 ang___ between C6 and H8: distance=1.104 ang___
between C6 and H9: distance=1.105 ang___ between C10 and H11: distance=1.095 ang___
between C10 and H12: distance=1.096 ang___

Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=111.0 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=110.3 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=111.3 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=111.3 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=111.0 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=111.3 deg___
for H9-C6-C1: angle=110.1 deg___ for C10-C1-C2: angle=112.1 deg___
for H11-C10-C1: angle=120.8 deg___ for H12-C10-C1: angle=120.5 deg___
for H13-C1-C2: angle=106.6 deg___

Top of page.

Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.932___ between C1 and C6: order=0.933___
between C1 and C10: order=0.784___ between C1 and H13: order=0.894___
between C2 and H3: order=0.982___ between C2 and H4: order=0.982___
between C2 and H5: order=0.971___ between C2 and C6: order=-0.054___
between C6 and H7: order=0.981___ between C6 and H8: order=0.970___
between C6 and H9: order=0.981___ between C10 and H11: order=0.957___
between C10 and H12: order=0.955___

Top of page.

Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 50.86% C 1 character in a sp2.68 hybrid
__has 49.14% C 2 character in a sp2.47 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 50.76% C 1 character in a sp2.69 hybrid
__has 49.24% C 6 character in a sp2.48 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9959 electrons
__has 50.91% C 1 character in a sp2.71 hybrid
__has 49.09% C10 character in a sp1.75 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H13 with 0.9904 electrons
__has 56.44% C 1 character in a s0.71 p3 hybrid
__has 43.56% H13 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 59.16% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.84% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.10% C 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 40.90% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 59.18% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.82% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.13% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.87% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 59.18% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.82% H 8 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.11% C 6 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 40.89% H 9 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 60.25% C10 character in a sp2.16 hybrid
__has 39.75% H11 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9959 electrons
__has 60.21% C10 character in a sp2.17 hybrid
__has 39.79% H12 character in a s orbital

17. A lone pair orbital for C10 with 0.9755 electrons
__made from a p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9937 electrons
__has 51.85% C 1 character in a sp2.77 hybrid
__has 48.15% C 2 character in a sp2.51 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9931 electrons
__has 51.96% C 1 character in a sp2.78 hybrid
__has 48.04% C 6 character in a sp2.53 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 56.00% C 1 character in a sp2.56 hybrid
__has 44.00% C10 character in a sp1.78 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H13 with 0.9754 electrons
__has 60.85% C 1 character in a s0.71 p3 hybrid
__has 39.15% H13 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9965 electrons
__has 59.06% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.94% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9965 electrons
__has 58.98% C 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.02% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.03% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.97% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9965 electrons
__has 59.07% C 6 character in a s0.95 p3 hybrid
__has 40.93% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.01% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.99% H 8 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9965 electrons
__has 58.98% C 6 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.02% H 9 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9969 electrons
__has 54.77% C10 character in a sp2.12 hybrid
__has 45.23% H11 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9969 electrons
__has 54.74% C10 character in a sp2.13 hybrid
__has 45.26% H12 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

Top of page.

Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C1-H13 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C10 is 32.4 kJ/mol.

Top of page.

Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

21 ----- 2.134
20 ----- 2.067
19 ----- 1.904

18 ----- 1.591


17 -^--- -4.508


16 -^-v- -8.094
15 -^-v- -8.128

14 -^-v- -8.472

13 -^-v- -8.859

12 -^-v- -9.277


11 -^-v- -10.60

10 -^-v- -10.83

9 -^-v- -11.24


8 -^-v- -13.55


7 -^-v- -16.37

6 -^-v- -16.66


5 -^-v- -19.79


4 -^-v- -265.9
3 -^-v- -265.9

2 -^-v- -266.5

1 -^-v- -266.6

Top of page.

Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -157.8267739477 Hartrees

Top of page.

-> Return to Molecular Structure Page. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page