Glossary entries derived from the CD
in the course textbook, Judd et al. (2002)

Flower Structures

Complete flower

Flower having a perianth, androecium, and gynoecium.
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Incomplete flower

Flower lacking one or more of the floral parts, i.e., missing either the perianth, androecium, and/or gynoecium.
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Imperfect flower

Flower lacking either an androecium (stamens) or a gynoecium (carpels); also called a unisexual flower.


With staminate and carpellate flowers borne on separate plants.

Adnate/ adnation

Fusion of unlike parts, as stamens with the corolla.

Epipetalous stamens

Stamens adnate (fused) to the corolla.
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Carpels separate.
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Petals separate.


Sepals separate.
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Tepals separate.

Sympetalous flower

Flower with fused petals.
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Funnel shaped corolla ( funnelform)

Same as infundibuliform.


Two-lipped; typically applied to a calyx or corolla.

Bilateral symmetry

Divisible into equal halves by only one plane of symmetry; also called zygomorphic (Fig. 4.18).

Monadelphous stamens

Stamens fused by their filaments in a single group, usually forming a tube.


Stamens with their filaments fused to form two groups, such as the 9 + 1 condition in some Fabaceae.

Didynamous stamens

Four stamens, two long and two short.

Tetradynamous stamens

With four long and two short stamens.


With perianth parts and stamens arising from below the ovary, and the ovary thus superior (Fig. 4.21).
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Flat, cuplike, or tubular structure on which the sepals, petals, and stamens are borne (Fig. 4.21); usually formed from the fused bases of the perianth parts and stamens or from a modified receptacle; also called a floral cup or floral tube.

Inferior ovary

Ovary that is positioned beneath the point of attachment of the other floral parts, which appear, therefore, to arise from its apex (Fig. 4.21).
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With perianth and stamens apparently borne upon the ovary (Fig. 4.21) and the ovary, therefore, inferior.
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Determinate inflorescence

Inflorescence in which the axis is converted into a flower, resulting in the cessation of growth of that axis. See also dichasium.



Inflorescence consisting of a dense, elongated mass of inconspicuous, usually wind-pollinated flowers; also called an ament.

Compound umbel

Umbel of umbels, i.e., the peduncle of each simple umbel arising from a common point.


Raceme with the pedicels of the lowermost flowers elongated, bringing all flowers to more or less the same level, i.e., a flat-topped raceme (Fig. 4.30).


Determinate, compound inflorescence composed of repeating units of a pedicel bearing a terminal flower and below it, one or two bracteoles; each bracteole is associated with an axillary flower, and further bracteoles, and so on (Fig. 4.29).


Compact determinate or indeterminate inflorescence with a very short, often disklike axis and usually sessile flowers (Figs. 4.29, 4.30). Also called a capitulum.
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Simple, indeterminate inflorescence with a single axis bearing pedicellate flowers (Fig. 4.30).
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Simple, indeterminate inflorescence with a single axis bearing sessile flowers (Fig. 4.30).
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Determinate or indeterminate inflorescence in which all flowers have pedicels of equal or unequal length that arise from a single region at the apex of the inflorescence axis (Fig. 4.29, 4.30).




Fairly small, indehiscent, dry fruit with a thin and close-fitting wall surrounding but free from the single seed.
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Indehiscent, fleshy fruit with (one or) a few to many seeds; the flesh may be more or less homogeneous, or the outer part of the fruit may be firm, hard, or leathery.
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Dry to rarely fleshy fruit from a two- to many-carpellate gynoecium that opens in various ways to release the seed or seeds.
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Small, indehiscent, dry fruit with a thin wall surrounding and more or less fused to a single seed.
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Indehiscent, fleshy fruit in which the outer part is more or less soft (to occasionally leathery or fibrous) and the center contains one or more hard pits or stones consisting of a bony endocarp surrounding a seed or seeds.
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Dry to rarely fleshy fruit derived from a single carpel that opens along a single (usually adaxial) longitudinal suture.
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A berry with a tough exocarp where the fleshy mesocarp is derived from glandular hairs, as in Citrus.


Dry, more or less elongated fruit derived from a single carpel that opens, often explosively, along two longitudinal sutures; the most common fruit type of members of Fabaceae.
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Fairly large, indehiscent, dry fruit with a thick bony wall surrounding a single seed.
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Indehiscent, fleshy fruit in which the outer part is soft and the center contains papery to cartilaginous structures enclosing the seeds; characteristic fruit of apples, pears, quinces, and most other members of Rosaceae subfam. Maloideae.
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Aggregate fruit

Fruit that develops from several separate carpels of a single flower. Aggregate of achenes,

Aggregate of drupes,

Aggregate of follicles,
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Multiple fruit

Fruit produced by the gynoecia of several closely clustered flowers.
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