H7 / H9 - C6 H3 | \ / H8 C1 - C2 / | \ H10 H5 H4
The multiplicity is 2.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge=-0.017
C2 charge=-0.420
H3 charge= 0.135
H4 charge= 0.112
H5 charge= 0.139
C6 charge=-0.426
H7 charge= 0.136
H8 charge= 0.140
H9 charge= 0.114
H10 charge= 0.083
with a dipole moment of 0.34901 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.496 ang___ between C1 and H3: distance=2.164 ang___
between C1 and C6: distance=1.496 ang___ between C1 and H7: distance=2.164 ang___
between C1 and H10: distance=1.096 ang___ between C2 and H3: distance=1.108 ang___
between C2 and H4: distance=1.104 ang___ between C2 and H5: distance=1.115 ang___
between C6 and H7: distance=1.108 ang___ between C6 and H8: distance=1.115 ang___
between C6 and H9: distance=1.104 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=111.5 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=112.2 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=112.2 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=120.9 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=111.5 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=112.2 deg___
for H9-C6-C1: angle=112.2 deg___ for H10-C1-C2: angle=119.0 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.833___ between C1 and H3: order=-0.051___
between C1 and C6: order=0.833___ between C1 and H7: order=-0.051___
between C1 and H10: order=0.917___ between C2 and H3: order=1.000___
between C2 and H4: order=0.978___ between C2 and H5: order=0.965___
between C6 and H7: order=1.000___ between C6 and H8: order=0.965___
between C6 and H9: order=0.978___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

#### Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9974 electrons
__has 50.45% C 1 character in a sp1.88 hybrid
__has 49.55% C 2 character in a sp2.36 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9974 electrons
__has 50.45% C 1 character in a sp1.88 hybrid
__has 49.55% C 6 character in a sp2.36 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-H10 with 0.9925 electrons
__has 60.36% C 1 character in a sp2.37 hybrid
__has 39.64% H10 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9966 electrons
__has 58.35% C 2 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.65% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.08% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.92% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9984 electrons
__has 57.03% C 2 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid
__has 42.97% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9966 electrons
__has 58.35% C 6 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.65% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9984 electrons
__has 57.04% C 6 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid
__has 42.96% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9963 electrons
__has 59.08% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 40.92% H 9 character in a s orbital

13. A lone pair orbital for C1 with 0.9481 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 -

#### Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9976 electrons
__has 45.45% C 1 character in a sp1.87 hybrid
__has 54.55% C 2 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9976 electrons
__has 45.45% C 1 character in a sp1.87 hybrid
__has 54.55% C 6 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-H10 with 0.9938 electrons
__has 54.74% C 1 character in a sp2.31 hybrid
__has 45.26% H10 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9924 electrons
__has 60.32% C 2 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 39.68% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9947 electrons
__has 60.06% C 2 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.94% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9848 electrons
__has 61.68% C 2 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 38.32% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9924 electrons
__has 60.32% C 6 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 39.68% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9848 electrons
__has 61.68% C 6 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 38.32% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9947 electrons
__has 60.05% C 6 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.95% H 9 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H5 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 13, for C1 is 27.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C6-H8 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 13, for C1 is 27.4 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

17 ----- 2.857

16 ----- 2.078

15 ----- 1.844 14 ----- 1.826

13 -^--- -3.911

12 -^-v- -8.337

11 -^-v- -8.579

10 -^-v- -9.243

9 -^-v- -9.968

8 -^-v- -10.34

7 -^-v- -11.06

6 -^-v- -13.77

5 -^-v- -16.84

4 -^-v- -19.12

3 -^-v- -266.0 2 -^-v- -266.0

1 -^-v- -266.5

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -118.5096152633 Hartrees