H9 H3 \ / C1 - C2 // | \ H8 - C6 H5 H4 \ H7
The ion charge is 1. The multiplicity is 2.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.263
C2 charge=-0.469
H3 charge= 0.255
H4 charge= 0.214
H5 charge= 0.255
C6 charge=-0.043
H7 charge= 0.200
H8 charge= 0.191
H9 charge= 0.132
with a dipole moment of 2.06931 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.446 ang___ between C1 and H4: distance=2.171 ang___
between C1 and C6: distance=1.422 ang___ between C1 and H9: distance=1.102 ang___
between C2 and H3: distance=1.125 ang___ between C2 and H4: distance=1.099 ang___
between C2 and H5: distance=1.125 ang___ between C2 and C6: distance=2.529 ang___
between C6 and H7: distance=1.099 ang___ between C6 and H8: distance=1.097 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=109.5 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=116.5 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=109.6 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=123.7 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=120.7 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=121.0 deg___
for H9-C1-C2: angle=118.1 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.900___ between C1 and H4: order=-0.067___
between C1 and C6: order=1.268___ between C1 and H9: order=0.876___
between C2 and H3: order=0.895___ between C2 and H4: order=0.986___
between C2 and H5: order=0.895___ between C2 and C6: order=0.153___
between C6 and H7: order=0.931___ between C6 and H8: order=0.938___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

#### Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9973 electrons
__has 51.66% C 1 character in a sp1.70 hybrid
__has 48.34% C 2 character in a sp2.42 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9974 electrons
__has 50.59% C 1 character in a sp1.95 hybrid
__has 49.41% C 6 character in a sp1.75 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9936 electrons
__has 39.42% C 1 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.69% p 0.31% d)
__has 60.58% C 6 character in a p-pi orbital ( 99.80% p 0.20% d)

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H9 with 0.9915 electrons
__has 62.23% C 1 character in a sp2.40 hybrid
__has 37.77% H 9 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9811 electrons
__has 62.64% C 2 character in a s0.84 p3 hybrid
__has 37.36% H 3 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9959 electrons
__has 62.43% C 2 character in a sp2.66 hybrid
__has 37.57% H 4 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9811 electrons
__has 62.64% C 2 character in a s0.84 p3 hybrid
__has 37.36% H 5 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9957 electrons
__has 62.39% C 6 character in a sp2.11 hybrid
__has 37.61% H 7 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9954 electrons
__has 62.63% C 6 character in a sp2.13 hybrid
__has 37.37% H 8 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 -

#### Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9974 electrons
__has 50.38% C 1 character in a sp1.72 hybrid
__has 49.62% C 2 character in a sp2.38 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9974 electrons
__has 51.83% C 1 character in a sp1.92 hybrid
__has 48.17% C 6 character in a sp1.77 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-H9 with 0.9919 electrons
__has 60.73% C 1 character in a sp2.41 hybrid
__has 39.27% H 9 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9587 electrons
__has 64.91% C 2 character in a s0.83 p3 hybrid
__has 35.09% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9959 electrons
__has 62.50% C 2 character in a sp2.67 hybrid
__has 37.50% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9587 electrons
__has 64.92% C 2 character in a s0.83 p3 hybrid
__has 35.08% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9962 electrons
__has 59.29% C 6 character in a sp2.11 hybrid
__has 40.71% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 59.52% C 6 character in a sp2.13 hybrid
__has 40.48% H 8 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C2-H3 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C1 is 47.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H5 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 12, for C1 is 47.2 kJ/mol.

The interaction of lone pair donor orbital, 12, for C1 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 13, for C6 is 37.9 kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

16 ----- -3.219

15 ----- -3.464

14 ----- -3.777

13 ----- -8.957

12 -^--- -13.88

11 -^-v- -15.43

10 -^-v- -15.95

9 -^-v- -16.71

8 -^-v- -17.47

7 -^-v- -18.61

6 -^-v- -20.61

5 -^-v- -23.95

4 -^-v- -26.90

3 -^-v- -272.8

2 -^-v- -274.6

1 -^-v- -274.8

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -117.5898723771 Hartrees