## (CH3)3C+, tert-butyl cation, Cs conformer (see note*)

 H7 / H8 - C6 H3 | \ / H9 C1 - C2 / | \ H13 - C10 H5 H4 / \ H12 H11
The ion charge is 1.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.604
C2 charge=-0.564
H3 charge= 0.226
H4 charge= 0.242
H5 charge= 0.223
C6 charge=-0.550
H7 charge= 0.220
H8 charge= 0.222
H9 charge= 0.239
C10 charge=-0.550
H11 charge= 0.219
H12 charge= 0.216
H13 charge= 0.249
with a dipole moment of 1.23735 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.466 ang___ between C1 and H5: distance=2.157 ang___
between C1 and C6: distance=1.466 ang___ between C1 and C10: distance=1.464 ang___
between C1 and H11: distance=2.162 ang___ between C1 and H12: distance=2.163 ang___
between C1 and H13: distance=2.048 ang___ between C2 and H3: distance=1.102 ang___
between C2 and H4: distance=1.121 ang___ between C2 and H5: distance=1.104 ang___
between C2 and C10: distance=2.535 ang___ between C6 and H7: distance=1.102 ang___
between C6 and H8: distance=1.105 ang___ between C6 and H9: distance=1.121 ang___
between C6 and C10: distance=2.534 ang___ between C10 and H11: distance=1.104 ang___
between C10 and H12: distance=1.103 ang___ between C10 and H13: distance=1.122 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=113.9 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=105.0 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=113.4 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=120.4 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=114.3 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=113.2 deg___
for H9-C6-C1: angle=104.7 deg___ for C10-C1-C2: angle=119.7 deg___
for H11-C10-C1: angle=113.9 deg___ for H12-C10-C1: angle=114.0 deg___
for H13-C1-C2: angle=114.3 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.811___ between C1 and H5: order=-0.053___
between C1 and C6: order=0.812___ between C1 and C10: order=0.800___
between C1 and H11: order=-0.063___ between C1 and H12: order=-0.066___
between C1 and H13: order=0.059___ between C2 and H3: order=0.984___
between C2 and H4: order=0.873___ between C2 and H5: order=0.973___
between C2 and C10: order=0.056___ between C6 and H7: order=0.986___
between C6 and H8: order=0.971___ between C6 and H9: order=0.873___
between C6 and C10: order=0.060___ between C10 and H11: order=0.983___
between C10 and H12: order=0.985___ between C10 and H13: order=0.852___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. Please note that your structure can't be well described by a single Lewis structure, because of extensive delocalization.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 1.9859 electrons
__has 49.54% C 1 character in a sp1.99 hybrid
__has 50.46% C 2 character in a sp2.26 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 1.9859 electrons
__has 49.53% C 1 character in a sp1.99 hybrid
__has 50.47% C 6 character in a sp2.26 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 1.9859 electrons
__has 49.44% C 1 character in a sp2.00 hybrid
__has 50.56% C10 character in a sp2.26 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 1.9793 electrons
__has 62.66% C 2 character in a s0.99 p3 hybrid
__has 37.34% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 1.9197 electrons
__has 63.37% C 2 character in a s0.76 p3 hybrid
__has 36.63% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 1.9749 electrons
__has 62.70% C 2 character in a s0.97 p3 hybrid
__has 37.30% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 1.9810 electrons
__has 62.63% C 6 character in a sp2.98 hybrid
__has 37.37% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 1.9730 electrons
__has 62.76% C 6 character in a s0.96 p3 hybrid
__has 37.24% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 1.9191 electrons
__has 63.34% C 6 character in a s0.75 p3 hybrid
__has 36.66% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 1.9760 electrons
__has 62.69% C10 character in a s0.98 p3 hybrid
__has 37.31% H11 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 1.9783 electrons
__has 62.62% C10 character in a s0.99 p3 hybrid
__has 37.38% H12 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 1.9150 electrons
__has 63.33% C10 character in a s0.75 p3 hybrid
__has 36.67% H13 character in a s orbital

17. A lone pair orbital for C1 with 0.3034 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 4, for C2-H3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 141, for C1-C10 is 25.1 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H4 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 122. kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-H5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 140, for C1-C6 is 25.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 7, for C6-H7 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 141, for C1-C10 is 25.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 8, for C6-H8 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 139, for C1-C2 is 24.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C6-H9 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 123. kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 10, for C10-H11 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 140, for C1-C6 is 25.0 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 11, for C10-H12 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 139, for C1-C2 is 25.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 12, for C10-H13 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 132. kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

20 ----- -2.620

19 ----- -2.878

18 ----- -3.902

17 ----- -9.611

16 -^-v- -14.71 15 -^-v- -14.71
14 -^-v- -14.75

13 -^-v- -15.20 12 -^-v- -15.20

11 -^-v- -17.07
10 -^-v- -17.13
9 -^-v- -17.19

8 -^-v- -19.06

7 -^-v- -23.23
6 -^-v- -23.25

5 -^-v- -26.73

4 -^-v- -272.1 3 -^-v- -272.1
2 -^-v- -272.1

1 -^-v- -274.9

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -157.5920909643 Hartrees

* Note: The unsymmetrical tert-butyl cation has a lower energy than this symmetrical conformer. The difference in energy is 0.7 kJ/mol. The isobutyl cation, (CH3)2CHCH2+, rearranges to this cation at this level of calculation.