tert-butyl radical, (CH3)3C•

H12H13
| /
H11 - C10H3
\ /
C1 - C2
/ | \
H7 - C6H5H4
| \
H9H8
The multiplicity is 2.

Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.318
C2 charge=-0.568
H3 charge= 0.148
H4 charge= 0.167
H5 charge= 0.144
C6 charge=-0.559
H7 charge= 0.144
H8 charge= 0.146
H9 charge= 0.162
C10 charge=-0.556
H11 charge= 0.140
H12 charge= 0.164
H13 charge= 0.146
with a dipole moment of 0.36686 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.500 ang___ between C1 and C6: distance=1.500 ang___
between C1 and C10: distance=1.501 ang___ between C2 and H3: distance=1.105 ang___
between C2 and H4: distance=1.117 ang___ between C2 and H5: distance=1.107 ang___
between C6 and H7: distance=1.107 ang___ between C6 and H8: distance=1.106 ang___
between C6 and H9: distance=1.117 ang___ between C10 and H11: distance=1.107 ang___
between C10 and H12: distance=1.117 ang___ between C10 and H13: distance=1.105 ang___

Bond Angles:

for H3-C2-C1: angle=111.9 deg___ for H4-C2-C1: angle=112.1 deg___
for H5-C2-C1: angle=111.9 deg___ for C6-C1-C2: angle=118.8 deg___
for H7-C6-C1: angle=111.8 deg___ for H8-C6-C1: angle=112.1 deg___
for H9-C6-C1: angle=111.7 deg___ for C10-C1-C2: angle=119.4 deg___
for H11-C10-C1: angle=111.6 deg___ for H12-C10-C1: angle=111.9 deg___
for H13-C10-C1: angle=112.1 deg___

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Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.806___ between C1 and C6: order=0.821___
between C1 and C10: order=0.809___ between C2 and H3: order=0.998___
between C2 and H4: order=0.954___ between C2 and H5: order=0.993___
between C6 and H7: order=0.989___ between C6 and H8: order=0.990___
between C6 and H9: order=0.965___ between C10 and H11: order=0.992___
between C10 and H12: order=0.957___ between C10 and H13: order=0.996___

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Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below. The Lewis structure is built for the up and down electrons, separately. Note that the up and down structures can be very different.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

Down Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 50.83% C 1 character in a sp2.09 hybrid
__has 49.17% C 2 character in a sp2.35 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9951 electrons
__has 50.73% C 1 character in a sp2.12 hybrid
__has 49.27% C 6 character in a sp2.35 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9952 electrons
__has 50.80% C 1 character in a sp2.11 hybrid
__has 49.20% C10 character in a sp2.35 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 58.91% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.09% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9983 electrons
__has 56.82% C 2 character in a s0.86 p3 hybrid
__has 43.18% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 58.72% C 2 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.28% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 58.80% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.20% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 58.86% C 6 character in a s0.94 p3 hybrid
__has 41.14% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9983 electrons
__has 56.84% C 6 character in a s0.86 p3 hybrid
__has 43.16% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9961 electrons
__has 58.67% C10 character in a s0.93 p3 hybrid
__has 41.33% H11 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9983 electrons
__has 56.83% C10 character in a s0.86 p3 hybrid
__has 43.17% H12 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 0.9960 electrons
__has 58.95% C10 character in a s0.95 p3 hybrid
__has 41.05% H13 character in a s orbital

17. A lone pair orbital for C1 with 0.9251 electrons
__made from a s0.12 p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

Up Electrons

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 0.9958 electrons
__has 46.04% C 1 character in a sp2.00 hybrid
__has 53.96% C 2 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-C6 with 0.9957 electrons
__has 45.97% C 1 character in a sp2.04 hybrid
__has 54.03% C 6 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-C10 with 0.9958 electrons
__has 46.01% C 1 character in a sp2.02 hybrid
__has 53.99% C10 character in a sp2.24 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C2-H3 with 0.9944 electrons
__has 59.93% C 2 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 40.07% H 3 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-H4 with 0.9840 electrons
__has 61.62% C 2 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 38.38% H 4 character in a s orbital

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H5 with 0.9930 electrons
__has 60.18% C 2 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 39.82% H 5 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C6-H7 with 0.9937 electrons
__has 60.07% C 6 character in a s0.90 p3 hybrid
__has 39.93% H 7 character in a s orbital

8. A bonding orbital for C6-H8 with 0.9940 electrons
__has 60.03% C 6 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 39.97% H 8 character in a s orbital

9. A bonding orbital for C6-H9 with 0.9841 electrons
__has 61.55% C 6 character in a s0.88 p3 hybrid
__has 38.45% H 9 character in a s orbital

10. A bonding orbital for C10-H11 with 0.9927 electrons
__has 60.23% C10 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 39.77% H11 character in a s orbital

11. A bonding orbital for C10-H12 with 0.9841 electrons
__has 61.58% C10 character in a s0.89 p3 hybrid
__has 38.42% H12 character in a s orbital

12. A bonding orbital for C10-H13 with 0.9947 electrons
__has 59.89% C10 character in a s0.91 p3 hybrid
__has 40.11% H13 character in a s orbital

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 C 6 C10 -

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Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 5, for C2-H4 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 29.9 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 9, for C6-H9 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 30.3 kJ/mol.

The interaction of bonding donor orbital, 11, for C10-H12 with the lone pair acceptor orbital, 17, for C1 is 29.8 kJ/mol.

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Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v. Only the spin up electron orbital energies are given.

21 ----- 2.545

20 ----- 2.066 19 ----- 2.055

18 ----- 1.431


17 -^--- -3.567


16 -^-v- -8.298
15 -^-v- -8.318

14 -^-v- -8.693

13 -^-v- -9.172
12 -^-v- -9.228


11 -^-v- -10.69 10 -^-v- -10.69
9 -^-v- -10.71


8 -^-v- -12.92


7 -^-v- -16.78
6 -^-v- -16.81


5 -^-v- -19.61


4 -^-v- -265.9 3 -^-v- -265.9 2 -^-v- -265.9

1 -^-v- -266.5

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Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -157.8391964478 Hartrees

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