anti-dichloroethane, ClCH2CH2Cl

Cl3H8H7
\ | /
H5 - C1 - C2
/ \
H4Cl6
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge=-0.213
C2 charge=-0.215
CL3 charge=-0.138
H4 charge= 0.176
H5 charge= 0.176
CL6 charge=-0.138
H7 charge= 0.176
H8 charge= 0.176
with a dipole moment of 0.00191 Debye

Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.522 ang___ between C1 and CL3: distance=1.831 ang___
between C1 and H4: distance=1.101 ang___ between C1 and H5: distance=1.100 ang___
between C2 and CL6: distance=1.831 ang___ between C2 and H7: distance=1.100 ang___
between C2 and H8: distance=1.101 ang___

Bond Angles:

for CL3-C1-C2: angle=108.8 deg___ for H4-C1-C2: angle=111.9 deg___
for H5-C1-C2: angle=111.8 deg___ for CL6-C2-C1: angle=108.8 deg___
for H7-C2-C1: angle=111.8 deg___ for H8-C2-C1: angle=111.9 deg___

Top of page.

Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.839___ between C1 and CL3: order=0.846___
between C1 and H4: order=0.955___ between C1 and H5: order=0.955___
between C2 and CL6: order=0.846___ between C2 and H7: order=0.955___
between C2 and H8: order=0.955___

Top of page.

Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 1.9960 electrons
__has 50.00% C 1 character in a sp2.29 hybrid
__has 50.00% C 2 character in a sp2.29 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-Cl3 with 1.9875 electrons
__has 42.82% C 1 character in a s0.70 p3 hybrid
__has 57.18% Cl 3 character in a s0.52 p3 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-H4 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 60.84% C 1 character in a sp2.91 hybrid
__has 39.16% H 4 character in a s orbital

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H5 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 60.83% C 1 character in a sp2.91 hybrid
__has 39.17% H 5 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-Cl6 with 1.9875 electrons
__has 42.82% C 2 character in a s0.70 p3 hybrid
__has 57.18% Cl 6 character in a s0.52 p3 hybrid

6. A bonding orbital for C2-H7 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 60.83% C 2 character in a sp2.91 hybrid
__has 39.17% H 7 character in a s orbital

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H8 with 1.9912 electrons
__has 60.84% C 2 character in a sp2.91 hybrid
__has 39.16% H 8 character in a s orbital

20. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9980 electrons
__made from a sp0.18 hybrid

21. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9836 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.98% p)

22. A lone pair orbital for Cl3 with 1.9781 electrons
__made from a p3 hybrid

23. A lone pair orbital for Cl6 with 1.9980 electrons
__made from a sp0.18 hybrid

24. A lone pair orbital for Cl6 with 1.9836 electrons
__made from a p-pi orbital ( 99.98% p)

25. A lone pair orbital for Cl6 with 1.9781 electrons
__made from a p3 hybrid

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 3 Cl 6 Cl 6 Cl 6 Cl 6 Cl 6 -

Top of page.

Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

Top of page.

Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

29 ----- 1.613

28 ----- 1.248


27 ----- -0.432


26 ----- -1.557


25 -^-v- -7.431
24 -^-v- -7.462
23 -^-v- -7.507

22 -^-v- -7.790


21 -^-v- -9.922

20 -^-v- -10.13


19 -^-v- -11.15

18 -^-v- -11.57

17 -^-v- -12.54


16 -^-v- -15.55


15 -^-v- -18.03


14 -^-v- -21.06

13 -^-v- -22.06


12 -^-v- -190.2 11 -^-v- -190.2
10 -^-v- -190.2 9 -^-v- -190.2

8 -^-v- -190.6 7 -^-v- -190.6


6 -^-v- -248.7 5 -^-v- -248.7


4 -^-v- -268.5 3 -^-v- -268.5


2 -^-v- -2729. 1 -^-v- -2729.

Top of page.

Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -999.1341845650 Hartrees

Top of page.

-> Return to Molecular Structure Page. -> Return to Chemistry Home Page