Colby Liberal Arts Symposium 2016
April 28, Colby College, Waterville, Maine


Project Abstracts - Alphabetically by Author

'DOOMED, BOURGEOIS, IN LOVE': WHIT STILLMAN'S 'YUPPIE TRILOGY' IN THE CONTEXT OF NEOLIBERALISM   (Oral Presentation)
Jesse Dritz ('16), American Studies
'Do yuppies even exist? No one says, 'I am a yuppie,' it's always the other guy who's a yuppie. I think for a group to exist somebody has to admit to being a part of it.' Newsweek' named 1984 'The Year of the Yuppie.' Yet, Stillman's 1990s independent film trilogy suggests that yuppies defied categorization because society's sheer, collective hatred drove them to denial. My project analyzes Stillman's 'Yuppie Trilogy' as a body of work that reflects America's changing social and cultural landscape in the 1980s and '90s. Critics have suggested that Stillman's films are F. Scott Fitzgerald for a new era and, true to this comparison, Stillman is overtly preoccupied with issues of social class. Stillman's young yuppies and preppies discuss the anxiety and confusion produced by the country's class reshuffling as it shifted toward Neoliberalism. The trilogy's deft comedy highlights the absurdity of American society's most privileged group being plagued with an overwhelming sense of doom.
THE STORIES WE TELL OURSELVES ABOUT WAR: A DISCOURSE IN WAR NARRATIVES IN AMERICAN LITERATURE   (Oral Presentation)
Erin Figel ('16), American Studies
This paper will look at the stories veterans write about their wars by examining three novels on three different wars: Hemingway's 'A Farewell to Arms;' Tim O'Brien's 'The Things They Carried;' and Phil Klay's 'Redeployment.'
FOODIE FASCISM: TREND OR TRADITION?   (Oral Presentation)
Lauren Gluck ('16), American Studies
It has come to my attention, especially in the last four years, that eating has become less fun than it used to be. Gone are the days of late night snacking, and ice cream just becausebut why? Where did this come from, and when did it happen? Did it begin in the 1980s, when the cosmopolitan yuppies decided that they wanted Buns of Steel like Jane Fonda? Or did it happen at the turn of the century, when super foods became more magical than super heroes? When did women start policing themselves, and each other? Do we really believe that self-control makes us more powerful? Younger? More beautiful? Whats a cleanse, and where did we get the idea that we need to stop eating in order to stay healthy? Why do we do this, and how did we get here? In beginning to consider these questions, my mind continued to jump to one lifestyle blog in particular that I believe is perfectly representative of this new era of foodism: goop. goop is a glimpse into actress Gwyneth Paltrows whole world. To her online viewers, she has opened up her home, her recipe box, her closet, and her mind. Somehow, she has created an avenue for consumers to buy into this new foodie culture, therefore making it easy for them latch on, and to get onboard with the craze. Paltrow and her team have targeted their wealthy white female consumer base to make them feel supported and worthy of self-reinvention. I have investigated how she did this. I have explored her marketing strategy, and I am beginning to understand how exactly she gets these women to believe in what shes selling--I am so looking forward to sharing what Ive learned at CLAS this spring.
YOU CAN’T SIT WITH US: EXAMINING SOCIAL POWER HIERARCHIES THROUGH THE CLIQUE AND TTYL   (Oral Presentation)
Carli Jaff ('16), American Studies
Where do social power hierarchies come from? How has this idea of cool versus uncool (or even nerdy, in some cases) become so normalized? This presentation will discuss the use of two primary textsThe Clique by Lisi Harrison and TTYL by Lauren Myracleto investigate the phenomenon of power hierarchies and further understand how they have come about. Both of these books center on cool girls in middle and high school, respectively, and the drama and rewards that comes with being the most popular, and the meanest, girls in school. These two texts can provide us with insight into how children and adolescents learn about these power hierarchies both in and out of school and how they are communicated to and enforced upon each other. In addition, both The Clique and TTYL, as well as their many sequels, are doing importantyet harmfulcultural work by normalizing a worldview that has almost become an ideology in girlhood today. This paper investigates the construction of childhood rituals such as the sleepover, the play date, recess, and the school dance through the lenses of these texts and understand how readers of these texts then interpret these rituals and communicate and enforce these traditions onto others. I think that by rooting my study in girls adolescence and puberty, we can come to better understand how these power hierarchies translate to adulthood, specifically in our neoliberal society.
'FOR FREE?': AN ANALYSIS OF KENDRICK LAMAR'S, 'TO PIMP A BUTTERFLY'   (Oral Presentation)
Bonnie Maldonado ('16), American Studies
This project will aim to connect Kendrick Lamar's 2015 album 'To Pimp a Butterfly' to our course on neoliberalism. Through an analysis of song lyrics, the history of the political and social effects of hip hop and a close look at America's current political state, I will argue the Kendrick's album would not have been as successful if it were released at different moment in America's history and past due to its financial success and audiences positive reactions based on a deeply affective experience.
DEFINITIONS AND THE LIVED EXPERIENCE OF THE FAT BODY IN SOCIETY   (Poster)
Michelle Daigle ('16), Anthropology
An in-depth view on the definitions of fat in todays society as it relates to the lived personal experiences of those categorized as such. Using narratives of the lived experience as well as the societal definitions of fat, this poster examines how the perception of food consumption in relation to the fat body affects the everyday aspects of life and the lived experience. As well as an exploration of the movement devoted to reclaiming the category fat to create a more positive lived experience.
RICE, SEAWEED, AND RAW FISH: THE COMMODIFICATION OF THE EXOTIC   (Poster)
Maya Finkelstein ('16), Anthropology
How is it possible that we in a small city in Maine are able to go out to eat at a sushi restaurant? Is that food authentically Japanese? I am studying the commodification of sushi as an ethnic food product in the United States, from its rise in popularity in Japan, to its globalization in America: from fancy restaurants to takeout to grocery store sushi.
BISCUITS, 'BINGATE' AND SOGGY BOTTOMS: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF BAKE OFF AND ITS CULTURAL RELEVANCE   (Poster)
Katrina Gafner ('16), Anthropology
Using the Great British Bake Off as a primary case study, this project seeks to understand the television genre, FoodTV. It asks what questions such as what is the purpose of television cooking and baking shows, what draws viewers to them, and how are traditional notions of gender and class negotiated in the process? Secondary sources on celebrity chefs, cooking shows, television consumption, and the power of reality television are used to answer these questions, though crucial information comes in the forms of interviews with FoodTV fans and novices. Combining these sources, this project ultimately articulates how FoodTV is not just didactic or entertaining, but a vehicle for the construction of national and individual identities.
THE VILLAINOUS AND THE VIRTUOUS: AN ANTHROHISTORICAL LOOK AT THE PRODUCTION OF MURDER IN NINETEENTH-CENTURY LONDON   (Oral Presentation)
Katrina Gafner ('16), Anthropology
This project harnesses the methods of historical anthropology to deconstruct murder in nineteenth century London in an effort to understand the draw of spectacle, the consumption of violence, and the aims of the press. It asks how was murder created, for what purpose was this done, and why were people so drawn to consuming narratives of murder? Using the archives of the British Library, this work traces the London presss reporting of the Edgware Road Murder, while drawing parallels from similar cases, including that of Jack the Ripper. In doing so, nineteenth-century ideals about class and gender become highlighted alongside constructions of violence. Murder becomes not just can act, but a productive category of violence that was capable of turning real life events into a sensational genre for the purpose of mass entertainment.
A CULTURAL STUDY OF WINE: KNOWLEDGE AND THE HIERARCHY OF POWER   (Poster)
Gillian Katz ('16), Anthropology
THE CONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY AND PORTRAYAL OF FOOD IN CINEMA   (Poster)
Matthew Lara ('16), Anthropology
This poster seeks to examine the way that cinema portrays food and the act of eating, and how this representation of food helps construct American identity. It looks at the glorification of America as an unrivaled superpower, how food ties into traditional American family values, and how food can represent a cultural clash.
TRANSCENDING NEOLIBERALISM FOR TRANSFORMATIVE FOOD JUSTICE: ASSESSING URBAN AGRICULTURE AND COMMUNITY GARDEN INITIATIVES   (Poster)
Carla Nyquist ('16), Anthropology
The ever-increasing corporatization and industrialization of food and agricultural production has led to increased separation between people and their food/ food source. This situation is especially common in urban communities, where alienation from food production, higher prices for more healthy foods such as fruits and vegetables, and sometimes simply lack of availability or access to fresh, quality produce leads people to rely on fast food restaurants and large-scale supermarkets. Communities such as these have come to be known as food deserts, and these are particularly common in low-income and marginalized communities, especially communities of color. In response, a growing trend has been efforts to bring communities in closer contact with the mode of production of their food and provide access to healthier food options. These efforts take the shape of urban agriculture (UA) initiatives and community gardens. The main questions guiding my research are: What characteristics determine whether urban agriculture and community garden projects transcend neoliberal frameworks of food reform and work to transform the system? What factors and characteristics determine whether the projects are limited to neoliberal methods of change?In some cases, the development of urban agriculture and community garden projects appear to possess characteristics and goals with truly transformative properties, as a method of food reform outside of traditional neoliberal motivations and frameworks. However, quite often these projects seem to remain within this neoliberal framework and lack truly transformative properties.
FOOD POLITICS: A SURVEY OF IDENTITIES IN FOOD POLITICS   (Poster)
Mackenzie Reimer ('16), Anthropology
An examination of constructed identities across a range of political food projects.
GOOD MOTHERS, GOOD CITIZENS: THE BIOPOLITICS OF BREASTFEEDING IN THE UNITED STATES   (Poster)
Erin Trainor ('16), Anthropology
In my project, I will examine the role that breastfeeding plays in shaping identities. I am particularly interested in breastfeeding's relationship with cultural ideas about what it means to be a good/bad mother and woman in the United States. I will trace how ideas about these identities have changed over time and learn how American women balance culturally specific expectations of motherhood and womanhood and their professions. How have traditional practices, like the use of wet nurses, and new technologies, such as breast pumps and formula, enabled mothers to be professionals while fulfilling maternal obligations? What risks do these practices and technologies pose for women and children? What is the role of scientific research in creating maternal obligations? In what ways has the state intervened to shape ideas about what/how women should feed their children? Many doctors claim that breastfeeding is the best way for mothers to give their children a good start, and it is widely accepted that breast milk is nutritious. Why, then, is breastfeeding often discouraged in public spaces? How have breasts become much more than feeding tools? What role does female sexuality have in the breastfeeding discourse?
TATTOOS ON PROFESSIONAL FEMALE ATHLETES   (Oral Presentation)
Mackenzie Hitchcock ('16), Art
It is a fact that female athletes are very strong, both mentally and physically. It is also true that tattoos in general historically make people seem tougher, often being associated with the outsiders, prisoners, war, gangs, and the rebel youth. In addition, people often get tattoos because of some hardship in their life or something they have had to overcome, resulting in a tougher mentality. The process of getting a tattoo is also painful, which could potentially make someone tougher. I will analyze interviews with female professional athletes who have tattoos as well as those without tattoos. I hope to reveal that the tattoos on female professional athletes make their image tougher.
IS THERE A NEED FOR ARTISTIC PRESERVATION? INVESTIGATING DESTRUCTION IN THE NEAR EAST IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY   (Oral Presentation)
Emily Nelson ('16), Art
The Western popular media has closely scrutinized the actions of extremist groups in Palmyra, Iraq, and Bamiyan, citing the urgent need to preserve cultural heritage in the Near East. Only rarely do we see the media attempting to understand motivations for destroying cultural monuments in the name of religion. Art historical scholarship has adopted a similar position and is unwilling to accept actions or views that work against its conceptions of appropriate cultural heritage and artistic preservation. Art history as a discipline sees itself as open to accepting a variety of interpretations, which is why this paper will point out an exception. By reading art historical scholarship alongside recent news articles about the Near East, this paper will ask how we might see this recent position of art historical scholarship as a limitation of Western art history today.
WHAT IS MISSING? MAYA LINS ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS ART AND ITS SCIENTIFIC COLLABORATIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Eleanor Ozburn ('16), Art
Today there is a broad call for cross-disciplinary collaborations in the visual arts, specifically between art and science. Artists have been using science in their environmentally conscious work since the 1800s, but today the collaborations are much more publicly celebrated. Maya Lin appears to answer todays call for cross-disciplinary collaborations, for her works include scientific data and call attention to global environmental problems. However, my critique of Lins What is Missing? and other collaborative projects shows that they continue to deemphasize the role of scientists in order to maintain the authority of the artist. This paper thus aims to shed light on the art/science relationships in environmentally conscious art and to reveal that the limitations placed on science and scientists within such work ultimately limit the art itself.
TO CAPTURE OR TO MOLD: DEFINING THE BORDER BETWEEN VISUAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND CONTEMPORARY ART PHOTOGRAPHY   (Oral Presentation)
Hye Park ('16), Art
The relationship between contemporary art photography and cultural anthropology is a subject that scholars have discussed since the late twentieth century. Today the border between the two disciplines has yet to be clearly drawn. This paper argues for the importance of distinguishing the methods and aims of these practices. Art photographers actively choose to represent their subjects, while cultural anthropologists study how their subjects represent themselves in a cultural environment and base their thoughts about people, places, and identities on that acquired knowledge. By observing visual ethnographies and contemporary photographs, this paper will claim that without their differentiation acknowledged in scholarship, one could misinterpret the subjective vision of an artist as a cultures portrayal of itself.
A TRANSNATIONAL CONVERSATION: MAINE FOLK ART, MARSDEN HARTLEY, YASUO KUNIYOSHI   (Oral Presentation)
Francesca Soriano ('16), Art
In 1910, Hamilton Easter Field, an artist, critic, and teacher, founded the Ogunquit School of Painting and Sculpture in a small coastal town in southern Maine. Modernist artists Marsden Hartley and Yasuo Kuniyoshi spent summers at the Ogunquit School and were encouraged by Field who instructed his students in 1913 to live in touch with native Ogunquit life. Field hoped that if artists at his school engaged with and collected vernacular, locally made art objects, then their work would express a national American identity, thus making it nationally significant. The outcome, however, was quite different. Hartley and Kuniyoshi used folk art to forge transatlantic artistic identities and styles that they infused with German and Japanese influences. Instead of creating a national American identity, the work they created in Ogunquit demands a new reading of American folk art in dialogue with early modernism that operated within a global context.
JEWS AND TATTOOS: THE CONVERGENCE OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND MODERN MORALITY   (Oral Presentation)
Lily Steig ('16), Art
An oft-quoted passage, Leviticus 19:28, specifically forbids the chosen people from getting tattoos. Although the more liberal factions of the people of the book have debated the nuances of this statement, it seems pretty clear that for a matrix of complex religious reasons, Judeo-Christians are not permitted to get tattoos. This stricture most likely arose due to the tendency of pagans to mark themselves with the symbols of their alleged false idols, but the Biblical passage has since taken on new layers of meanings as a marker of a common identity through abstinence. Indeed, literature regarding Jews and tattoos often cites the law against tattooing as one of the best-known pieces of Jewish culture. Since World War II, tattoos have taken on still more connotations within Jewish communities, for no discussion of Jews and tattoos is free of the shadow of the forcible tattoos inflicted upon the Jewish prisoners at Auschwitz. Despite these aspects of Jewish history that would appear to make a Jews decision to get inked fraught with ingrained cultural and religious specters, American Jews have thronged to tattoo parlors since the inception of our modern Tattoo Renaissance in the 1990s. To the horror of their parents and religious mentors, young American Jews get tattoos for myriad reasons: for fashion or other frivolous aesthetic whims, to commemorate moments in their lives, or, most interestingly, to celebrate some aspect of the Jewish culture or heritage that condemns their tributary body art. In my paper, I will compare the American Jewish participation in this tattoo fad to the Israeli population and to American Christian tattoo culture.
TATTOOS AND SELF-HARM   (Oral Presentation)
Molly Wu ('18), Art
The presentation will delve into the history of self harm in society and how, what and why tattoos are used as a coping mechanism for these particular victims.
MONEY MATTERS: TRACING THE ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ART MARKET IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONTEMPORARY CHINESE ART   (Oral Presentation)
Shauna Yuan ('16), Art
The international market for Contemporary Chinese art has grown more rapidly than any other art market. Before the turn of the century, this body of work did not enjoy as much of the critical respect and cachet as it does today. However, only a select group of artists, who all began their careers following the end of the Cultural Revolution in 1977, constitute the core of western scholarship and exhibitions. Whereas, little has been said about artists outside of this group. As a result of price inflation and the same signature styles that appear at auction, critics and art historians have questioned whether contemporary Chinese artists who have found success on the global market are catering to Euro-American demand or challenging artistic values and taste across the globe in a lasting and meaningful way. This presentation aims to shed light on how market demand for contemporary Chinese art in the west has shaped its reception in the international art world.
RETHINKING ASIAN INFLUENCES IN THE ART OF THE STIEGLITZ CIRCLE   (Oral Presentation)
Zhicheng Zhang ('16), Art
Coming together at the turn of the nineteenth century in New York, the Stieglitz circle developed an American modernist visual vocabulary, drawing from European avant-garde art and non-Western iconographies and philosophies. Some scholars have explored the intersections of modernism and Orientalism, but the Stieglitz circle has been absent from those discussions, although there have been some studies of its use of African art. Responding to that absence, this project identifies important Asian influences in the paintings of Marsden Hartley, Arthur Dove, Max Weber, and Joseph Stella and reveals the Orientalist tendencies in their work. My research thus reveals a transcultural dimension to a key avant-garde movement in the United States and, in turn, alters traditional scholarly views of Orientalism.
POMPE DISEASE: A REVIEW OF A RARE GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISORDER   (Poster)
Anna Donovan ('17) and Katherine Metayer ('17), Biochemistry
In the United States, as many as 200,000 people suffer from rare diseases. There are over 7,000 known rare diseases, but each disease often affects only a handful of people. With limited sample sizes--and little funding for research--few treatment options are available. Pompe disease is one example of a rare disease that affects approximately 1 in 40,000 Americans. Pompe disease was the first lysosomal enzyme disorder for which enzyme replacement therapy was studied. This disease is caused by a mutation in the α-glucosidase gene, with over 180 different mutations known to cause the disorder. When this gene is absent or deficient, glycogen cannot be broken down and accumulates in the lysozomes. Clinically, Pompe disease is characterized by cardiomyopathy, muscular hypotonia, respiratory infections, and failure to thrive. This disease manifests itself in two forms: infantile and late onset. The infantile form is characterized by a total lack of α-glucosidase, resulting in a buildup of glycogen in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. The late onset form is a progressive condition with varying amounts of α-glucosidase activity and presents with similar symptoms as the infantile form. The lifespan and quality of life for people diagnosed with Pompe Disease are variably affected, with late-onset patients living into their 40s and 50s. The lifespan of those with infantile onset Pompe disease varies depending on when treatment begins. The standard treatment is α-glucosidase enzyme replacement therapy, though trials are currently being conducted in order to investigate other potential treatment options. Despite ongoing efforts, individuals with Pompe disease lose the ability to use vital muscles and eventually succumb to the disease.
TREATMENT DELIVERED: SUCCESSFUL DOMINO LIVER TRANSPLANTATION IN A PATIENT WITH MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE   (Poster)
Taylor Enrico ('17) and Emily Leach ('17), Biochemistry
Maple Syrup Urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which mutations in the human branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD) result in elevated levels of the branched-chain amino acids (Leu, Ile, and Val) and their corresponding alpha-ketoacids. BCKD normally functions to catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain keto-acids. Most MSUD-causing mutations decrease or prevent catalytic activity as a result of single amino acid switches that affect cofactor binding, formation of the hydrophobic enzyme core, or subunit association. The high levels of valine, isoleucine, and leucine that result from mutated BCKD can cause numerous symptoms that first present a week after birth. Symptoms include a maple syrup odor in urine, brain swelling, stroke, seizure, coma, fetal acidosis, altered mental status, mental retardation, failure to thrive, and sudden death. There are several types of MSUD, which have different levels of severity, but classic cases result in the most severe symptoms and, subsequently, have the fewest treatment options. Recent developments in treatment include dietary changes, specially designed baby formula, and liver transplantation. Dietary restriction and specially designed formula reduce dietary intake of leucine, isoleucine, and valine and introduce supplements, while liver transplantation introduces cells that can produce functional forms of the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. In the 1950s, life expectancy of MSUD patients was, at most, a few months. Now, as a result of newly developing treatments, children with MSUD can live relatively normal lives. Here, a case study is presented in which domino liver transplantation is used successfully to treat a 2-year-old boys MSUD symptoms.
A REVIEW OF MEDIUM CHAIN ACYL-COA DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY   (Poster)
Pralaksha Gurung ('16) and Calvin Robbins ('17), Biochemistry
Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) converts fatty acids into energy when there is a low availability of glucose. Patients with a deficiency in this protein often present in childhood because the symptoms of the disease are easily triggered by short periods of fasting or vomiting. An autosomal recessive ACADM gene mutation, which affects fatty acid 𝛽-oxidation in the mitochondria is responsible for MCAD deficiency. Prenatal screening and genetic counseling can determine the chance of having a child with MCAD. Women carrying a fetus with MCAD can exhibit MCAD symptoms such as fatigue, jaundice, and nausea as their body compensates for the fetal energy deficiency. MCAD deficiency is easier to detect in earlier stages of the individuals life. In adulthood, the symptoms presented are similar to that of substance abuse, making the diagnosis more complicated. The mutation is most common in people of Northern European heritage. Symptoms include fatigue, nausea, and low blood sugar. Without MCAD, patients rely heavily on the liver to store and break down glycogen to provide energy in times of fasting. This overuse of the liver often results in liver damage. The most effective treatment for MCAD deficiency is simply through a diet of starchy foods and minimizing time between food intake to maintain a large supply of carbohydrates for cells to use as energy, allowing people with MCAD deficiency to survive with relatively few long-term health effects. However, the chance for severe developmental and physiological damage increases with each metabolic emergency a patient experiences, so maintenance of a high starch diet is very important.
GLUTARIC ACIDEMIA: NEUROLOGICAL DISORDER AND THE QUEST FOR DIAGNOSTICS   (Poster)
Sarah Lane-Reticker ('16) and Robert Cummings ('16), Biochemistry
Characterized by buildup of glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutarylcarnitine, and sometimes glutaconic acid, glutaric acidemia I is a rare inherited genetic disorder caused by a variety of mutations in the GCDH gene. GCDH codes for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), an enzyme that converts glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA as part of the degradation process for the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine, and tryptophan. Without GCDH, these amino acids accumulate in the brain, and glutaric acidemia manifests itself in a set of neurological symptoms, which culminate in death if the condition is left untreated. Treatment is fairly straightforward in theory: a lysine-restricted diet, typically coupled with lysine-free amino acid dietary supplements. However, this diet is generally only effective when applied to presymptomatic patients, which creates a crucial diagnostic dilemma. Recently, thanks to groundbreaking advances in instrumental diagnostic chemistry, tandem mass spectrometry in infants has been used to cheaply and accurately detect tell-tale analytes (specifically glutaryl carnitine) and diagnose glutaric acidemia before the devastating neurological symptoms begin to appear. While historically this disease has been associated with high morbidity, these clinical breakthroughs have considerably improved the prognosis, making life with glutaric acidemia relatively manageable.
POMPE DISEASE: A REVIEW OF A RARE GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISORDER   (Poster)
Katherine Metayer ('17) and Anna Donovan ('17), Biochemistry
In the United States, as many as 200,000 people suffer from rare diseases. There are over 7,000 known rare diseases, but each disease often affects only a handful of people. With limited sample sizes--and little funding for research--few treatment options are available. Pompe disease is one example of a rare disease that affects approximately 1 in 40,000 Americans. Pompe disease was the first lysosomal enzyme disorder for which enzyme replacement therapy was studied. This disease is caused by a mutation in the α-glucosidase gene, with over 180 different mutations known to cause the disorder. When this gene is absent or deficient, glycogen cannot be broken down and accumulates in the lysozomes. Clinically, Pompe disease is characterized by cardiomyopathy, muscular hypotonia, respiratory infections, and failure to thrive. This disease manifests itself in two forms: infantile and late onset. The infantile form is characterized by a total lack of α-glucosidase, resulting in a buildup of glycogen in skeletal muscle and heart tissues. The late onset form is a progressive condition with varying amounts of α-glucosidase activity and presents with similar symptoms as the infantile form. The lifespan and quality of life for people diagnosed with Pompe Disease are variably affected, with late-onset patients living into their 40s and 50s. The lifespan of those with infantile onset Pompe disease varies depending on when treatment begins. The standard treatment is α-glucosidase enzyme replacement therapy, though trials are currently being conducted in order to investigate other potential treatment options. Despite ongoing efforts, individuals with Pompe disease lose the ability to use vital muscles and eventually succumb to the disease.
LESCH-NYHAN DISEASE: EVOLVING TREATMENT METHODS AND UNDERSTANDING OF NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS   (Poster)
Dylan Park ('16) and Paul Scott ('16), Biochemistry
Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) is a disorder in the metabolism of purine nucleotides. This disorder is caused by a deficiency in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), an enzyme responsible for conversion of free guanine to GMP. When this pathway is slowed or halted by the deficiency in HPRT, guanine and hypoxanthine accumulate and other metabolic pathways for their metabolism, which produce uric acid, increase in activity. This increase in uric acid levels constitutes a form of gout and can contribute to kidney problems. The lack of availability of purines from this salvage pathway also increases the rate of de novo production of purines and the buildup of phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate (PRPP), another substrate involved in the metabolism of nucleotides that characterizes a rise in uric acid levels. Other symptoms of LND include neurological disorders resulting in muscle weakness and neurological disability with the most sever being self-mutilating behaviors. The correlation between elevated uric acid levels and neurological disorders is currently up for debate. Some evidence suggests that there is a lack of dopamine production due to the lack of guanosine-triphosphate, an important compound for dopamine synthesis, while other evidence argues that the abnormalities arise from oxidative stress that results from being exposed to high acid levels. Current treatment options for LND are based entirely on the symptoms. Patients can be given allopurinol to reduce uric acid level and kidney stones can be treated with lithotripsy. The neurological symptoms are much harder to treat but results have been seen with drugs such as haloperidol or benzodiazepines. Recent research is focusing on early detection biomarkers and improved treatment methods for the neurological damage.
GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISORDER TYPE IIIA: A REVIEW OF CURRENT AND POTENTIAL MANAGEMENT AND TREATMENT TECHNIQUES   (Poster)
Alexandru Plesa ('17) and William Simmons ('17), Biochemistry
Glycogen storage disease type III (GSDIII) is caused by a defect in the glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE) gene, which encodes the protein that releases stored sugars for energy production. The disease has four distinct forms (types IIIa-d), the most common of which is type IIIa that manifests in both the liver and muscles. GSDIIIa is characterized by muscle weakness and damage, liver damage, low blood sugar, high blood fat, and increased levels of liver enzymes in the blood. Patients can suffer damage to heart muscle which carries serious implications. While no true treatment exists for this disease, it has been effectively managed through manipulation of patients diets. One of the major concerns in managing GSDIIIa is the risk of hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, which may cause damage or death in many tissue types including the brain and heart muscles. Patients with GSDIIIa are susceptible to severe hypoglycemia within short periods after eating due to their inability to regulate blood sugar. To combat this, patients are instructed to consume complex carbohydrates, large carbohydrates consisting of simple sugars linked together, rather than simple sugars alone. Complex carbohydrates are broken down slowly, providing a steady source of sugar between meals. Patients are encouraged to consume cornstarch, a very slowly broken down (and unappetizing) carbohydrate, as a long-term source of sugar. This inconvenience has driven a search for alternative approaches in recent years. Doctors have experimented with diets high in protein and fats, both of which are sources of fuel, and low in carbohydrates with success. This review examines the efficacy of a modified version of the Atkins Diet in two young patients with GSDIIIa, which allowed them to live healthily without cornstarch treatment.
EXPRESSION OF THE HSP70 GENE IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA INCREASES AS A RESULT OF HEAT STRESS TREATMENT AT TWO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES   (Oral Presentation)
Paul Scott ('16), Biochemistry
HSP70 is a protein responsible for the protection of other proteins in organisms subjected to heat stress or other environmental stressors. It is a member of the heat shock protein (HSP) family of proteins, which serve as molecular chaperones and prevent denaturation of proteins due to stresses. To study its expression as a function of environmental and developmental factors, both four- and six- week old pots of Arabidopsis thaliana were separated into two groups each, subjecting one of each age to heat stress at elevated temperature. RNA was then isolated from a leaf tissue sample from each group, and qRT-PCR was performed on these samples of isolated RNA, comparing HSP70 mRNA to the constitutively expressed structural protein ACTIN to determine relative expression levels. The six week old groups were both found to have much higher average expression of HSP70 than their four week old counterparts, suggesting that the role of HSP70 is more pronounced as the plants age, although this difference was not found to be statistically significant due to high variation in expression, particularly in the former groups. Comparing heat-treated groups to their control counterparts, it was found that HSP70 was expressed at a higher rate in the heat-treated groups, suggesting that HSP70 has a role in protection against heat stress, although high variation again hindered the statistical significance of this trend.
LESCH-NYHAN DISEASE: EVOLVING TREATMENT METHODS AND UNDERSTANDING OF NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS   (Poster)
Paul Scott ('16) and Dylan Park ('16), Biochemistry
Lesch-Nyhan Disease (LND) is a disorder in the metabolism of purine nucleotides. This disorder is caused by a deficiency in hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), an enzyme responsible for conversion of free guanine to GMP. When this pathway is slowed or halted by the deficiency in HPRT, guanine and hypoxanthine accumulate and other metabolic pathways for their metabolism, which produce uric acid, increase in activity. This increase in uric acid levels constitutes a form of gout and can contribute to kidney problems. The lack of availability of purines from this salvage pathway also increases the rate of de novo production of purines and the buildup of phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate (PRPP), another substrate involved in the metabolism of nucleotides that characterizes a rise in uric acid levels. Other symptoms of LND include neurological disorders resulting in muscle weakness and neurological disability with the most sever being self-mutilating behaviors. The correlation between elevated uric acid levels and neurological disorders is currently up for debate. Some evidence suggests that there is a lack of dopamine production due to the lack of guanosine-triphosphate, an important compound for dopamine synthesis, while other evidence argues that the abnormalities arise from oxidative stress that results from being exposed to high acid levels. Current treatment options for LND are based entirely on the symptoms. Patients can be given allopurinol to reduce uric acid level and kidney stones can be treated with lithotripsy. The neurological symptoms are much harder to treat but results have been seen with drugs such as haloperidol or benzodiazepines. Recent research is focusing on early detection biomarkers and improved treatment methods for the neurological damage.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE BULLPEN   (Oral Presentation)
Samantha Attar ('18), Biology
Discussion and analysis of the bullpen and how its transformation has altered pitching objectives and thus the game of baseball.
AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN MLB   (Oral Presentation)
Conor Bruen ('17), Biology
Why are there less African-Americans playing in the MLB? In 1981 about 20% of players were African-American. Today there are only 7%.
MALE NUPTIAL COLORATION BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF STICKLEBACK, GASTEROSTEUS ACULEATUS AND CULAEA INCONSTANS.   (Oral Presentation)
John Burton ('17), Biology
N/A
MELATONIN RECEPTOR STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN ARTHROPODS   (Oral Presentation)
James Connelly ('16), Biology
Melatonin is an indoleamine hormone whose primary role in vertebrates is the modulation of circadian rhythms by signaling photoperiod length. In vertebrates, it achieves this function, along with a number of other behavioral and physiological functions, through its three membrane-bound receptors, MT1, MT2, and MT3. While we know that melatonin is expressed endogenously in invertebrates and a numerous studies have demonstrated its similar functions to vertebrate melatonin, no specific protein has ever been identified as a true melatonin receptor in arthropods. My study used a wide variety of bioinformatics tools to provide genomic evidence of the existence of membrane-bound melatonin receptors in the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. Through my bioinformatics research, I identified several candidate proteins and examined their three-dimensional structure and function based on known protein models. One of these proteins, in particular, showed high structural and functional similarity to vertebrate MT2, and is likely a crustacean melatonin receptor.
TECHNOLOGY OF THE BASEBALL BAT   (Oral Presentation)
James Craig ('17), Biology
Pecha kechu presentation focused on the technology of the baseball bat and its effects on gameplay. The presentation will look at differences between college ball vs. the major league and the metal bat vs. the classic wood bat. Statistical gameplay differences between the different bat technologies are analyzed and interpreted through the statistics program 'R'.
DOES NATURAL SELECTION DRIVE OPUNTIA NECTAR PRODUCTION TO FOLLOW A GRADIENT OF ARIDITY?   (Oral Presentation)
John Crockett ('16), Biology
Please DO NOT re-enter your project title.
THE MYTH OF TOMMY JOHN SURGERY   (Oral Presentation)
Stephanie Desrochers ('18), Biology
For my Science and Baseball research project, I would like to explore the effects of Tommy John surgery on pitching performance. Specifically, I would like to explore the myth that some pitchers maintain: that the surgery, after recovery, actually improves pitching performance by tightening the ligament and increasing the force of a pitch. I would like to track pitching performance pre-surgery and post-surgery over time, to see how long the recovery period is to original capabilities, and whether or not pitching performance can actually improve. Although I doubt this will be the case except for maybe a few outliers, if performance does improve, this may be due to the placebo effect. Also, the recovery process of physical therapy may simply improve health and strength in general, increases pitching ability post-recovery. I will likely look at pitch speed, control (through walks and strikeouts), and ERA. For my project, I will look into the actual process of the surgery, normal recovery process and time, and finally pitching statistics.
FAMILIES IN BASEBALL: HOW MLB SUCCESS DIFFERS BETWEEN OLDER AND YOUNGER BROTHERS   (Oral Presentation)
Matthew DiAngelo ('18), Biology
An analyzation comparing older and younger brothers in baseball, using success and talent as parameters.
EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS IN THE HYBRIDIZATION OF NORTH AMERICAN SONGBIRDS   (Oral Presentation)
Paul Dougherty ('16), Biology
TBA
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL PATTERNS IN IRRUPTIVE FRINGILLID MOVEMENTS   (Oral Presentation)
Paul Dougherty ('16), Biology
Analysis of historic Christmas Bird Count and eBird records indicates that for the most part, winter movements of North American finches are similarly timed across latitudes. Many species show large irruptions into southern latitudes every other year, and for most species, this biennial pattern is most apparent across the northern and mid United States. The movements of northern-breeding species are mostly positively correlated, as are those for species that are breeding residents in southern latitudes. There is an overall negative correlation in winter movements between northern and southern breeding species.
THE ROLE OF THE INSULIN SIGNALING PATHWAY IN WING POLYPHENISM   (Poster)
Meghan Fawcett ('16), Biology
Wing Polyphenism in Jadera Haematoloma is strongly affected by environmental factors such as crowding, food availability and cage size as well as to focus specific signaling molecules within the insulin-signaling pathway. It appears as though the alteration of environment, through food availability, cage size, and crowding significantly affect wing morph, and can be used as a strong predictor of wing morph. Through the use of RNAi, InR1, InR2, Chico, and Akt were knocked down and novel phenotypes were observed. Knockdown of the genes InR1 and InR2 trended towards short winged morphs, in both high and low food situations. In the case of Chico, a majority of the individuals failed to molt into adulthood after their L5 stage. Akt bugs appear to also have a delayed molting phenotype. Through these experiments, it would appear as though interference with the insulin receptors results in a slight preference for short winged adults, whereas manipulation of Akt and Chico result in a substantial number of older, unmolted individuals.
INVASIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ACER PLATANOIDES (NORWAY MAPLE) IN NORTH AMERICA   (Oral Presentation)
Jack Flynn ('17), Biology
TBA
BASEBALL AFTER TED WILLIAMS: HOW THE EXTINCTION OF THE .400 HITTER AFFECTS HOME RUNS   (Oral Presentation)
Eleanor Hanson ('18), Biology
An analysis of the number of home runs hit since the extinction of the .400 hitter. The project will also discuss the steroid era's role in home run numbers as well as new features and techniques in baseball that help and hinder the number of home runs hit per season.
THE EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS OF THE EMERGENCE OF COYOTE- WOLF HYBRIDS IN THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES   (Oral Presentation)
Emily Held ('17), Biology
TBA
THE CALEDONIAN CROW AND USAGE OF TOOLS IN FISHING FOR FOOD   (Oral Presentation)
Gregory Ho ('16), Joseph Paluso ('19) and Emma Rosenfield ('16), Biology
Crows are regarded as very intelligent, especially compared to other birds. But the Caledonian Crow fashions a stick into a 'fishing rod' in order to extract grubs from rotten logs.
PRESENTATION OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL IN NSF FORMAT   (Oral Presentation)
Jarildy Javier ('16), Biology
TBA.
PITCHERS VS DESIGNATED HITTER BATTING   (Oral Presentation)
Marcus Jones ('18), Biology
I'm going like to look at the two leagues in pro baseball and see if the designated hitter has any significant statical effect on the major hitting categories (single, doubles, triples, home runs, etc.).I'll be comparing the hitting statics between pitchers in the national league and the ninth hitter in the american league to see if there's any differences between the two players who should be the respective worse hitters on their team .
HOME BATTING PERCENTAGE VS. AWAY BATTING PERCENTAGE   (Oral Presentation)
Ailie Kelso ('18), Biology
My project will evaluate batting percentage among teams and how it differs from home versus away games. I will research and use data to compare and see how, and if, home field plays an advantage to batters. I am curious to see if batters have a higher batting performance at a field they are more familiar with or if batters have a higher batting percentage at fields with easier dimensions that might play into their favor.
THE INFLUENCE OF FANS ON THE GAME OF BASEBALL AND THEIR EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE OF BASEBALL TEAMS   (Oral Presentation)
Kasey Kirschner ('16), Biology
This Pecha Kucha style talk will look at the effect fans of baseball have on the progression on the game by looking at specific examples of interactions between the fans and the play of game. It will also compare attendance records to win-loss records of various teams to determine any correlation between the presence of fans and the performances of the team.
DISRUPTION OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS THROUGH MISEXPRESSION OF CHMP2B INTRON5   (Oral Presentation)
Christopher Krasniak ('16) and Peter Kavaler ('16), Biology
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common early-onset neurodegenerative disease. One subtype of FTD causes the production of CHMP2B Intron5, a mutant isoform of an ESCRT-III subunit. This causes disruptions in the autosomal-lysosomal and autophagy pathways. FTD patients show a variety of neurological symptoms, including disinhibition, apathy, aggressive behavior, and circadian rhythm deficits. To investigate these circadian rhythm deficits we ectopically expressed human CHMP2B Intron5 using the GAL4-UAS system with the driver lines Cry-GAL4 and Pdf-GAL4 in Drosophila melanogaster. These drivers are specific to an important subset of circadian pacemaker neurons in the brain. Using activity monitoring, we observed moderately disrupted circadian behavior. We did not observe any cellular death phenotype through whole brain imaging. To investigate the circadian deficits we are currently examining timeless and period transcript levels to investigate possible disruption of the molecular clock. This will allow us to further describe the circadian deficits caused by CHMP2B Intron5 misexpression.
MULTIPLE INTRODUCTIONS AS A TRIGGER FOR INVASIVE BEHAVIOR OF INTRODUCED QUERCUS PALUSTRIS (PIN OAK) IN CENTRAL MAINE   (Oral Presentation)
Juvenal Lopez ('16), Biology
We genotyped pin oak parents and progeny at three chloroplast (maternally-inherited) and ten nuclear (biparentally-inherited) loci to determine whether multiple introductions may be the cause of the recent rapid proliferation of pin oak on the Colby College campus. The oldest planting was responsible for most progeny, but these progeny arose only after a second planting, suggesting multiple introductions as a trigger of successful colonization. In this study, I found that the P1 and F1 generations were equally inbred, suggesting that other mechanisms may be responsible for the observed proliferation of pin oak.
HABITAT CORRIDOR EFFECTS ON POPULATION DIFFERENTIATION OF JUNONIA COENIA   (Oral Presentation)
John Lynch ('16), Biology
Habitat fragmentation has been shown to isolate meta-populations and contribute to genetic differentiation by decreasing gene flow. A popular restoration technique used to re-establish habitat connectivity in formerly fragmented landscapes are corridors. We aim to investigate whether connecting formerly isolated populations of Junonia coenia via corridors will result in a reduction of the genetic differentiation (Fst) between these populations. If so, does the reuslting genetic homogenization contribute to decrease local adaptivity? The study will be based in the Savannah River Corridor Landscape and will utilize populations of Junonia coenia already in abundance. Our study will add to the growing body of research on corridor effectiveness as well as investigating possible unintended genetic consequences, which could effect other related species as well.
VELOCITY DEPENDENCE IN THE AGE OF THE PITCHER   (Oral Presentation)
Daniel Meyer ('16), Biology
Since 2010, which was dubbed year of the pitcher, the balance of Major League Baseball has been shifting more and more in favor of the pitcher. There are many factors than sabermetricians theorize drive this result: pitcher specialization, a growing strike zone, and increased velocity are three big ones. In this presentation I will examine what factors make a pitcher good and to what degree he relies on velocity to produce results. Using publicly available pitch by pitch data and a series of logistic regressions I will attempt to quantify to what degree a pitcher relies on velocity, control, and movement to get batters out. Will Clayton Kershaw age gracefully like Greg Maddux, or will he fall off a cliff when his fastball lose some mustard?
MODELS OF CONSISTENCY: MLB PLAYERS THAT PLAYED IN THE LITTLE LEAGUE WORLD SERIES   (Oral Presentation)
Christopher Millman ('16), Biology
A presentation highlighting players in the MLB who's names in baseball appeared much earlier on the Little League world series stage.
SUCCESS OF MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL PLAYERS WHO WERE DRAFTED IN HIGH SCHOOL VS. COLLEGE   (Oral Presentation)
Caitlyn Nolan ('17), Biology
For my project I want to explore the success of both collegiate and high school draft picks in their first year in the majors. The question that I want to have answered through my research is if high school players have a better chance of making in in the majors than those who come out of college and vice versa. In other words, should high school draft picks choose to go to college first? I will pick of sample size of veteran players, some of which came straight from high school and others that chose to attend college first and compare their career stats and look closely at their first few years in the majors. I hypothesize that collegiate draft picks will have a higher success rate for the duration of their career, where as high school recruits may experiences greater initial success, but it won't necessarily last.
PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY IN CORAL: HOST ADAPTATION TO HEAT-RESISTANT SYMBIONTS   (Oral Presentation)
Julia Park ('18), Biology
I would like to investigate the ability of coral hosts, which are more resistant to higher ocean temperatures than the symbionts they carry, to adapt to host symbionts with higher heat tolerance to prevent coral bleaching with rising ocean temperatures.
COLOR CHANGE IN ECTOTHERMIC VERTEBRATES   (Oral Presentation)
Rachel Prestigiacomo ('17), Jessica Aronis ('16), Alyson Churchill ('17) and Jamie Ross ('17), Biology
The ability to change color using chromatophores is a striking and unique adaptation widely observable among ectothermic vertebrate taxa. Creatures with the capacity to do so may change color for a variety of purposes, including communication, camouflage, thermoregulation, and display. We discuss the evolutionary advantages this character confers, and we examine the phylogeny and selective pressures that led to the evolution of this character in vertebrates. We describe the mechanism of color change, and we briefly compare and contrast this with the analogous capacity for color change exhibited by other taxa, particularly cephalopods and birds.
EARTHWORM DISTRIBUTION AND MODELING IN KENNEBEC COUNTY, ME   (Oral Presentation)
Julia Rogers ('16), Biology
Earthworms are nonnative ecosystem engineers in all areas glaciated during the Pleistocene Glaciation. In the state of Maine, earthworms are found in every county in locations where we might except to find earthworms such as compost piles. The goals of my study were to create a distribution of earthworms and study the factors that may predict their presence. To accomplish these goals, I did field research from September to November 2015. I established 36 transects in 25 different forests in Maine. At each transected, I sampled earthworms for abundance and biomass. Additionally, I collected soil samples, identified trees to the species levels, and other landscape level factors. All data was analyzed using R and ArcGIS. I found that earthworms are more likely to be found closer to roads than further way from them, and that earthworms have a significant impact on the locations where they are found. Earthworms decrease the litter depth, organic matter in the soil, the nitrogen levels in the soil, and increase the amount of phosphorous in the soil. These changes in the soil cause great changes in the forest drastically affecting the ecosystem. Earthworms are relatively slow moving invaders who are greatly facilitated by human factors.
IS REGULAR SEASON PERFORMANCE A GOOD INDICATOR OF POSTSEASON PERFORMANCE?   (Oral Presentation)
Michael Rudolf ('18), Biology
Will be using statistical analysis to determine whether or not regular season performance is any indication of playoff performance in baseball.
CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO A NEONICOTINOID INCREASES EXPRESSION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE GENES IN THE BUMBLE BEE (BOMBUS IMPATIENS)   (Oral Presentation)
William Simmons ('17), Biology
Bumble bees are important pollinators all over the world. However, in recent years, there has been concern for the health of global bumble bee populations due to a range of factors including parasitism and pesticide exposure. Previous study of the European bumble bee, Bombus terrestris, has shown that exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides reduces colony growth and queen production. Here we explore the possibility of an interaction between pesticide exposure and immune function. Specifically, we utilize qRT-PCR to test whether chronic exposure to the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid at field-realistic concentrations impacts the expression of messenger RNA transcripts (mRNA) of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). AMPs play an important role in the insect immune system, and have been shown to defend bees against gram negative and positive bacteria, fungi, and trypanosomal infections. Using commercial B. impatiens colonies in small field enclosures, baseline variations in AMP expression were explored over three weeks. Imidacloprid exposures were then made during a four-week period. Our data demonstrate that chronic low-dose exposure to imidacloprid in sugar syrup and pollen results in altered expression of AMPs, compared to controls. This may represent a direct effect of imidacloprid or a stress-like response to other physiological and behavioral effects of the pesticide. Our findings raise important questions on the impacts of this interaction between bees and pesticides, and beg further study to understand their implications.
A NOVEL BIOINFORMATICS APPROACH TO MOTIF IDENTIFICATION IN PROTEINS   (Oral Presentation)
Carl Vitzthum ('16), Biology
Big data and its collection and analysis lie at the forefront of biological research. As a relatively new field, bioinformatics handles increasingly large amount of biological data through an interdisciplinary combination of biology, computer science, and other quantitative approaches. This project uses a set of novel bioinformatics programs to identify, search for, and visualize highly conserved motifs within groups of proteins. The resulting information can then be used in many ways, including protein characterization, evolutionary analysis, or as a basis for laboratory-based precise molecular studies. The programs were written in the scripting language Python and employ a number of widely used bioinformatics methods. Gene or protein sequences are used as an input to the programs, which provide output for motif identification and visualization on exon, motif, and whole protein based models. As one demonstrable use of the methods developed, highly conserved motifs were used to classify different orthologous groups of the circadian clock gene Cryptochrome among a wide group of arthropods; specific focus was given to the Cryptochromes of the crustacean, Daphnia pulex. Themes spanned by this project include programming, bioinformatics, genetics, and molecular and evolutionary biology.
COMPARATIVE SEED BANK SURVIVAL OF COMPETING NATIVE AND INVASIVE PLANTS   (Oral Presentation)
Shayla Williams ('16), Biology
Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a highly invasive species able to form persistent and prolific seed banks which are key to its ability to invade. Its seed banking ability is largely due to bountiful seed production. However cattail species (Typha spp.), which are some of loosestrifes most common competitors, have comparable seed production rates but less abundant seed banks, suggesting that there may be a difference in belowground seed survival. Given the importance of fungal pathogens to seed viability, we examined if soil fungi differentially affect seed germination rates of purple loosestrife and cattail species. We surveyed the above and below ground densities of both species to determine natural seed bank dynamics. We then buried packets of purple loosestrife and cattail seeds in field soil, treated half with fungicide, and kept samples dry, well-watered or saturated during greenhouse incubation. We grew fungal cultures from seeds that were exhumed after 4-5 weeks. After 14 weeks, all packets were exhumed and seeds were monitored for germination in a growth chamber. Our results suggest that purple loosestrife seeds are present at significantly higher abundances in the seed bank than cattails (p<0.001). We found that although purple loosestrifes fungal infection rate was higher than cattail (p=0.022), fungicide did not significantly affect loosestrifes germination rate (p=0.0680) and it did significantly affect that of cattails (p<0.001). Additionally, we found that all water treatments as well as fungicide x water interactions were significant in cattail seeds (p<0.001). Our results indicate that in saturated conditions, where both of these species commonly occur, fungi-mediated seed mortality may partially determine differential seed bank densities.
SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWISTED PHENANTHRENES   (Oral Presentation)
Nicholas Kim ('16), Chemistry
My project follows a series of syntheses starting with 1,3-dibromobenzene and ending with 4,5 dibromophenanthrene. This novel final product is interesting in that it creates a severe twist in the base phenanthrene molecule, which is otherwise resides in a single plane. More work is being done on the replacement of bromine substituents with tertiary butyl groups in an attempt to create an even further twist.
THE PHOTOCHEMICAL GENERATION OF CYCLOHEXYNE FROM A HYDROCARBON PRECURSOR   (Oral Presentation)
Daniel Maurer ('16), Chemistry
Photolysis of phenanthrene-based methylenecyclopropane derivatives have previously been shown to generate alkylidenecarbenes, which readily rearrange to form alkynes. In this work, we show that photolysis of an analogous cyclic alkylidenecarbene precursor at ambient temperature forms cyclohexyne via the putative cyclopentylidenecarbene, and can be trapped by dienes by a Diels-Alder reaction. Cyclohexyne and other strained cycloalkynes are of much interest to theoreticians and experimentalists alike. Results of our coupled-cluster and DFT calculations on the potential energy surface of cyclopentylidenecarbene and the corresponding strained cyclohexyne will be also presented. The photochemical generation of cyclopentylidenecarbene, and thus cyclohexyne, from a hydrocarbon precursor that is readily synthesized and conveniently handled is a first, and will likely facilitate further structural studies using matrix isolation spectroscopy and kinetic investigations by femtosecond laser flash photolysis.
STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAJOR MONOADDUCTS AND CROSS-LINKS FORMED BY EPICHLOROHYDRIN   (Oral Presentation)
Paul Scott ('16), Chemistry
Epichlorohydrin (ECH) is a probable human carcinogen widely used in the synthetic polymer industry. Rats exposed by inhalation to this compound show an increased incidence of tumors of the nasal cavity, and exposed human industrial workers show a variety of ill effects, including chromosomal aberrations. Our ultimate goal is to understand the molecular mechanism by which this agent causes its biological effects. Previous work in our lab suggests that ECH reacts with DNA at deoxyguanosine residues to form both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. Because the compound has two reactive groups, an epoxide and chloride, it can react to form two possible monoadducts. The immediate goals of this work are to determine which monoadduct is actually formed on the way to cross-links and to confirm the structure of the cross-link. We are reacting ECH with defined sequence oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA and then characterizing the products. To demonstrate that cross-links form in plasmid DNA and to optimize reaction time, linearized plasmid is reacted in a time course with ECH, and the products are denatured and then analyzed on an agarose gel. Cross-links have the same mobility as a double-stranded control, which appears retarded relative to a single-stranded control. To characterize the structures of the monoadducts and cross-links formed, modified guanine residues are released through thermal hydrolysis and characterized through a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Agilent 6200 Series), which determines the mass of each product. The experimental masses seen in the mass spectrum are then compared to the predicted mass of each monoadduct and the presumed cross-link.
DETERMINATION OF THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LAROMUSTINE AND SMALL MOLECULES ON GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME USING A CHEMICAL GENETIC SCREEN   (Oral Presentation)
Ryan Weeks ('16), Chemistry
Laromustine is a chemotherapeutic sulfonylhydrazine prodrug used in treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in clinical trial. While treatment of AML has shown to be more effective, there still exists evidence that laromustine may be a successful treatment plan for GBM. A chemical genetic screen is a technique used to determine the enhanced effects between pairs of molecules. This technique is used to determine the synergistic effects between laromustine and a library of small, FDA-approved molecules to identify more effective ways of killing immortalized glioblastoma cells.
EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF METHYLPHENYLVINYLIDENE AND ITS REARRANGEMENTS   (Oral Presentation)
Xi Yang ('16), Chemistry
Carbene, known as fundamental intermediate, is a neutral species with divalent carbon. In this study, we focused on methylphenylvinylidene, an unsaturated carbene with methyl and phenyl groups as substituents. A phenanthrene-based precursor, 1-(1-phenylethylidene)-1a,9b-dihydro-1H-cyclopropa[l]phenanthrene, was synthesized in three steps and underwent photolysis in C6D6 at ambient temperature. Methylphenylvinylidene carbene was produced through photolysis, and its generation was confirmed by trapping with cyclohexene, which gave a carbene-alkene cycloadduct. During photolysis, the carbene rearranged into 1-phenylpropyne through 1,2-phenyl shift, instead of 1,2-methyl shift, which was confirmed by photolysis of 13C-labeled precursor. The experimental result is consistent with the computations using CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ//B3LYP/6-31+G* method. The calculation suggests that the 1,2-phenyl shift in singlet carbene requires 3.8 kcal/mol to overcome the barrier, whereas the 1,2-methyl shift needs 11.9 kcal/mol.
AN ANALYTICAL AND VISUAL LOOK INTO GIVING AT COLBY   (Oral Presentation)
Brittany Chin ('16), Computer Science
Are there certain aspects of a student at Colby that makes them more likely to give back? Colby tuition covers only a portion of costs throughout the academic year, with the rest being covered by generous donations from Colby graduates. With data containing information on alumni, their involvements and studies at Colby, and their demographic background, I looked into the affinity of Colby alumni to give back to the school in the form of monetary donations. Does involvement at Colby (in its many forms) predict one's capacity to give back? What characteristics of a student (major, background, etc) are most important in determining if someone will give back? In doing analysis on this data using the statistical computing language R, I explored significant relationships and differences in giving that exist between alumni that correlate with attributes such as: athletic involvement, major, fraternal involvement, year of graduation, children, and many others. After doing the analysis, I used the visualization tool R Shiny to create an interactive interface for exploring the data and generating interesting visuals that depict the relationship between Colby involvement and giving. My goal in this project is to learn where Colby's philanthropy efforts do well in leveraging alumni relations and also identify what areas could be more actively pursued.
FOLLOW ME ROBOT   (Oral Presentation)
Victoria Edwards ('16), Computer Science
The idea of a personal robotic assistant while once made up the tails of science fiction, is now moving closer and closer to reality. It is easy for two humans to walk together where one person knows the directions and the other person follows along. However, it is not a trivial problem for a robot to recognize a human and follow along side the human. There are three key parts to this problem: 1) Detection of a human, 2) Tracking the human, and 3) the Robot's motion strategy. Using baseline assumptions I can simplify the detection process allowing this work to focus on tracking and the robot's motion strategy. In looking at tracking and motion I will discuss the existence of an ideal location exists for the robot to follow a human and that it is possible for me to send the robot to that location. I will also discuss two different methods to handle motion: a strict control law approach and a path planning approach. Both methods have strengths and limitations and I include discussion of experimental results.
EXPLORING THE NEUROEVOLUTION OF AUGMENTING TOPOLOGIES (NEAT) ALGORITHM   (Oral Presentation)
William Kearney ('16), Computer Science
I examine the effectiveness of using the NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies (NEAT) algorithm to train Artificial Neural Networks for categorical data classification. Like many genetic algorithms, NEAT is particularly well-suited to parallelization, and thus I investigate how a parallel architecture can significantly improve NEAT computation time when applied to large-scale data sets.
DEEP LEARNING FOR COMPUTER VISION IMPLEMENTED ON AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM   (Oral Presentation)
John Walpuck ('16), Computer Science
As autonomous systems grow closer to becoming ubiquitous in our society, a strong and adaptable machine learning algorithm is necessary in order to give these systems the ability to think for themselves. The convolutional neural network is one of the most popular models in use today for machine learning in computer vision. However, due to the computationally intensive nature of this model, it does not seem possible to implement it effectively in a portable, offline system. Research and enterprise groups use high-performance computing clusters with millions of processors in order to support the massive number of operations required to train the model and then classify subsequent inputs. I am working to implement this on a small, portable, 5 inch x 5 inch x 1 inch computer with under 200 processors. Having built this algorithm entirely from scratch, I have learned a lot about how this model works , and the many difficulties that arise in its implementation.
STATE OF THE ART AND THE BEST PATH FORWARD FOR ARTIFICIAL GENERAL INTELLIGENCE   (Oral Presentation)
Brian Westerman ('16), Computer Science
The various approaches to building Artificial General Intelligence are examined and critiqued for their ability to produce an Artificial General Intelligence in its various permutations. The most optimal path to getting AI to a general intelligence is proposed.
COGNITIVE TESTING   (Oral Presentation)
Shanna Grant ('17), Concussions
The present study investigates how concussions and aging impact retrieval from memory. Previous research has shown that concussions lead to decreased attentional control. Decreased attentional control leads to memory impairments; thus, we are interested in how deficits in attention can lead to memory impairments, particularly retrieval from long-term memory stores. Participants were young adults, older adults, and younger adults with a history of past or recent concussions. Their participation took place over the course of two hour-long sessions, two days apart, and during this time they completed a series of tasks that assess attentional control and retrieval from memory. On the first day, they completed the Moses Illusion Task, Stroop (1935) Task, and Automated O-Span Working Memory Task. On the second day, participants completed the a measure of cued recall over material pre-exposed on Day 1 and the Attention Network Task (ANT). We expect that, compared to control young adult participants, individuals with a history of concussion will have lower attentional control, whereas older adults will have lower working memory. We expect that both groups, those with a history of concussion as well as older adults, will commit more errors on the moses illusion task than younger adults.
RAT MODELING OF CONCUSSION   (Oral Presentation)
Peter Wirth ('16), Concussions
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have significantly increased in the last decade and there is mounting evidence of their adverse cognitive and emotional effects. Many animal models apply force through projectiles or blasts to a stationary animal. These mechanical forces do not adequately induce rotational acceleration in the animals head, which is thought to be a key component of human sports-related injuries. Thus, we designed a device in which the animal is accelerated toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head. The present study aimed to characterize the neuroprotective effects of ketamine, an NMDA antagonist, on post-injury behavioral outcomes. Following the mTBI, male and female rats were given three subanesthetic doses of ketamine when glutamate levels are expected to be highest. Preliminary analysis of behavioral data is underway, and we hypothesize that ketamine will offer neuroprotection in tests of memory and locomotion.
A JAPANESE ANIME, SERIAL EXPERIMENTS LAIN (1998): MESSAGES FROM IMAGES   (Oral Presentation)
Zena Abulhab ('19), East Asian Studies
This presentation, built upon Professor Tamae Prindle's paper, 'Nakamura Ryūtarō's Anime, Serial Experiments, Lain (1998), as an Expository Anime' (Asian Studies, 2015) will name and decipher the technical effects that are built into this anime in order to expose the characters psychodrama and to invite the audiences participation.
TRANSITIONING INTO ACCOUNTABILITY: BIRD'S JOURNEY TO ACCEPTING HIS PERSONAL MATTERS   (Oral Presentation)
Sonita Hav ('17), East Asian Studies
Kenzaburo Oe's 'A Personal Matter', published in 1964, recounts the series of events that main character, Bird, experiences during his maturation towards fatherhood. My presentation will discuss how we can see Bird evolve from a coward who avoids taking action and fulfilling his duties to an accountable father who confronts his personal matters by analyzing his relationship with his wife and son.
IMITATION OF ZHAO MENGFU’S AUTUMN COLORS ON THE QIAO AND HUA MOUNTAINS: A LITERATI’S COMMENTARY ON ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES   (Oral Presentation)
Lynna Lei ('16), East Asian Studies
Contemporary Chinese is a new genre of Chinese art that began in the 1990s but is already a huge industry in the international art market. Despite its popularity, there are much criticisms directed toward contemporary Chinese art, which include the overuse of global themes, such as consumerism, family, individualism, and urbanization, that are removed from the context of China and self-orientalism defined as including depictions of traditional Chinese culture to gain popularity amongst a foreign audience. These critiques have also led some to question the authenticity of contemporary Chinese art and whether it is truly the product of creative self-expression. Hong Leis Imitation of Zhao Mengfus Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains is a work of contemporary art that lends itself to all the above-mentioned critiques because it is a photographic work of an industrial cityscape that borrows its composition from Zhao Mengfus Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, a Yuan Dynasty masterpiece. Through an analysis of the history of the rise of modern and contemporary art in China and Hong Leis Imitation of Zhao Mengfus Autumn Colors on the Qiao and Hua Mountains, I will address these critiques.
PRESERVING BEIJING'S HERITAGE: A DISCUSSION OF HUTONG AND THEIR FORGOTTEN VOICES   (Oral Presentation)
Felix Liang ('16), East Asian Studies
Nestled here and there in between the skyscrapers of Beijing's cityscape are the hutong--ancient, narrow alleyways that used to crisscross the entire city--and hanging by a thread within them, the courtyard-style housing, traditions, and memories of a bygone era. As with many modernizing cities around the world, China's continuously evolving urban areas have been forced to confront the dilemma of balancing unprecedented economic growth and historic preservation. Beijing has brought her country's own challenge with this issue to international awareness. hutong, and thus the last remnants of the city's living past, have been almost indiscriminately razed for the sake of development since China's Reform and Opening Up as Beijing has been swept up in materialistic and modernization ideals. Although greater attention has been paid to the hutong's destruction in the last few decades, concern and calls for stronger preservation efforts on the one hand have been simultaneously met by resignation or just outright skepticism on the other. However, what noticeably and troublingly have been largely omitted in the conversation are the voices of the very residents both current and former of the hutong. My research endeavors to remedy this omission by examining the hutong controversy through blog posts from the advocacy website hutongren.org written by some of those who belong to the hutong community. Such intimate looks into the hutong convey the human element that is the heart of the hutong and the source of its significance. They demand greater attention if we are to not only understand fully the issue of hutong preservation, but also give substance to and make relatable and appreciable what has urgently become a critical juncture for the future of the historical, cultural, and social fabric of China.
CASE STUDY OF THE SPRATLY ISLANDS DISPUTE: THE STRATEGIC AND GEOPOLITICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA’S IN CLAIMING SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE SPRATLY ISLANDS   (Oral Presentation)
William Lin ('16), East Asian Studies
The Spratly Islands is a chain of islands, reefs, and atolls located in the southern part of the South China and it is an area where shipping, sovereignty, oil and natural gas interests threaten to undermine the stability of the region. The complexity of the overlapping claims to the sovereignty of the Spratly Islands is at the core of the dispute. Currently, five nations, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Malaysia, and the Philippines claim the archipelago. The location of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea makes it economically and strategically important for the PRC to claim. This oral presentation will analyze the economic and strategic benefits of the Spratly Islands, focusing on one research question: How does claiming the Spratly Islands benefit the Peoples Republic of China economically and strategically, and in addition, which international relations theory, constructivism, realism, or institutional liberalism, best describes Chinas Foreign and Security Policy in the case of the Spratly Islands.
US-CHINA COLLABORATION ON SUSTAINABILITY   (Oral Presentation)
Zev Newman ('16), East Asian Studies
Recent events, such as President Xis State Visit to the US, the Paris Agreement, and Beijing issuing a Red Alert for dangerous levels of pollution, have brought Chinas serious air pollution problem to the forefront of the worlds attention. Because the US also recognizes the threats associated with pollution and global warming, collaboration on sustainability in general and reduction of air pollution specifically is an outstanding opportunity for both countries. Short-term measures in China led to the success of the 2008 Beijing Olympics and the APEC Summit hosted in Beijing in 2014. Since then, long-term efforts have received increased attention. Joint projects with U.S. industry, voluntary agencies such as the Asia Society, and private companies such as Skidmore, Owings, & Merrill (SOM) are underway at national and local levels. SOMs collaboration with China on sustainable architecture projects and clean air technologies demonstrates the mutual benefits that can be achieved when expertise and investment are shared.
SACRIFICE IS NOT SILENT: FAILED MARTYRDOM AND THE DEFEAT OF CHRISTIANITY N SHUSAKU ENDO'S 'SILENCE' (1966)   (Oral Presentation)
Christopher Scammell ('18), East Asian Studies
Shusaku Endo's 'Silence', broadly about the persecution of Catholics in Japan during the 17th century, tells the harrowing tale of Sebastian Rodrigues and Francisco Garrpe, two priests in search of answers about the apostasy of their teacher Christian Ferriera. In this presentation, I will illuminate the futility of the priests' quest and reveal Shusaku Endo's deep skepticism of martyrdom, faith, and Christianity.
THE ROLE OF MOBILE PHONES ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN WEST AFRICA   (Oral Presentation)
Osman Bah ('16), Economics
Mobile technology innovations in many developing countries, particularly in Africa are ubiquitous and gaining recognition in the international market. These countries are increasingly employing mobile technology to facilitate the delivery of financial, agricultural, health, and educational services, which has brought new possibilities to Africa. A quintessence is M-Pesa, which is a mobile phone-based money transfer and micro financing service, launched in 2007 by Vodafone for Safaricom and Vodacom, the largest mobile operators in Kenya and Tanzania. According to the World Bank, the private sector invested billion in telecommunications infrastructure in the developing world between 1993 and 2003, and that countries with well-regulated competitive markets have seen the greatest extent of investment. Given these findings, it is important to study the relationship between telecommunications and economic growth, if developing countries are to benefit from recent development in this evolving area to further their economic growth. These new possibilities that telecommunication adoption continue to create in Africa provide the motivation for my research regarding the more specific relationship between mobile technology and the state of economic growth in West Africa. Given that there are ten times as many mobile phones as landlines in Sub-Saharan Africa (ITU, 2009) and that the mobile phone has effectively leapfrogged the landline in Africa, it is important to focus on mobile phones. I wanted to concentrate on West Africa because many of the existing studies concentrate broadly on developing countries. Thus, I thought that it would be interesting to specifically look at West Africa.
TAIWANESE LAND REFORM AND ECONOMIC GROWTH   (Oral Presentation)
Kathryn Bai ('16), Economics
Following World War II, the new political party in Taiwan instituted a series of land reform laws. These laws lowered the amount of rent that farmers had to pay, privatized farmland, and redistributed land from previous landowners to those who tilled the land. This paper seeks to understand how these changes impacted the economic growth of Taiwan in the long run.
THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF LOBSTERS IN THE STATE OF MAINE   (Oral Presentation)
Gabrielle Carpenter ('16), Economics
The American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery in the Gulf of Maine (GOM) is responsible for 80% of the value of seafood and fish landings in the state of Maine. This makes it extremely important to understand potential exogenous impacts to the lobster population in Maine. Biological and economic factors influence the availability and fishing effort of lobsters. Lobsters rely on their environment as a source of nutrients to maintain physical processes for growth and reproduction. Additionally, the amount of lobsters caught depends on consumer demand for lobster and the price that fishermen can receive. Thus, in order to understand the lobster industry in Maine, biological and economic factors must be accounted for together. This can be done through a bio-economic model that combines biological and economic variables together into a coherent equilibrium model. I believe this model is the best candidate to characterize the lobster industry in Maine. In this paper, I aim to expand on existing bio-economic models of the American lobster population in Maine in order to gain an understanding on the impending impacts to the economy. I apply a bio- economic analysis in order to integrate economic and biological drivers in the market for American lobsters. I will combine both of these drivers through a supply and demand model, where lobster population dynamics drive supply and economic conditions drive demand. Analyzing the market with a bio-economic model allows for more informed policy decisions that are able to incorporate several drivers and aim to protect market equilibrium. Maines economic reliance on the American lobster fishery makes applying effective policies critical.
RISK PREFERENCES IN THE GREAT RECESSION   (Oral Presentation)
Xiaojie Chen ('16), Economics
During the Great Recession from 2007 to 2009, 8.8 million individuals lost their jobs and .2 trillion in household wealth was lost. As shown in the Survey of Consumer Finances 2007-2009 panel data, many households changed their financial risk preferences after the crisis. Out of 3857 households, 15.8% indicated that they have become more risk-seeking after 2007, while 26.9% have reported becoming more risk averse. The present study addresses the question: What was the impact of the Great Recession on households risk-taking behavior? Specifically, how do different household characteristics affect ones risk attitude? To answer this question, I analyze financial risk tolerance using three measurements: 1) elicited risk tolerance, 2) stock market participation, and 3) percentage of liquid assets as stock. I use ordinary least squares, binary logistic regression, and multinomial logistic regression to assess the risk tolerance. For my explanatory variables, I incorporate the market exposure variable, from Malmendier and Nagel (2009), along with differently demographic variables. The market exposure variable measures market experience as a weighted average of past real market returns during ones lifetime. This allows me to identify the effect of the stock market shocks. Specific to the Great Recession, I also analyze the impact of losing home value on financial risk preferences and examine alternative specifications for the variable that measures market experience. This research contributes to academic understanding of risk preferences during large recessions. Moreover, the studys findings can be used by financial advisors to help clients create more suitable portfolios during periods of abnormal market returns.
HORSE AUCTIONS AND REPUTATION   (Oral Presentation)
Jesse Eddy ('16), Economics
Horse Auctions represent a market where information isn't perfect. This presentation will look at the potential reputation effects of the chosen Consignors on horse auction results.
IT'S NINE A.M. SOMEWHERE   (Oral Presentation)
Andrew Elmore ('16), Economics
Operating a business across international boundaries can be extremely complicated. Many factors have been identified as contributing to or discouraging the opening of an affiliate. Little interest however has been paid to the effects time zone differences may have on whether, and how a multinational does business in a foreign country. An extended time zone difference can complicate communications between headquarters and an affiliate, and between contractual business partners. As such I investigate the effects of time zone differences on affiliate sales and international trade originating in the United States, controlling for factors such as distance and GDP of the target country. I also examine these effects at an industry specific level.
FINANCIAL MARKETS AND THEIR EFFECTS ON US FDI FLOWS   (Oral Presentation)
Timothy Gallagher ('16), Economics
This presentation will examine the effects of financial markets on US FDI flows. Specifically, it will explore the relationship between the performance of host nations' capital markets--measured by market indexes, debt accessibility, and other economic indicators--and US FDI outflows.
GAME ATTENDANCE DURING 2016 MLB SPRING TRAINING   (Oral Presentation)
Mark HoSang ('16), Economics
In this study, we are using a censored tobit regression model to explain game day attendance of 2016 MLB Spring Training games held in Arizona. Utilizing the MLB interactive website, we were able to capture relevant baseball data to explain attendance based upon several variables- both baseball and socioeconomic related.
NON-DISTRESSED RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE AUCTIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Julia Levere ('16), Economics
An analysis of the effective of auctions of non-distressed residential property auctions compared to traditional negotiation based home listings.
SENIOR SEMINAR RESEARCH PAPER   (Oral Presentation)
Joseph Maher ('16), Economics
Analyzing a possible Brexit from the European Union and the consequences it could have on the U.K.'s domestic economy and trading partners. What have the benefits of joining the Eurozone been compared to a nation that has opted to remain simply associated with it?
DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: EVIDENCE FROM LATIN AMERICA   (Oral Presentation)
Connor McCarthy ('16), Economics
This paper aims to discover the significant determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in various Latin American countries. Utilizing multiple regression analysis through panel data allows for changes in data over time and across countries. The explanatory variables used will be broken down into access to capital, crime, and infrastructure. Access to capital is measured through the domestic lending rate in each country. Crime is measured by intentional homicides in each country. Infrastructure is measured through fixed telephone subscriptions in each country. This paper will be an addition to the extensive research done on the topic by focusing on Latin America with a robust dataset over 15 years.
DETECTING STOCK MARKET BUBBLES: A PRICE-TO-EARNINGS APPROACH   (Oral Presentation)
Austin Murphy ('16), Economics
To this day, economists argue about the existence of stock market bubbles. The literature review for this paper observes the analysis of four reputable bubble tests in an attempt to provide ample qualitative proof for the existence of bubbles. The first obstacle for creating an effective bubble detection test is the difficulty of estimating true fundamental values for equities. Without adequate estimations for the fundamental values of equities, the deviation between actual price and fundamental price is impossible to observe or estimate. Additionally, these tests are reliant on strong underlying assumptions, which tend to cloud results. This thesis applies a price-to-earning ratio test adopted from a thesis written by Bram Weites and Malte von Maravic (2010). The model utilizes a relationship between the risk and price-to-earnings ratios of equities to econometrically test for bubbles. The test has an advantage over previous bubble literature because it does not require the estimation of the fundamental values of equities.
FROM SOJOURNER TO SETTLER: BECOMING VISIBLE   (Oral Presentation)
Clare Murray ('18), Economics
Since the 1990s, Downeast Maine has undergone a dramatic demographic shift as a result of a growing dependence on Latino farm labor. Originally migrant or seasonal farmworkers primarily drawn to Maine for the annual blueberry harvest, Latino immigrants in Downeast Maine now make up 1.4% of the population in Washington County, making them the largest minority group. Immigration continues to be a stressful and challenging process, however. As the only active community service provider in Downeast Maine, Mano en Mano works to embed this population of Latino immigrants within the larger community. Working alongside professors at Colby College and staff at Mano en Mano, I have helped prepare a 2016 Needs Assessment and Economic Impact Analysis Survey that is currently being administered to this population of Latinos. The results will be used to inform both Mano en Mano and the community at large of the populations assets and the challenges they face. One of the earliest findings of my research affirms the belief that in order to build a stronger community in Mano en Manos service area, tools like education and entrepreneurial spirit should be considered.
HOW LIKELY TO SELL? A STUDY OF MUSIC MANUSCRIPTS AT AUCTIONS.   (Oral Presentation)
Xueqing Qiao ('16), Economics
Little research has examined the market of classical music manuscripts as such market has received little attention in the past. The objective of this paper is to explore how well the auctioneer does in estimating prices for the music manuscripts and to estimate the probability of sale at an auction given an items characteristic by studying the data of classical music manuscripts listed at Sothebys during the 2009-2015 period.
EFFECTS OF U.S. MONETARY POLICY ON EMERGING MARKET ECONOMIES   (Oral Presentation)
Anthony Ramirez ('16), Economics
The effects of U.S. monetary policy oftentimes reverberate throughout the world. This is especially true given that many central banks make decisions using U.S. monetary policy as guidance. Furthermore, U.S. growth is arguably good for emerging market economies, as they are strongly linked. For example, strengthening U.S. demand via loose monetary policy is positive for commodities demand and financing conditions. However, some argue that positive spillover effects incentivize complacency in emerging markets own Macro Policy. If this is true, those countries may be growing at the expense of preparing for future economic recession. This brings into question, can emerging market countries plausibly make an effort to simultaneously take advantage of loose financial conditions and prepare for tightening conditions? This research paper will investigate the effects of U.S. Monetary Policy, in varying contexts, on Emerging Market countries, in particular during the years surrounding the Great Recession. This paper will mainly attempt to answer how monetary policy may affect emerging market economies during distinct macroeconomic conditions, and also whether unconventional policy has different effects that are important for future disruptive macroeconomic events.
WHAT DO COLBY STUDENTS VALUE?: EVIDENCE FROM SURVEY BID DATA   (Oral Presentation)
Camden Regan ('16), Economics
How badly would you want a reserved dining hall table? How about a private stool at the pub? A parking space? The best room draw pick? How about a reserved study space? At Colby, there are items that are in high demand, but cannot be bought or sold. This project will use survey data to discover what Colby students value the most, and how much they would be willing to pay for them. Survey bid data is utilized to hold a virtual first price sealed-bid auction, to allocate these five highly desired intangibles to Colby students. The results analyze how students responded to the five items, reactions to competition from other bidders, variation in monetary value assigned to each asset, and how these bids relate to predictions from auction theory.
COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE AUCTIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Zachary Schutzman ('16), Economics
Governments, land trusts, and conservation agencies (regulators) often have an interest in purchasing or leasing parcels of land owned by private citizens (landowners) for environmental conservation. Each landowner has some individual opportunity cost for allowing her parcel of land to be conserved. Under the assumption that the regulator does not know this private opportunity cost, a reverse auction is an ideal market structure to handle the asymmetric information. Given a landscape where each site has an environmental value known to the regulator and a profile of bids, it is a relatively simple discrete optimization problem to select a set of sites to maximize the total environmental value subject to a budget constraint. A more complex problem arises when complementarities from selecting neighboring sites are considered. Benefits from connectedness in the conserved landscape include ease of management and habitat space for threatened species, so a sites environmental value increases with the number of neighboring sites also conserved. A model which incorporates these spatial complementarities more realistically represents the goals of landscape conservation, but is much harder to solve compared to a model which does not account for these benefits. In this project, I develop a tool in the Python programming language which uses high amounts of randomization and localized greedy selection to select a profile of sites for conservation on a theoretical landscape where there are strong spatial complementarities between adjacent sites. When supplied with a cost constraint, this model chooses a set of sites for conservation which provide a higher environmental value than a simple greedy heuristic does on the same landscape and with the same budget constraint.
DEFENSIVE ABILITY AND MAJOR LEAGUE BASEBALL SALARIES   (Oral Presentation)
Christopher Shorey ('16), Economics
The process of salary determination in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes multiple levels of bargaining power and performance determinants. Previous studies of MLB salary determination have used a variety of measures of player performance. This paper examines the effect defensive ability has on salary determination for arbitration eligible players and for free agent players. Specifically, it will analyze player salary/contract data negotiated during the 2012-2015 period along with performance data from past seasons to examine the extent to which fielding percentage, errors, and the more recently developed measures of defensive ability affect player salary. Particular attention is paid to matching the negotiated contract/salary data to previous seasons performance data in order to replicate the informational conditions known to both the team and the player at the time of negotiation. I also included offensive performance, player race and player ethnicity in all models. Results will examine how much emphasis is placed on defensive ability when determining a player's value.
BOOKBUILDING VS. AUCTION IPOS: AN ANALYSIS OF PRICING AND VOLATILITY   (Oral Presentation)
Christopher Smith ('16), Economics
This paper looks at auction IPOs in comparison to traditional bookbuilding IPOs. It attempts to answer two main questions: 1. Does an auction IPO raise more funds than the traditional bookbuilding approach? 2. Is there less aftermarket volatility when a company utilizes an auction IPO?
NEGATIVE INTEREST RATES   (Oral Presentation)
Alexander Tuan ('16), Economics
This presentation will look into the effects of negative interest rates on yield curves and economic stimulus.
MACROECONOMIC EFFECTS OF THE CHINESE ONE-CHILD POLICY   (Oral Presentation)
Sylvia Xu ('16), Economics
The Chinese One-Child Policy, enacted in 1979, was an attempt to decrease the population growth rate, following a period of massive social and political confusion and uncertainty. While the policy was very beneficial to curbing the population growth in China, it also introduced unintentional concerns, including gender imbalance, and other demographic differences. The goal of this paper is to examine the economic behavior of son-families and daughter-families across different provinces and regions of China, which have varying levels of gender imbalance, as a result of a cultural preference for sons. The paper will examine why households in different areas of the country have different behavior in household savings and financial planning. These financial decisions are likely to be driven by, for example, number of children to support, number of elders to support, migration and education attainment, just to name a few.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF PALM OIL   (Poster)
Casey Ballin ('16), Environmental Studies
Palm oil, a product said to be found in half of all packaged items at a supermarket, is directly tied to some of the highest rates of deforestation, habitat loss and air pollution in Malaysia. Palm Oil production in Malaysia has increased from 54,000 hectares in 1960 to 4.05 million hectares in 2005, a 10.5% annual growth rate. Since there are no international laws regarding palm oil, environmental and social standards are enforced through 3rd party certification bodies like the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). This paper will summarize recent trends in the Malaysian palm oil industry, and consider how the sustainability certification from RSPO socially and environmentally affects palm oil production, distribution and use.
GIS APPLICATIONS FOR COFFEE TREE MANAGEMENT AT KILIMANJARO PLANTATION LTD.   (Oral Presentation)
Casey Ballin ('16), Environmental Studies
Coffee is a world-renowned drink with cultural, environmental and economic importance. With it roots in the forests of Ethiopia, coffee has since become widespread and is considered to be one of the most widely traded agricultural commodities. In Tanzania, coffee production accounts for 14% of agricultural exports and is an important source of income for many Tanzanians. Kilimanjaro Plantation Ltd. (KPL), one of the largest coffee producers in Tanzania, has a 565 ha plantation at the base of Mount Kilimanjaro. KPL recently expressed interest in creating a tree matrix for the 1 million + coffee trees on their plantation to increase precision agriculture opportunities. This paper provides an example of what future analysis could look like for KPL as they continue to develop a matrix of the coffee plantation. This prompts the research question: How can KPL use data on individual coffee trees to improve agricultural efficiency?
USING VIEWSHED ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF THE PROPOSED SOUND TRANSIT TRANSPORTATION PLAN   (Poster)
Gavin Blake ('18), Environmental Studies
The Cross Kirkland Corridor was recently constructed by the City of Kirkland as a walking and biking trail across the city. It was constructed on the site of old railroad tracks and is very popular among city residents. However, Sound Transit, a local public transportation company, has plans to use the land for an express light rail and/or bus route. While this will help to alleviate some of the traffic congestion, it will greatly impact the environmentally sensitive wetlands and watershed areas nearby and will obscure the lake and mountain views of many in the surrounding areas. Many residents like the Cross Kirkland Corridor because it provides them easy access to the outdoors and other parts of the city without any eye sore, however, bus and/or light rail will harm the environment and impact views. Viewshed analysis in ArcGIS allowed for an analysis of where views will be impacted and property value will be affected by Sound Transit's proposed plan.
GIS CAMPUS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY: ACCESSIBILITY AND EASE OF USE ANALYSIS THROUGH LIGHTING   (Poster)
Fenwick Bowen ('17), Environmental Studies
We created a Geographically and up-to-date map of Colby's campus, along with a least-cost path analysis of pathways at Colby. In addition, I did an illuminance analysis to account for ease of access at night.
ELECTRIC CURRENT - SITING A WIND FARM OFF THE COAST OF THE MAINE   (Poster)
Ryan Clemens ('17), Environmental Studies
The University of Maine is developing a two turbine, 12 MW floating deep water offshore wind energy project off the states coast as part of their Aqua Ventus Project. It is a first step in building a 500 MW farm, eliminating a significant portion of harmful greenhouse gasses produced by conventional electric power. The coast of Maine provides many uses for the state, from ecological resources of seafood and port areas for international shipping. Siting a sufficient area that minimizes conflicts with existing coastal resources while keeping close to high wind speeds and existing power distribution networks is therefore key in establishing a long term source of energy. Analyzing these factors using ArcMap can produce tentative locations for a suitably-sized wind farm, narrowing choices to find the least-intrusive coastal site.
COMPARATIVE POLICY RESPONSES TO BEE COLONY COLLAPSE DISORDER   (Poster)
Monica Colmenares ('19), Environmental Studies
Bees are dying at a rapid rate; 42% of bee colonies collapsed in the United States alone in 2015. This decline is largely due to the surging use of pesticides compounded by the continuing loss of wildflower habitat, the rapid spreading of bee diseases, and climate change. These critical pollinators are now more susceptible to pesticide poisoning (NRDC, 2015). As we have become increasingly aware that agriculture is incredibly dependent on bees, there is contention over the widespread use of pesticides harming crops and their pollinators, causing Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Some countries are taking an aggressive approach to try to save the bees. Other countries such as the U.S. have been much slower to respond to the problem, and neonicotinoids are the most heavily used class of insecticides in the U.S. This analysis will use comparative case studies of France, and the United Statesexamining the extent of the crisis faced by bees in different contexts, and evaluating different national policies that are helpingor harmingthe bees chance of survival. The honeybee deserves the attention and care of regulating policies that will improve their environmental outcomes. While there are laws that are already in place, they are not consistent internationally when they should be.
COMBATTING DEFORESTATION IN THE AMAZON   (Poster)
Gabriella Deconti ('18), Environmental Studies
I will be presenting my research on deforestation in the Amazon and how it relates to International Environmental Policy. I will assess the structure and capability of REDD+, the product of the recent Paris Climate Talks, as well as indicating the system's strengths and flaws. In addressing my policy problem, I will argue that the weaknesses of this model are unequally distributed and often fall on the shoulders of only the South, deepening the divide within the North-South environmental debate. I will propose policy solutions that redistribute the responsibility of forest governance towards local communities to enhance their traditional practices of sustainable forestry as a replacement for the international market-based practices that leave many institutional failures unaddressed.
A 3D GIS MODEL OF COLBY COLLEGE CAMPUS   (Poster)
Henry Dodge ('18), Environmental Studies
-We have no GIS 3D model of Colby College campus as of right now. I still need to contact PPD to get most of the data from them on the dimensions of the buildings and Ill need layers of satellite imagery as well as a general vector layer of the campus. The model would be very interesting and useful for Colby especially because multiple buildings are being constructed in the coming years. This project will produce a useful and interesting map for the college. -The initial way Ill go about making this model is to take a 2D vector map of campus and add another attribute to the attribute table (height). Ill need the building dimensions from PPD and Ill be able to add the height of each polygon in the vector map. I think Ill also collect my own data of the campus so I can add more detail to the map if possible. A campus map with attributes like trees and benches will look more realistic. Ill probably need to add more attributes to the table to add these features. After altering the data in ArcMap, I plan on transferring the data to ArcScene to make the 3D model. Ill need to convert the data and manipulate it in ArcScene in order to make the map 3D. After making the map 3D the last major step will be to add detail to the images using Google SketchUp (I am familiar with this software). The amount of detail Ill be able to go into will depend on the amount of time that Ill have to complete the map. Ive never done 3D work in ArcGIS so the other steps may be more time consuming than I think.
ONE COUPLE, TWO CHILDREN: EXTREME POPULATION POLICY IN CHINA   (Poster)
Jessen Edlund ('18), Environmental Studies
There is a global increase of roughly 228,000 people everyday. The planet can only support so many people before resources become exhausted; finite resources do not coincide with an infinite population. In 1968, Paul Ehrlich famously wrote about this issue in the book, The Population Bomb. An increase in medical advances leads to a higher number of people living, for longer, Ehrlich argued, but as land and food resources become exhausted, famine would lead to social struggle and death. Created in 1970, the one child policy sought to address the population scare and limit pressure on resources. But it proved very controversial as it also created a gender imbalance, selecting boys for cultural reasons and also created an aging population. This study will use a cost benefit and environmental justice analysis to show that both the one-child policy and the recent shift to a two-child policy are economically inefficient, and also unfair to the peoples civil liberty. It will then consider alternative global solutions to the serious issue of population growth and natural resource depletion can be reached in a less coercive manner that does not inadvertently create massive infanticide and an aging population.
TIGER CONSERVATION EFFORTS IN INDIA   (Poster)
Thomas Griffith ('18), Environmental Studies
Despite their popularity, the future of the tiger is in jeopardy. In 1900, 100,000 tigers roamed the earth, but as of 2014, there are only 3,200 living in the wild, with the largest concentration (2,226) in India. Threats to the endangered tiger include human influenced habitat loss, poaching due to economic and consumer interests, and a loss of access to prey. This paper will focus primarily on tiger conservation efforts in India, where the tiger is the national animal, but will briefly consider the role of the United States and China. This paper will also use comparative case studies of the Sariska and Corbett Tiger Reserves, in India, to illustrate the impact of wildlife tourism on the conservation of the tiger. India appears to have experienced some success with their conservation efforts, but this success is controversial. Additionally, the effectiveness of existing international and domestic institutions, laws and projects will be discussed. What is not controversial is that the efforts need to continue and in order to be effective, the tiger conservation efforts must include, among many components, clearly stated goals, an assessment of the current status of the species, a directed process for selecting where to work, and a mechanism to measure success. The tiger story is one with the potential to show how a species can be saved. A comprehensive literature review of existing policies and science will show that there is hope for the tiger conservation problem.
ROUNDTABLE FOR SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL STANDARD, INDONESIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL STANDARD, AND MALAYSIAN SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL STANDARD   (Poster)
Catherine Haut ('18), Environmental Studies
Palm oil production has exploded in the past decades; from 2000 to 2012 alone, crude palm oil production increased by 265%. Palm oil is heralded for its high yield, low cost, and attractive industrial properties. However, the rapid expansion in palm oil production has contributed to widespread deforestation resulting in increased greenhouse gas emissions, a loss of biodiversity, loss of ancestral land in addition to poor working conditions for laborers on palm oil plantations. As palm oil production has increased, debate surround the lucrative and controversial business have intensified. In 2004, the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) was established to promote sustainable palm oil practices; the RSPO has been lauded for its efforts as well as critiqued for greenwashing. In November 2015, the Indonesian and Malaysian governments announced the formation of the Council of Palm Oil Producing Countries (CPOPC). One of the major goals of the CPOPC is to harmonize the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil Standard (ISPO) and the Malaysian Sustainable Palm Oil Standard (MSPO). As the CPOPC sets its agenda and develops its policies, it is imperative that current sustainable palm oil standards are studied and assessed. This analysis will compare the RSPO, ISPO, and MSPO in an attempt to offer positive policy solutions for the environmental and economic sustainability of the palm oil industry in the future.
PHARMACEUTICAL AND PERSONAL CARE PRODUCTS CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BELGRADE LAKES: A POSSIBLE THREAT TO AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN HEALTH   (Oral Presentation)
Serena Haver ('16), Environmental Studies
Pharmaceuticals and active ingredients from personal care products (PPCPs), such as prescription and over-the-counter drugs, sunscreen, fragrances, and soaps, threaten aquatic ecosystems and human health around the world (Williams and Williams 2005; Ellis 2006; Sullivan P. Agardy F., Rosenfeld P. 2007; 2011; Boxall A. Brooks B., Caldwell D., Choi K., Hickmann S., ... Van Der Kraak G 2012). Many of these pharmaceuticals and active chemicals are used in quantities similar to that of agrochemicals, but are not subject to the same level of testing for environmental impact (Jones O. Lester J. 2002; Jones O. Lester J. 2004). These compounds can then enter systems via the disposal of municipal or domestic waste streams (Glassmeyer S. Kolpin D., Cahill J., Zuagg S., Werner S., Meyer M., Kryak D. 2005; Bartlet-Hunt S. Damon T., Schokley J., Hoagland K. 2008). Onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS), more commonly known as septic systems, can also provide avenues for the migration of effluent into underlying aquifers (Jones O. Lester J. 2004; Godfrey E. Menottie M. 2007; McClellan K. 2010). Pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments have been shown to increase the spread of drug-resistant bacteria or interfere with the growth and reproduction of aquatic organisms The presence of these compounds, especially those known to be carcinogenic, may also pose a threat to human health (Jones O. Lester J. 2004). This study tested 14 water samples from Great Pond, East Pond, and Long Pond for the presence of PPCPs.
FARM- AND MARKET-LEVEL IMPACTS OF QUINOA EXPANSION IN BOLIVIA   (Oral Presentation)
Margaret Hojlo ('17), Environmental Studies
Quinoa has been produced in the highlands of Bolivia for thousands of years and has traditionally been eaten most by those who grow it. However, this small seed can now be found in food stores and markets all over the world. Quinoa is tremendously nutritious, and for this reason it has been hailed a 'super food' that also has the potential to solve world hunger. In turn, such extensive global market demand has drastically impacted quinoa production in Bolivia. Under pressure to increase production, farmers are shifting away from a system that has long been rooted in indigenous tradition to a system that must focus on extraction. Environmentally, damage has occurred as farmers expand cropland and exploit already fragile soil. Economically, increased quinoa production means higher market prices - something that benefits many farmers but makes the crop widely inaccessible to much of the Bolivian population. In response to the social, environmental and economic shifts taking place in Bolivia due to the boom in quinoa production, I propose various policies in the present study. First, I propose that certification and monitoring of quinoa farms must be streamlined so that researchers and government officials can more accurately evaluate the state of quinoa production. Second, the government should provide tax breaks and subsidies for farmers who are willing to produce quinoa under sustainable, diversity-conserving practices. Lastly, quinoa should be introduced as a subsidized food product in schools and maternal health programs to ensure that those who may no longer be able to afford quinoa can still access and take advantage of its excellent nutritional value.
ASSESSING LAKESMART: THE DEVELOPMENT AND EFFECTIVENESS OF A LAKE PROTECTION PROGRAM   (Oral Presentation)
Alexa Junker ('16), Environmental Studies
Maines nearly 6000 lakes are a vital resource for the state, generating billion in annual economic activity and sustaining 52,000 jobs. Over the course of the last several decades, this resource has increasingly been threatened by development and related problems, especially nutrient runoff. LakeSmart is a lake protection program designed to stem the flow of nutrient runoff by promoting and rewarding the use lake-friendly landscaping practices. For this project, I traced the history of LakeSmart to its roots in the Maine Department of Environmental Protection and, through stakeholder interviews and surveys, chronicled its development into the flagship program of the Maine Lakes Society. To assess the programs effectiveness, I examined the drivers of and barriers to conservation behavior and how they were addressed in the design and implementation of the program, as well as the geographical clustering of LakeSmart properties.
NOT MILK? THE HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS OF COMMERCIAL DAIRY IN THE U.S.   (Oral Presentation)
John Kensinger ('17), Environmental Studies
Growing up, millennials such as myself were practically raised on milk, constantly being told by our parents and doctors alike that if we wanted to grow up big and strong we had to consume an adequate amount of white gold every day. However, we were too nave and too undereducated at the time to comprehend the real consequences, both environmental and nutritional, of our favorite dinner accompaniment. We were told that our milk comes from happy cows, grazing in open, sunny fields; we had no idea that the majority of the mass-produced milk that we consumed originated in tight, indoor pens where the penned up dairy cows were basically force fed grains such as maize as well as other supplemental ingredients, many of which can have quite negative impacts on human health. In 1993, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in dairy cattle (rbGH), leading to greater milk yield and thus cheaper milk. However, it is logical to conclude that what is an input in the production process of what we consume is also an ingredient. Moreover, the use of increased insulin-growth factor (IGF) is yet another added hormone that has links to cancer (Aragon, 2013). Not only that, but ruminants (which include dairy cattle) produce up to 20% of total methane emitted into the atmosphere (Ishler, 2008). That said, methane can be more detrimental in the case of global warming than carbon dioxide, as it decays more slowly and remains in the atmosphere as much as 23 times longer than carbon dioxide (Siegle, 2009). These points bring me to the predominant question of my research: should we continue to raise dairy cows for the purpose of producing consumable milk given the possible ramifications to our health and environment?
THE UNVEILING OF ARCTIC OCEAN HIGH SEAS: OPPORTUNITIES AND RISKS   (Poster)
Seung Kim ('18), Environmental Studies
In recent years, Arctic ice melt has increased, surpassing IPCC worst-case scenario predictions. This slow unveiling of the Arctic Ocean, caused by melting ice, is not only driving major ecological changes, but is also exposing new marine ecosystems to exploitation. One especially pressing problem is the potential for extraction of sub-arctic oil resources. Both Russia and the United States have shown interest in Artic oil, including through increasing military activity there, and by investing in Arctic exploration. Russia has also laid claims to Arctic territory. Another emerging problem is related to Canadas Northwest Passage, which connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and has been seasonally navigable since 2007. While Canada maintains that the Northwest Passage is part of their national waters, and therefore entirely subject to Canadian control, the United States has argued that the Northwest Passage is better classified as an International Strait under the United States Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and therefore should be open and unrestricted for international transit. Both of these Arctic problems can be seen through the lens of historical precedent and ongoing domestic policy debates. Ultimately, these are international conflicts, and will eventually be resolved by new international institutions assigning property rights - over oil or over shipping lanes - governing the utilization of Arctic resources.
BACKCOUNTRY SKIING LOCATIONS IN THE IDAHO PANHANDLE   (Poster)
Hannah Kwasman ('17), Environmental Studies
Backcountry skiing is a growing activity that takes skiers and snowboarders away from the crowds and designated runs and enables them to earn their turns while simultaneously choosing their own paths. Backcountry skiing also saves people from purchasing ski lift tickets, lets them explore new and unchartered terrain, and enables people to get an even better work out. For those who are unfamiliar with the practice, skiers and snowboards alike hike (or tour) up the slope in a zigzag fashion until they reach the top. Many people cherish the solitude and the closeness they share with nature. Coming from Eastern Washington, I wanted to explore the backcountry skiing options in Northern Idaho, also known as the Idaho panhandle. Having gone backcountry skiing there before, I thought that this would be a great area that I could further explore. Using GIS, I accounted for a variety of factors, such as elevation, snowfall, aspect, slope, and distance to roads, as a way of classifying ideal backcountry skiing locations.
THE ROLES OF INTRODUCED EUCALYPTUS IN THE CONSERVATION AND EXPANSION OF ETHIOPIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH FORESTS IN THE NORTHERN ETHIOPIAN HIGHLANDS   (Oral Presentation)
Janice Liang ('16), Environmental Studies
The species Eucalyptus (common name eucalyptus) is widely planted all across Ethiopia. In recent decades eucalyptus has been increasingly planted on lands around and within church forests, sacred groves of old-aged Afromontane trees surrounding Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido churches. These revered holy sites have long been recognized for their cultural values and also for their ecosystem services including their potential to support species conservation and restoration, as church forests are some of the only remaining sanctuaries for many indigenous and endemic plant and animal populations. Ethiopian Orthodox church communities have a long history of planting and nurturing indigenous tree seedlings to sustain church forest groves. However, due to the fast-growing nature of eucalyptus combined with its widely recognized socio-economic benefits (as fuelwood, charcoal, construction wood, etc.), this introduced species has been widely planted on cropland around church forests in some cases even replacing native tree species within church forests themselves. The introduction of exotic eucalyptus in many developing country contexts has been shown to have ecological impacts ranging from soil nutrient depletion, to lowering water tables, to having allelopathic effects on crops. This thesis assesses the expansion of eucalyptus planted in and around church forests, as well as the ecological and social impacts that this expansion may procure on the vitality of the natural forests, surrounding land, and church communities.
GIS CAMPUS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY: ACCESSIBILITY AND EASE OF USE ANALYSIS FOR BICYCLES   (Poster)
Ian Liphart ('18), Environmental Studies
We created a geographically accurate and up to date map of the Colby Campus, and ran a least-cost-path analysis of various transportation methods.
SHIFTING BASELINES OF ICONIC MARINE SPECIES IN THE CARIBBEAN   (Oral Presentation)
Samantha Lovell ('16), Environmental Studies
Throughout the Caribbean overfishing, habitat degradation, and climate change have had devastating effects on marine ecosystems and communities that rely on them. As this degradation occurs, memory of past states is lost so the current degraded status is used as a standard in management, a phenomenon known as shifting baselines. In efforts to restore and protect resources, communities on Caribbean islands are taking bold steps through community-based conservation efforts. For such efforts to be successful, marine historical ecology studies are necessary to document historical baselines of species and better understand the past productivity of the ecosystem. A key element in the restoration process is the use of local ecological knowledge (LEK): the collective knowledge held by a group of stakeholders about a resource. This study examines the islands of Curaao, Montserrat, and Barbuda, which are in the process of creating and implementing sustainable ocean policy. By analyzing archival materials such as historical maps and colonial diaries from the islands in addition to collecting LEK from Montserrat and Barbuda, this research documents the shifting baselines syndrome on the three islands. Historical place names like Turtle Bay and Snapper Hole and descriptions of the ecosystem depict a marine environment healthier and more complex than the one that exists today. Results from interviews suggest a generational shift in perception, where older fisher folk and conservationists with greater experience in the ocean view more species as depleted than their younger counterparts. The descriptions of past ecosystem states and collective loss of knowledge demonstrated by this research has broad conservation implications for the island communities as they seek meaningful ocean restoration.
THE CHANGING COFFEE INDUSTRY IN TANZANIA   (Oral Presentation)
Georgia Lubrano ('17), Environmental Studies
Final presentation for Global Food Policy, taught my Professor Reynolds, outlining my research and writing about the Tanzanian coffee industry and how it has changed and will continue to change.
SELECTIVE BARRIER REMOVAL WITHIN THE SHEEPSCOT WATERSHED   (Poster)
Andrew Martzolf ('17), Environmental Studies
This project uses GIS to prioritize barrier removals on rivers within the Sheepscot Watershed. To do this each barrier was assigned a value calculated by weighting different variables such as cost of removal, possible anadromous fish habitat upstream, distance from next upstream barrier, and vitality for traffic. By combining these variables it is possible to assign values to the various culverts and dams to give various organizations a way to focus their efforts to improve the surrounding habitats by removing the barriers and opening the upstream habitat to various species.
CONTINUED WEAKNESSES OF THE INTERNATIONAL WHALING COMMISSION   (Poster)
Kathleen Mason ('18), Environmental Studies
The International Whaling Commission was established in the mid 1900's with hopes of regulating the whale resource. Whaling later reached a peak and the IWC had to change its goals to a more conservationist approach, establishing the commercial whaling moratorium. While most countries signed the bill, Japan declared their pro-whaling beliefs until they were economically threatened to sign into the moratorium. Japan serves as an example of a country taking advantage of the IWC's weak regulation by the moratorium, whaling under Article VIII, which states that nations can be approved by the IWC to perform scientific whaling under certain conditions. However, the moratorium, even including conditions to abide by, did not prevent the killing of 15,315 whales in a 28 year span by Japan. Policy advancements are needed to decrease the large number of whales lost to Japan for scientific studies, studies that can be performed with non lethal procedures.
BEST PLACES TO STARGAZE AROUND COLBY   (Poster)
Zachary Mondschein ('17), Environmental Studies
Stargazing is one of the most accessible ways for people to connect with nature. However, light pollution emanating from urban areas is severely damaging our view of the night sky. Maine, with its small population mostly concentrated around coastal areas, remains one of the premier locations to stargaze in the United States. Nonetheless, the quality of stargazing in Maine is highly variable, dependent on proximity to light sources, elevation and remoteness. This project will utilize a suitability model to locate the optimal locations to stargaze (with the naked eye), based on these parameters, within a 50km radius of Waterville, ME. Whats more, the project will take into account given locations convenience for Colby students, through the analysis of roads, trail maps, and terrain. Ultimately the analysis seeks to answer the question: What are the best places to stargaze around Colby, and how do you get there?
GIS CAMPUS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY: ACCESSIBILITY AND EASE OF USE ANALYSIS FOR FOOT TRAFFIC   (Poster)
Tommaso Montagni ('17), Environmental Studies
In my project I will be analyzing the accessibility and ease of foot traffic around the Colby College Campus so as to identify possible places where paths should be removed or added.
DEMANDS OF SALMON FARMING; IS BYCATCH THE ANSWER?   (Oral Presentation)
Stephen O'Grady ('16), Environmental Studies
Farmed salmon make up a substantial portion of annual seafood sales. There have been concerns, however, surrounding the amount of energy it takes to raise these predatory fish that are high on the food chain. Much of the feed used to raise farmed salmon is fishmeal, which is composed largely of wild-caught fish, often harvested from overfished stocks. Recent findings state that there are approximately 300,000 tonnes of bycatch annually across all fisheries worldwide. Much of this fish is discarded and goes to waste. If it were possible to channel a portion of this bycatch to salmon fishmeal production, demand for traditional feed fishes could be dramatically reduced, lifting some of the pressure put on these highly important, often exploited feed fisheries.
DEVELOPMENT RISK TO WATER QUALITY IN SOUTHERN SEBAGO LAKE   (Poster)
Jeremy Ravenelle ('18), Environmental Studies
The Sebago Lake watershed supplies drinking water to more than 200,000 people in the Greater Portland area. The Portland Water District is currently able to supply water from their intake at the south end of the lake with only minimal treatment to remove bacteria due to the very high water quality of the lake. The district has a strong interest in preserving water quality, which is dependent on the filtering effect of forest and other vegetation surrounding the lake and its watershed. However, the district owns only about 1% of the watershed land, and most of the rest is in private hands, leading to a significant potential for development. I analyze the development potential of land parcels in the town of Standish that are close to the lake near the water district intake using GIS. The model is based on their current land use, location compared to roads and other developed areas, and town growth plans and land slope. I further weight the resulting risk of development by how close the parcel is to the lake. This attempts to show areas most likely to cause a decline in water quality through development.
ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS IN WILDLIFE: PERCEPTIONS AMONG CONSERVATIONISTS   (Oral Presentation)
Eda Reed ('16), Environmental Studies
Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as those from plastics and pesticides, have been hypothesized to affect wildlife populations. According to the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, EDCs 'are chemicals that may interfere with the body's endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife.' A growing number of studies suggest wildlife are being exposed to EDCs, but how EDCs affect wildlife health and wildlife conservation is less well-understood. Through scientific literature analysis and a survey of wildlife conservationists and practitioners, this study aims to determine the current state of knowledge and data gaps of EDCs and effects on wildlife conservation.
GLOEOTRICHIA ECHINULATA AND ITS EFFECT ON NITROGEN CYCLING IN THE BELGRADE LAKES, ME   (Oral Presentation)
Harriet Rothschild ('16), Environmental Studies
Cyanobacteria are a ubiquitous life form present in a variety of aquatic ecosystems and are commonly referred to as blue-green algae because many contain the photosynthetic pigments phycocyanin and chlorophyll-a. Researchers have found evidence of increased cyanobacterial blooms in eutrophic, mesotrophic, and oligotrophic lakes over the past three hundred years. This research focuses specifically on the cyanobacterium G. echinulata, a nitrogen fixing, large (~2mm), colonial cyanobacteria species that has been increasing globally. G. echinulata, like many species of cyanobacteria, are unique in their ability to carry out both oxygen-evolving photosynthesis and oxygen-labile N fixation within the same organism. Studying G. echinulata in the Belgrade Lakes is important not only to the landowners and stakeholders in the area but also the wider limnological community. The ongoing research of G. echinulata in the Belgrade Lakes will help scientists understand why the abundance is increasing, what health implications it could have, and how G. echinulata affects the N and P cycling.
DIABETES IN THE UNITED STATES: MODELING THE EPIDEMIC USING SOCIAL FACTORS   (Poster)
John Sears ('17), Environmental Studies
While there is a well known correlation between physical factors such as obesity and lack of physical activity and diabetes, there are many social factors that are not taken into consideration when looking at the diabetes epidemic in the United States. My projects looks to create a model taking into account a number of these social determinants such as income, food security, and health care coverage to find ways to help alleviate the diabetes epidemic through social routes. This model will then be applied to G.I.S programs for spatial analysis and a better understanding of the social determinants of diabetes.
DISTRIBUTION OF FARMERS' MARKETS ACCEPTING SNAP IN MAINE   (Poster)
Elizabeth Sull ('16), Environmental Studies
Maines SNAP (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program) allows low-income families to use their EBT (Electronic Benefits Transfer) cards to pay for fresh produce at select farmers market, often at a discounted rate. However, currently only about 30% of farmers markets in Maine accommodate SNAP. I am interested in whether SNAP is being implemented in the areas that need it most.
IMPACTS OF EXPANDING CHINESE MEAT IMPORTS ON DEFORESTA TION IN SOUTH AMERICA   (Oral Presentation)
Hannah Twombly ('16), Environmental Studies
Between 1960 and 2014, U.S. soybean production dropped from 70% to 35% of total global production. This decrease was largely driven by increased competition from Brazil, with 28% of global production fueled by an increased demand for meat in China. Although Brazils increasing investment in the soybean market has provided economic benefits for the country, environmental stewardship is lessening as voters are pushing for relaxed environmental regulation and the local government lacks the proper enforcement for policies aimed at preservation. Since the late 1900s, soybean production has increased as a source of animal feed due to the increasing demand for meat, largely in developed countries. However, the demand for soybean exports has continued to rise as incomes increase in developing countries and as China in particular faces a shortage in arable land, depending on imports to satisfy the countrys high demand for meat. Seeing an economic opportunity, Brazil invested in its large swaths of arable land and began converting fertile forests to cropland to grow soybeans. Although Brazil faces challenges with underdeveloped infrastructure and poor roads for transportation, the country has utilized its low operating costs and large land area to compete with the top producing U.S. in soybean production. Various policies have been implemented to address the rates of deforestation, however, enforcement remains an issue.
THE HISTORICAL ECOLOGY OF QUEENSLAND’S AUSTRALIAN SALTWATER CROCODILE POPULATION   (Oral Presentation)
Emily Walker ('16), Environmental Studies
Human-wildlife conflict is a critical issue for many societies, as it often plays a large role in government decisions. The iconic saltwater Australian crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is one example of a species that has become the subject of human-wildlife conflict as its population has grown in response to successful environmental policy in Queensland, Australia. Decades of intensive hunting in Queensland drastically depleted crocodile populations, leading to their protection in 1974. Since protection, populations appear to be recovering with increasing densities in the north and increased sightings along the southernmost edge of their observed range. While this recovery represents an ecological success story, it has strong policy implications with heated debates on management strategies to reduce conflict between crocodiles and humans. These debates are fueled by a lack of scientific understanding of the ultimate drivers of range expansion, as it is unclear if crocodiles are recolonizing historical ranges from which they were displaced, or if increasing temperatures is expanding their range further south. My research investigates the probability of these drivers through comparisons between current and historical range and abundance data. In addition, it explores whether crocodile attacks on humans have been increasing throughout Queensland. In order to successfully manage crocodiles and reduce human-crocodile conflict, defining this driver of spatial change and understanding how human-crocodile interactions are changing is critical.
MISSING THE TREES FOR THE FOREST: THE SOCIOECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SCATTERED TREES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIAN CROPLAND   (Oral Presentation)
Jacob Wall ('16), Environmental Studies
Scattered trees are prominent features in the agricultural landscape of the Ethiopian highlands. The dry Afromontane forests of the Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia have faced centuries of deforestation - the FAO estimates only 3% of the region is forested today. The remaining landscape has been largely converted into agricultural and grazing lands, with the exception of thousands of small forest fragments left around Orthodox Churches (church forests). But while a growing body of scholarship has highlighted the ecological and cultural importance of church forests and other natural forest fragments, the roles of scattered remnant trees left in actively cultivated agricultural systems remains understudied. The ecological and socio-cultural benefits of scattered trees is widely acknowledged in some human-modified landscapes, including in the context of agroforestry where such trees provide important ecosystem services such as carbon sequestration, erosion control, water quality enhancement, biodiversity conservation, pollination, and topsoil enrichment, as well as numerous economic benefits including food, fodder, and fuel. This study examines the perceived and measured temporal change in scattered tree abundance in non-agroforestry systems, through Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses and social survey data collection. Findings from GIS analyses indicate a decline in scattered tree abundance since the 1960s, while ground-truthing indicates a relatively narrow diversity of tree species. Farmers, however, report a perceived increase in tree numbers on cropland in recent decades with social survey responses emphasizing the economic and ecosystem importance of tree species as justification for why scattered trees are retained even when they interfere with crops.
WILD AND FARMED ATLANTIC SALMON IN NORWAY   (Oral Presentation)
Caelin Weiss ('16), Environmental Studies
I will be studying the effects of the Norwegian farmed salmon industry and the fishing practices targeting wild Atlantic salmon to determine the impacts on wild salmon stocks. Wild Atlantic salmon can travel thousands of miles, and in moving between the sea and rivers they pass between international territory and cross countries' borders, making their protection of international concern. Currently, Norway is recognized by some experts as having the most dangerous fishings practices for wild Atlantic salmon, and their salmon farming practices are also harmful to wild salmon stocks. I aim to determine which fishing and farming practices are most detrimental to wild Atlantic salmon populations in order to make policy recommendations that will better protect wild Atlantic salmon and the people who are economically reliant on the continued success of the industry. I will also be studying the current regulations placed on salmon farmers and wild salmon fisheries (or lack thereof) and the success or failure of implementing these policies. By better understanding where Norway is falling short, I can target which policies will most successfully address the threat of fishing and salmon farms. I hope to determine if regulatory policy is weak, enforcement is nonexistent, or if there are other policy hazards that Norway's government and fishery organizations can address. This project will seek to correct these shortcomings and create more sustainable and just industries in order to ensure the health of wild Atlantic salmon populations and the economies and families that rely upon them. Current policies do not sufficiently protect these fish or these people, so finding more successful policies and enforcing them is an urgent matter to every country that wild Atlantic salmon pass through.
GIS CAMPUS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY: ACCESSIBILITY AND EASE OF USE ANALYSIS FOR WHEELCHAIRS   (Poster)
Jiaqi Wu ('19), Environmental Studies
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GIS CAMPUS TRANSPORTATION SURVEY: CAMPUS MAP   (Poster)
Wesley Zebrowski ('18), Environmental Studies
We constructed a geographically accurate map of Colby. In subsequent projects, we calculated accessibility on campus.
LA RéSISTANCE TOUARèGUE: SUCCèS OU SUICIDE?   (Oral Presentation)
Yannik Buchi ('17), French
LOuest Africain est un espace contest depuis lentre des Franais dans le territoire en 1830. De nombreux peuples se trouvent bouleverss par ce nouveau contestant qui, par sa supriorit technologique, restructure le gouvernement, la socit et la culture de chaque rgions quil sapproprie, et la reconstruit limage occidentale. LAfrique de lOuest subit donc une rapide et abrupte transformation des dynamiques de son territoire, auparavant peupl dhommes majoritairement nomades. La fondation de nouveaux gouvernements par les Franais dans les villes majeures telles que Biskra, St. Louis et Tombouctou engendre lurbanisation de ces villes dj bien tablies avant la colonisation. Linfluence des colons ne se limite pourtant pas aux villes, mais stend dans les rgions pastorales, attirant certains individus vers les villes et forant dautres dfendre leurs langues, leurs cultures, leurs territoires, et leurs traditions.
LA QUESTION INNUE: UN PEUPLE ET LEUR TERRE   (Oral Presentation)
Kaitlin Curran ('16), French
My presentation will focus on the Innu people of Qubec; their history, their spirituality, and their relationship to nature. I will discuss current environmental/ecological concerns within the Innu context, as well as touch upon the role of poet Rita Mestokosho in the struggle for cultural survival and land rights. The presentation will be in French.
ETUDE COMPARéE DU TRAVAIL EN FRANCE ET AU JAPON: LE CAS DE STUPEURS ET TREMBLEMENTS D'AMéLIE NOTHOMB   (Oral Presentation)
Asami Hirano ('18), French
This is an oral presentation of an Independent Study project that was conducted over Jan Plan 2016. The goal of the project was to compare the workplace in France and Japan by incorporating elements from Amelie Nothomb's, 'Fear and Trembling'. I investigated the differences of the workplace in France and Japan from a sociological, historical and literary framework. This project is also an analysis of Nothomb's novel, and an illustration of the differences in the workplace that she herself experienced.
L'IDENTITé éQUILIBRéE DANS L'APPEL DES ARèNES ; BALANCED IDENTITIES IN L'APPEL DES ARèNES   (Oral Presentation)
Morganne Hodsdon ('16), French
Le sminaire sur les rcits identitaires (French 493 B, Narratives of Identities/ Niang) nous a permis danalyser la problmatique de lidentit travers ltude dun certain nombre duvres littraires dAfrique francophone. Ainsi, dans Lappel des arnes, on voit plusieurs types didentit travers des personnages trs diffrents, et ces reprsentations mettent en vidence la complexit de la dfintion de lidentit. Lhistoire suit un jeune homme qui se trouve entre deux mondes, un domaine traditionnel et un autre plus moderne. Ce roman dAminata Sow Fall rend visible les avantages des identits polmiques, les critiques de ces identits, et comment on peut les combiner afin dtablir une identit plutt quilibre ou hybride. During Narratives of Identities, our French course taught by Professor Niang, we analyzed the idea of identity in various French-African texts. In Lappel des arnes, we see several different characters with a wide range of personalities, and as a result comprehend the challenges of accurately defining the term identity. The story follows a boy who finds himself between two worlds, one traditional and one more modern. Aminata Sow Falls roman reveals the benefits and disadvantages of various identities and how one can combine them in order to create a more balanced identity of self.
LE PERTE D'IMPORTANCE: LE RôLE DE L'éGLISE DANS QUéBEC   (Oral Presentation)
Meredith Keenan ('18), French
Mon projet de mi- semestre a focalis dans le rle de lglise dans le dveloppement de Qubec aprs 1608. Jai appris que lglise a eu des liens aux secteurs politiques, conomiques, et sociaux qui aident dans la cration de Qubec comme un tat. Mais aujourdhui, il y a un manque de participation dans lglise catholique. La prsence aux messes est prs de 20% et il y a un sparation entre lglise et ltat. Alors avec ce disparit entre le rle de lglise original et lglise moderne, je me demande quest-ce qui a provoqu ce changement. Nous avons appris de le Rvolution Tranquille et le mcontentement du publique avec lglise. Mais, avec mon projet final, je voudrais dexplorer les raisons de ce sentiment. Je veux analyser le situation politique, ladministration de lglise, et le sentiment publique jusqu ce que le commencement de la Grande Noirceur et pendant ce priode.
FRANCOPHONES OF MAINE: RECONNECTING WITH A CULTURAL HERITAGE   (Oral Presentation)
Clint Ross ('16), French
The goal of this project is to explore the Francophone culture in Maine by documenting oral traditions, sharing life stories of French-speaking Mainers, and developing a connection between Colby students and locals through community engagement.
LA TENTE TOUARèGUE: ENTRE STABILITé, MATERNITé, ET TRADITION   (Oral Presentation)
Sarah Shoer ('18), French
Riche de sens, la tente des Touaregs nest gure simplement un type dabri de fortune. Un Touareg tient sa tante puisque la tente est son lieu de naissance. Elle est sa mre. Plus que la maison stable, la tente, lorsquelle respire au rythme du vent, est une expression de la maternit (Dupavillon 29). La tente, unit sacre et symbolique au sein de la socit touargue et un lment rcurrent dans le recueil dAlhassane Ag Baille, Lanne maigre : nouvelles touargues, est la fois un symbole de la maternit, de la stabilit et de la scurit. La question qui simpose est donc la suivante : comment est-ce la tente des Touaregs renforce-t-elle les liens communautaires et les traditions ancestrales ? Nous traiterons cette question en trois points, en tirant des lments de Lanne maigre : nouvelles touargues. Premirement, nous examinerons le rle symbolique de la tente dans le mariage et dans le lignage. Deuximement, nous tudierons en quoi la tente reprsente le domaine des femmes. Et finalement, nous nous pencherons sur le rapport entre la tente des Touaregs et la nature, car sa fabrication et sa construction rclament un savoir technique des cosmos et des matires naturelles.
DOROTHY ALLISON'S TRASH: ERASURE AND RUPTURE IN INTERNAL QUEER MIGRATION   (Oral Presentation)
Emma Brown ('16), General
In many ways, internal queer migration is a borderland of immigration studies. It lives at the intersection of gender, sexuality and class. It is often not perceived as legitimate migration. It is often not perceived as migration at all. Yet grasping the paradox of internal queer migration is pivotal; specifically as the rural is constructed by urban elites as a place to be escaped from; as progressive city circles, which purport to be the promised lands of the global queer community, remain quite capable of marginalization and erasure. In the introduction to her searing and haunting short story collection, Trash (1988), Dorothy Allison writes that moving from rural South Carolina to San Francisco transformed her into 'an escape,' into the personification of a borderland (Allison 1). Positioning Trash in conversation with Scott Herrings theory of queer anti-urbanism, Walter Benjamins Illuminations and Mary Louise Pratts 'Arts of the Contact Zone,' I argue that Allisons collection ruptures normative understandings of temporal boundaries, within the frame of class and queer migration. It does so through the particular layering and ordering of the stories; this structure deconstructs the idea that queer border crossings occur only once or that such border crossings are the first step in a progress narrative of becoming. The stakes of these inquiries are significant they seek to illuminate the consequences of conflating exodus with the completion of identity, while disrupting the trope of the inherently limited rural environment and the intrinsically inclusive urban one. Note: Paper originally presented at the American Comparative Literature Association's annual meeting at Harvard University, in March 2016.
DEATH, MOURNING AND HUMAN NARCISSISM: FAULKNER'S AS I LAY DYING THROUGH A FREUDIAN LENS   (Oral Presentation)
Liam Butchart ('18), General
William Faulkners classic Southern Gothic novel As I Lay Dying is more than just an experiment in modernist techniques: it is a novel that expressly examines its characters minds, a work containing great psychological depth. This paper will examine the psychological reactions of five members of the Bundren family to the death of Addie, their mother or wife. This examination will utilize Freudian psychoanalytic techniques to address the characters psychological complexities: developmental stages, defense mechanisms and their mourning processes. Proceeding from that psychoanalysis, this article will argue that Faulkner is using the minds of the characters to impart a message, a comment on the human experience. Faulkner is saying that humans minds are complex, and that humans, when faced with tribulations, are self-centered.
WHAT'S COOKING: LUCA GIORDANO'S THREE DEPICTIONS OF HERCULES' DEATH   (Oral Presentation)
Kathleen Carroll ('17), General
Hercules is one of the most commonly portrayed classical figures in modern culture, with a plethora of movies and television shows depicting his adventures; this popularity is not a modern fad, however, for representations of Hercules have been a constant throughout history. During his career, the Baroque artist Luca Giordano (1634-1705) produced three different versions of Hercules demise: the Colby Museum of Arts 'Hercules on the Funeral Pyre' (1665-1670), 'Hercules on the Pyre' (1687-1700) currently in El Escorial, and the Prado Museums 'Hercules on the Pyre' (~1697). This project in progress focuses on the different ways Giordano portrays Hercules destiny after death in each painting, and explores which Ancient Greek and Roman sources may have influenced each of Giordanos depictions. I argue that the portrayal of Hercules death in Colbys collection is reliant on Lucian's 'The Dialogues of the Dead' and Ovids description of the apotheosis of Hercules (Met.IX.355-406), which uphold the belief that Hercules soul was split between Olympus and the Underworld. El Escorials 'Hercules on the Pyre' (1687-1700) is a borderline peaceful portrayal of Hercules death, a view supported by the closing scene of Senecas 'Hercules Oetaeus.' Finally, the Prados 'Hercules on the Funeral Pyre' (~1697) leaves Hercules destiny after death ambiguous, reflecting the uncertainty in Ovids treatment of the death of Hercules (Met.IX.238-313), as well as the opening scenes of Senecas 'Hercules Oetaeus.' Each version creates a different atmosphere surrounding the same scene, which prompts an interesting conversation about the way in which different ancient texts influenced an artist centuries after their creation and the contrasting traditions of Hercules death present within these texts.
PAST AND FUTURE FUTURE CHANGES IN THE GULF OF MAINE THROUGH THE LENS OF THE LOBSTERMEN   (Oral Presentation)
Katrina Chicojay Moore ('16), Clea Harrelson ('16) and Emma Wood ('16), General
Gulf of Maine (GoM) ecosystems have changed over the past century in response to increased fishing pressure and climate change. While these changes have been assessed using ecological data, the inclusion of local ecological knowledge (LEK) has the potential to strengthen analysis and illuminate novel layers of complexity. Additionally LEK can be used to determine the degree to which these communities consider climate change as a potential threat. We interviewed Maine fishermen to determine potential species range/abundance shifts, changes in the health of the GoM, perceptions of climate change, and how, if at all, fishermen are planning to adapt to perceived changes. Additionally, we used a cognitive mapping exercise (mental model) to create a visual concept map of how each fisherman personally perceives changes in the future. Interviewees reported northward range shifts of species such as black sea bass (Centropristis striata) and northeastern range shifts in populations of American lobster (Homarus americanus). Lobstermen also identified 16 marine species as having declined in abundance and 13 marine species as having increased in abundance. Across our interviewees, 18% mentioned the term climate change, while 82% of interviewees said that they observed changes in the temperatures of the GoM. Eighty two percent of interviewees also reported that they believe these changing temperatures will affect the Maine lobster industry in the future. Combined, these forms of data reflect the impacts of climate change and allow scientists and managers to better gauge both ecological change and perception of drivers of change from local resource users.
CULTIVATING CONSERVATION IN THE LAKE TANA BASIN: IMPLICATIONS OF A NEW UNESCO BIOSPHERE RESERVE MODEL FOR ECOSYSTEMS AND LIVELIHOODS   (Oral Presentation)
Maravilla Clemens ('16) and Alexandra Heisler ('16), General
In 2014 the Lake Tana basin in northern Ethiopia was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve. Unlike previous Ethiopian Biosphere Reserves which concentrated on sparsely settled areas with high forest cover, the Lake Tana Biosphere Reserve covers densely populated and degraded multifunctional landscapes. The presence of multiple settlements and ongoing land-use by farmers, herders and fishermen throughout the watershed has necessitated the development of a unique layout for the new Biosphere Reserve, combining extensive networks of buffer zones (where some continuing land-use is permitted) with dozens of small core protected areas centered on remnant forest patches with high levels of biodiversity. This study uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to examine historical changes in land-use and riparian forest cover in the Lake Tana basin. We further analyze woreda(district)-level economic trends and census data to highlight continuing challenges and opportunities for sustainable land-use in the new Biosphere Reserve. Contrasting declassified U.S. government aerial photographs from 1964-1967 with present-day U.S. Geological Survey Landsat satellite imagery reveals widespread deforestation and riparian vegetation loss over the past 50 years. However, scattered forest fragments most notably small church forests preserved for up to centuries by followers of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church have been well-protected, providing valuable cultural and ecosystems services for local communities in addition to providing refuge for indigenous biodiversity. Findings add to the nascent literature on the Lake Tana Biosphere Reserve which, if successful, promises to widen the applicability of UNESCO Biosphere Reserves to manage more densely settled fragmented forest landscapes worldwide.
LOOKING INTO THE PAST: CAN WE (ACCURATELY) MODEL ANCESTRAL RUBISCO SPECIES?   (Oral Presentation)
Anna Donovan ('17), General
Ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes carbon dioxide fixation during photosynthesis. Though one of the most abundant enzymes on earth, the evolutionary history of Rubisco remains widely unknown. There are four different functional Rubisco isozymes, all of which are composed of some variation on a catalytic dimer of large subunits (L2). Some forms include small subunits, but the function of these subunits remains a mystery. The evolutionary history of this enzyme can be studied by determining where, phylogenetically, these subunits appeared or disappeared. The sequences and structures of several ancestral large subunits are known, but in order to simulate these proteins we must recreate an (accurate) solvation environment (i.e. mimic interactions between the large subunit and the surrounding dimers, small subunits, and water). Here we present a method to computationally simulate the ancestral Rubisco species by creating chimeric proteins with the ancestral catalytic dimer inserted into an existing Rubisco species. The validity of this method is analyzed using principal component analysis.
ABRAHAM COWLEY’S ADVOCACY FOR EXPERIMENTAL SCIENCE IN THE POETIC FORM   (Oral Presentation)
James Grote ('16), General
Abraham Cowley published many works soon after the restoration of the monarchy in 17th century England. In my independent study with Professor Hanlon, I closely examined his poem 'To the Royal Society,' which discusses the emergence of scientific experimentation, or experimental philosophy, at the time. During my visit to Harvard Universitys Special Collections in February(funded by a grant from The Center for the Arts and Humanities), I examined early editions of Cowleys other works and found multiple other texts that focused on developing experimental science. I will focus on three of his texts: 'To the Royal Society,' 'Ode to Dr. Harvey,' and 'A Proposition for the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy.' During my presentation, I will explain the state of science at the time of Cowleys writing, and then I will discuss how Cowley challenged the status quo of scientific inquiry. I will show images of his texts that I took while in Special Collections, and focus on specific moments that demonstrate his skills within the discipline of poetry and his understanding of scientific discovery and processes. I will discuss the implications behind the poetic devices he uses when writing about science, such as anthropomorphization and repetition. I was very intimidated by and unenthusiastic about this topic when I first read Cowley's writing, but after opening my mind and giving it a chance, I have realized how much I enjoy his poetry and the topics relevant to 17th century England. I hope that my presentation will show others that literature from that time period is relevant to our generation and more accessible than many people assume.
LEAVES OF BOOKS AND ON TREES: THE ECOLOGICAL ETHIC OF VIRGINIA WOOLF   (Oral Presentation)
Lucy Hadley ('16), General
Virginia Woolf scholars have largely ignored environmental themes in her literary work. It is only in recent years that the budding field of eco-criticism has provided the scholarly tools to examine how Woolf's text's treat environmental concerns. Despite the growth of eco-critical scholarship on Woolf, there is still much to say about the environmental ethic of Virginia Woolf. Specifically, literary ecology, the study of ecological frameworks in literature, is under utilized with respect to Woolfs work. Through a literary ecology lens, Woolf's work conveys an understanding that the natural world is fundamentally systems based, and 'a vital thread of light' connects all organisms within an ecosystem (Woolf 'The Death of the Moth' 1). In Woolf's work, humans often participate in these ecosystems, a representation of human nonhuman relationships that emphasizes human interdependence on the environment. Woolf's representations of human nonhuman ecosystems critique the human relationship to the environment, and she highlights that cities, gender politics, and language systems are all part of humans' ecological relationship to nature. In representations of human nonhuman ecosystems, Woolf offers a model for human cohabitation and codependence with the natural world. This paper examines ecological themes and ethics in two short pieces; 'The Death of the Moth' (1941) and 'Kew Gardens' (1919); an opinion article, 'The Plumage Bill' (1920); and one novel, The Waves (1931).
THE IMPLICATIONS OF SEED POLICY FOR ON-FARM AGRO-BIODIVERSITY AND FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA AND UGANDA   (Oral Presentation)
Altinay Karasapan ('16) and Andrew Currier ('16), General
Despite the past four decades of food aid and agricultural development, food insecurity continues to be a widespread concern across East Africa. How might policy-makers act to support smallholder farm sustainability while ensuring food security? This paper provides an in-depth look into the seed systems of Ethiopia and Uganda, emphasizing the implications of seed-related policies, programs, and institutions for smallholder livelihoods and subsistence. In both countries, policies and seed enterprises have typically focused their efforts on increasing access to modern or high quality varieties via the formal sector. However, as it stands today, the formal seed sector only provides a small share of smallholders seed - most rural farmers instead source seeds from local and informal markets. This research systematically codes key seed policies in Ethiopia and Uganda based on how provisions within each policy impact availability and accessibility of improved varieties (i.e., introduced genetic diversity), quality seed (i.e., quality-controlled varieties), and domestic genetic diversity (i.e., diverse local seed). Among policy provisions with negative effects, most reduce access to or availability of genetically diverse seed through the informal sector. Overall, the results show that the policies in both countries tend to focus more heavily on strengthening the formal seed sector, while the informal sector only sees indirect policy impacts (often negative). To promote conservation and use of agro-biodiversity in Ethiopia and Uganda policies will need to directly promote seed genetic diversity, including through informal seed systems.
THE EFFECTS OF MICROPLASTICS ON GRAZING AND FECAL SINK RATES OF MARINE COPEPODS   (Oral Presentation)
Seung Kim ('18), General
Plastics comprise 70% of all marine debris and over 90% of floating particles in the ocean. There is growing concern that plastics are ingested by organisms and entering the oceanic food web. Copepods provide an important link in marine food webs by bridging primary production with higher trophic levels including fish, birds, and marine mammals. Copepods also play an active role in the biological pump by transporting unassimilated organic matter within their fecal pellets to the deep ocean. This study investigated ingestion rates of microplastics by two coastal copepod species and the sinking rates of their fecal pellets. Results show that copepods ingest plastic beads at a similar rate as phytoplankton. We also found high numbers of beads attached to the carapace of copepods posing an additional pathway for beads to higher trophic levels. Fecal pellets containing plastic beads sank significantly slower than pellets produced on a phytoplankton diet. These results suggest that while copepod fecal pellets may provide a mechanism for the export of floating plastics, they may also diminish the ability of the ocean to sequester atmospheric CO2.
ARSENIC IN MAINE'S PRIVATE WELLS: TESTING BEHAVIOR AND IMPLICATIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Samantha Lovell ('16), General
Arsenic contamination in private wells is a major problem for communities in Maine. Naturally found in bedrock and soil throughout New England, arsenic is a Class 1 carcinogen with short-term neurological and cardiovascular effects and chronic effects of possible changes in IQ, skin discoloration, and cancer. While public wells must be tested for toxic substances, and comply with the EPAs Maximum Contaminant Level of 10 ug/L for arsenic, there is no mandate for testing private wells. Since 40-45% of homeowners in Maine use private wells, testing is crucial for residents safety. This study uses spatial information to understand the distribution of arsenic in private wells of the state in addition to data from the Maine Behavioral Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS). BRFSS is a national telephone questionnaire that collects data about residents health and behavior. By comparing characteristics of residents who test their wells and those who do not test, including income, education, age, and number of children, this study aims to understand factors that lead Mainers to test their wells for arsenic. As state nonprofits and the Maine state government continues advocacy efforts to educate Mainers about the dangers of arsenic, this research could guide outreach programs.
COASTAL LAND CONSERVATION AND CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACTS OF SEA-LEVEL RISE ON CONSERVATION IN NEW ENGLAND   (Oral Presentation)
George Voigt ('17) and Christina Thomas ('17), General
In its fifth Assessment Report (AR5), the IPCC outlines how coastal systems and low-lying areas will increasingly experience adverse impacts of climate change such as submergence, coastal flooding, and erosion due to relative sea level rise. However, there are large spatial variations in the projected sea level rise by localities/regions. And due to other factors such as land use or human development along specific coasts, the impacts of relative sea level rise at the local scale can vary considerably. In the United States, government agencies and research groups have noted the financial, social and ecological risks posed by climate change in coastal states. Currently, millions of acres of government and privately owned land along coastal areas are devoted to conservation in the form of wildlife refuges, parks, land trusts, etc. However, given the threat of sea level rise and other climate-related effects, over the next few years, the investments made in these coastal sites may not yield the level of return initially expected. Species distribution patterns and ecosystem services are likely to change as wetland habitats recede or are submerged. Thus it is important for conservation groups to be able to identify the invest in areas that will maximize returns within the context of their conservation goals, be it the protection of land, species of cultural heritage sites. We present preliminary results from a multi-year project that (1) identifies the impact of sea level rise on coastal activities (2) formulates methods for targeting conservation of coastal land. Drawing on Modern Portfolio Theory and theories on conservation site selection, we asses which bundles minimize risks while maximizing potential returns.
METAMORPHISM OF ORDOVICIAN ROCKS OF THE LIBERTY-ORRINGTON BELT AND EARLY-SILURIAN ROCKS OF THE FREDERICTON TROUGH, SOUTHEASTERN MAINE, USA   (Poster)
Olivia Amber ('17), Geology
The Liberty-Orrington Belt and Fredericton Trough in southeastern Maine consist of rocks metamorphosed through Silurian-Devonian orogenic processes. The type of metamorphism these rocks experienced is a function of tectonic style and thermal evolution. The metamorphic events of this study area reflect low-pressure high-temperature amphibolite facies conditions. Therefore, their ages are a reflection of the age of crystallization rather than cooling of the zircon and monazite minerals. These metamorphic events produced some of the most prominent recrystallizations of Maine.
DIOPSIDE: AN OVERVIEW   (Poster)
Daniel Boudreau ('18), Geology
An exploration of diopside, a mineral from the clinopyroxene group. Topics covered will range from chemical makeup, crystal structure, formation, physical characteristics and a brief history ranging from its first known classification in 1806 to contemporary uses in the biotechology industry and in geological research.
IN THE SHADOW OF GARNET AND ZIRCON: WHAT’S SO GREAT ABOUT KYANITE?   (Poster)
Alicia Fischer ('18), Geology
Under the extremely large silicate classification umbrella, minerals such as garnet and olivine fall under the category of nesosilicates, as their SiO4 tetrahedra remain isolated in their crystal structure. Within the nesosilicates, an interesting group called the aluminum silicates consists of minerals that share the same chemical formula due to polymorphism: andalusite, sillimanite, and, the particular focus of this project, kyanite. Yet, why should the average person appreciate these three minerals if they are not as well-known as garnet and topaz or as useful as zircon? Certainly, the trio may not be as popular, but their significance in geology and in one's everyday life cannot remain understated. Thus, an overview of kyanite's history, structure, physical and optical properties, geological formation, and occurrences around the world will be presented to understand the relative importance and unique applications of kyanite.
FRACTURE NETWORKS AND GROUNDWATER FLOW   (Oral Presentation)
Jenna Hill ('16), Geology
In Maine, our water resources depend on bedrock aquifers where fluid flow is controlled by the connectivity of fracture networks within crystalline rocks. The permeability of a bedrock aquifer is almost completely dependent on the layout of its fracture network because crystalline rock has a negligible permeability on its own. The purpose of this study is to better understand the 3-D geometry of these fracture networks. To do this, I studied an exposure of densely fractured Hallowell Granite in Augusta, ME. The exposure is less than two miles away from a major public well that is actively monitored by the USGS. I was able to use the exposure as an outcrop analogue to estimate what the nearby aquifer may look like. The outcrop that I used is part of a pluton that is exposed on a 100-m wide and 4-m tall cliff face. I compiled measurements of fracture length, aperture, density of midpoints, orientation, and clustering of 33 different fractures across the outcrop. This allowed me to estimate the permeability and to generate a 3-D model of its fracture network. Modeling underground fracture networks generally requires expensive equipment and seismic data, but I was able to use my observations to extrapolate a model out of my surficial observations using 7.4 Fracman software. The discrete fracture network that I studied has an estimated permeability of 3.0*10^6 md. The average yield of the nearby 280-m deep well is 40.0 gpm. This kind of modeling offers a comprehensive way to understand fracture connectivity in bedrock where flow is often difficult to predict. In the future, it would be interesting to extend my study to compare other large outcrops associated with the Hallowell Granite.
THE STRATIGRAPHY AND DEPOSITIONAL SETTING OF THE BENNER HILL SEQUENCE   (Poster)
George Hill ('16), Geology
The Benner Hill Sequence consists of three rock Formations dated late Ordovician and possibly older. At the base of the Sequence is a feldspathic quartzite interbedded with gray mica schist, known as the Mosquito Harbor Formation. Consistent 3 10 mm beds dominated by quartzite indicate a stable, high energy depositional environment. Above that is the Hart's Neck Formation, a unit consisting of biotitc rock types derived from sedimentary protolith of varying grain size. Dense concentrations of brachiopod fossils and variations in lithology and bed thickness indicate a high energy, unstable depositional environment. The Benner Hill Formation lies at the top of the sequence and consists of thinly interbedded and laminated quartz-mica schist and quartzite with bedlets of coticule, representing a lower energy, stable deposition environment. The entire Benner Hill Sequence represents continental slope deposits that were subducted and deformed during the accretion of a peri-Gondwanan volcanic arc onto Laurentia.
STRUCTURAL HISTORY OF THE ROCKS ALONG THE NORUMBEGA FAULT SYSTEM IN EASTERN/COSTAL MAINE   (Poster)
Kate Kerin ('17), Geology
The geology displayed in the rocks of eastern/ coastal Maine is dominated by long-lived structural features dating back to the Paleozoic era (Swanson, 1999). This pervasive deformation is the result of the Norumbega Fault System, an extensive strike slip fault system that stretches the length of Maine. The width of the fault system ranges from 30 km in south-western Maine, to 25 km in south-central Maine, to 35-40 km wide in eastern Maine. Three 2-5 km wide strain zones were also discovered in eastern Maine and are called the Kellyland, Waite, and Codyville fault zones (West, 1999). This fault trends north to south and the faults penetrate steeply to middle+ lower crustal levels. The dextral shear seen in the deformed rocks categorize the fault as a dextral strike slip fault system. Studying the Norumbega fault system is of great significance because the extent of this fault means that deformation happened to a wide range of rock types and different bedrock formations (Special Paper 331, 1999). This can teach us more about the outcome of faulting and help us to get a better grasp on the structural deformation brought on by faulting. Interpret the geologic history from the present day rock structures can teach us all about the timing, conditions, kinematics and displacement. This paper intends to cover the important history of the rocks along Maines greatest fault through the Acadian, neo-Acadian, and Alleghanian orogenys with a focus on the structural deformation of the rocks.
COMPOSITION AND TECTONIC SIGNIFICANCE OF DEVONIAN PLUTONS IN MAINE: A FIELD-BASED EXAMINATION   (Poster)
Jiawen Li ('16), Geology
Multiple orogenic events have greatly affected the terrane of Maine. Plutonic rocks that prevail the area are intimately related to these orogenies in that the magma sources are a result of tectonic activities. The Acadian orogeny from Late Silurian to Devonian is one of the most significant orogenic event, and many plutons are correlated with it. Examination of the composition of Devonian plutons, as well as their spatial and temporal relationships with each other, can give insight into the magma source regions and processes responsible for providing the heat, which provide a better understanding of the Acadian orogeny. Previous studies suggest that lithospheric delamination is responsible for magma generation in both northwestern and southeastern Maine, although the amount of crustal material incorporated may differ. We undertook reconnaissance field trips to Marshall Point and Washington-Liberty region to examine the mineralogy of the plutons found in these regions, as well as their spatial relationship with other rock units.
USING GIS AND R TO DEVELOP A METHOD FOR GEOLOGIC ANALYSES   (Oral Presentation)
Kelford Mitchel ('16), Geology
The majority of geologic analyses use observational field data to understand the geologic history of a field area. My goal for this project was to understand my qualitative data and then to apply a quantitative study for these observations to interpret how deformation varies between rock types. During my initial work in the Dyer Long Pond Complex (DLP), exposed in Jefferson, Maine, I confirmed three basic understandings: (1) the DLP consists of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that were deformed deep within Earths crust, (2) these rocks underwent partial melting stage prior to deformation, and thus experienced multiple stages of metamorphism, and (3) two micro-scale deformational processes occurred within these rocks: (a) by atoms diffusing around mineral grains and (b) through the reorganization of grains in the crystal lattice. These results helped greatly elucidate the history of the Dyer Long Pond Complex, but lacked a quantitative aspect to understand how deformation in these rocks operated at the individual mineral grain level. I created chemical phase maps of my samples, which consist of an image of all mineral phases in a sample. These images were imported into R: a powerful statistical analysis software package. This process has so far let me quantify relationships of mineral grains such as their clustering and overall distribution and will continue to help me understand how the shapes and sizes of grains vary throughout the sample. The end result of this work will provide further results to answer the larger question of how deformation behaves across various rock types and will provide a standardized method that can be used to study other rocks in the future.
PLAGIOCLASE   (Poster)
Zena Robert ('18), Geology
Plagioclase is a group of feldspar minerals that are primarily found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. They are one of the most common rock forming minerals; and because of that, the plagioclase group is popular in geological research. Even though it is one of the most common minerals, that does not mean that it is the most uninteresting. The history, chemical composition, physical characteristics, and modern applications of plagioclase will be discussed in order to explain its importance in the world of geology.
MACROFOSSIL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENT CORES FROM THE TURNER FARM ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE   (Oral Presentation)
Trevor Thomas ('16), Geology
The Turner Farm archaeological site, located on North Haven Island, Maine, represents a record of the habits and resource bases of prehistoric native groups that inhabited coastal Maine. Two sediment cores were taken from an unnamed salt marsh located adjacent to the Turner Farm archaeological site, providing complementary pollen and macrofossil records. The purpose of this project was to complete the macrofossil analysis of the remaining core material. The outer core (NH-1-2010) was from the boundary between the modern salt marsh sedge, and freshwater cattail communities. The second inner core (NH-5-2014), was collected 50 m farther into the freshwater cattail marsh. C-14 dates from NH-1-2010 indicate ~4000 years of deposition; wood from NH-5-2014 at 103 cm depth was dated to 2940 +/- 30 C-14 ybp. Macrofossils from both cores were collected, identified and counted at 5-cm intervals; pollen of the outer core was too degraded for study, so pollen analysis was performed only on the inner core.Spruce and pine are abundant throughout the pollen record, while hardwoods excluding oak, (common above 90 cm) are largely absent. Raspberry and elderberry seeds are abundant from 65-135 cm depth, (roughly 2000-3500 C-14 ybp); these seeds represent a previously unknown but likely important supplement to the primarily sea-food diet of the indigenous peoples. Needles of spruce and fir were abundant throughout the outer core, with equally abundant hemlock and pine at 181-191 cm (approx. 3000 C-14 ybp). Coastal herbaceous plant seeds, including grasses, sedges and forbs, are sporadic to locally abundant throughout the outer core as well. Recovered charcoal from the site was exclusively hardwood. Conifer forest dominance at the time of occupation indicates settlements were seasonal, not permanent.
SODALITE -- A FASCINATING BLUE MINERAL   (Poster)
Xiaohui Xu ('18), Geology
Sodalite is a rich royal blue mineral that has long been appreciated as an ornamental gemstone. However, it is more than an aesthetic pleasure. In this poster, the historical background, the occurrences, the structural and chemical data, and the geological uses of sodalite are presented in order to gain a better and thorougher understanding of this beautiful mineral.
DIE DARSTELLUNGEN DER WöLFE IN MäRCHEN UND FABELN   (Oral Presentation)
Chase Brown ('16), German
In this oral presentation conducted in German, I will analyze a variety of German fairy tales and fables that contain wolves. As many people will never see a wild wolf in their lifetime, most people gain information through these sorts of mediums. As children, our first interactions with wolves are with fairy tales and fables. These representations of wolves sick with us throughout our lives. Although they are not very scientific, they create our subjective ideas of what wolves are. The literary works that I will analyze provide an in depth look at the way humans depict wolves. A few different types of wolves are created and function differently in the German literature.
HOW SOUND AFFECTS THE TRADITIONAL ASPECTS OF FILM FORM: M - EINE STADT SUCHT EINEN MöRDER   (Oral Presentation)
Chase Brown ('16), German
Fritz Lang, the director of M, pushed the boundaries of film during his lifetime. His use of sound in M is so masterful it directs the attention of viewers to the possibilities of sound in cinema. Langs soundtrack in M is used in conjunction with the other aspects of film form in order to drive the plot, dictate the mood, and create a high level of continuity throughout his thriller. The sounds, dialogue, and silence in the film initiate and enhance the mies-en-scene, cinematography, and editing choices made by Lang. Hints at the use of sound and its importance are seen at every stage of the film. Lang is cleverly screaming at the viewers and saying, 'look what I can do!' For Lang, sound gave him the ability to make a film with a higher level of interconnectedness. The use of sound controlled what images were depicted and how they were displayed. Even today, many people underestimate the power and functionality of sound in film; they should watch or re-watch M - Eine Stadt sucht einen Mrder.
SEXUALITY AND IDENTITY IN DER BLAUE ENGEL AND GEGEN DIE WAND   (Oral Presentation)
Kristin Esdale ('16), German
Two very different femmes fatales, two different time periods, with the common thread of sexuality and identity. For the main female characters in Der Blaue Engel (1930) and Gegen die Wand (2004), they each express their changing identities through their changing sexualities and sexual behaviors. By understanding these femmes fatales, one can understand the societal pressures placed on women through different eras of time, as well as understand how changes in femmes across film reflect deeper social issues.
A COMPARISON OF HOW WAR WAS PORTRAYED TO GERMAN YOUTH IN THE NAZI ERA VS. THE REALITIES THEY FACED IN WWII   (Oral Presentation)
Taylor Haberstock ('19), German
During JanPlan this year, I took an independent study in which I surveyed the history of German film. As i surveyed German film, I became especially interested in the ways in which German films before and after World War II interacted. In the Nazi Era, films by Leni Riefenstahl like Triumph des Willens portrayed incredibly strong nationalistic messages specifically directed at German youth, promoting them to join Nazi Youth Programs. However, the images portrayed after the war in films like Die Brcke directly contradicted the themes of Riefenstahl's films and in many ways was a direct response to Riefenstahl's film. Extreme nationalism and war propaganda films such as Triumph des Willens painted a false reality of war that impacted the psyche of young Germans to the extent that they proudly joined the army at young ages expecting glory only to find that the reality was anything but glamorous glory as is evocatively depicted in the war film Die Brcke.
KAFKAS TIERE (KAFKA'S ANIMALS)   (Oral Presentation)
Andrew Herwig ('16), German
Presented in German. Much of Franz Kafkas writing career was dedicated to exploring the concepts of identity and otherness. He accessed these themes by incorporating non-human characters into his stories. Three of his central works will be examined, each of which contain an animal protagonist: 'The Metamorphosis', 'A Report to an Academy', and 'The Burrow'. Through its participation in the story, each animal provides commentary on varying aspects of humanity. The idea of identity is explored by observing human life through the lens of the animal, while the animal itself experiences otherness. By uncovering the underlying experiences of these animals, Kafka and his criticisms can be better understood.
DIE TRENNUNG ZWISCHEN MENSCHEN UND TIEREN (THE SEPARATION BETWEEN HUMANS AND ANIMALS)   (Oral Presentation)
Deanna Morris ('17), German
Es existiert eine Wahrnehmung von einer westlichen Perspektive, dass es einen echten Unterschied zwischen Menchen und Tieren gibt. Obwohl biologische Beziehungen werden besttigt, andere Einstufungen werfen alle Tiere in eine Kategorie zusammen und trennen nur Menschen davon. Inwiefern ist diese Trennung echt, und inwiefern ist es wahrgenommen? Diese Projektarbeit beginnt mit 'Ein Bericht fr eine Akademie' von Franz Kafka, und die Trennung zwischen der Tierwelt und der Menschenwelt die darin erklrt wurde. Der Realittsgehalt in diese Trennung zwischen Menschlichkeit und die Tierwelt/Umwelt wird dann durch andere Texte erkundet.
DICTATORSHIP IN FILMS THE WAVE AND TRIUMPH DES WILLENS   (Oral Presentation)
Jiaming Ni ('17), German
Dictatorship is a political system where a state is ruled by one person or a single political entity that has the absolute right to regulate and control public and private life (Encyclopaedia Britannica). The single person or political entity can change the laws as it likes in order to ensure the legitimacy of the regime and the sustainability of its power. Meanwhile, dictatorship also excludes other opponent governing systems by promoting propaganda. The Nazi Germany is frequently mentioned as an example of dictatorship, in which Adolf Hitler controls all governing mechanisms in the system, and makes decisions of internal and external affairs by his own. He gains popularity, support, and authority through propaganda speeches, manipulation of the Nazi party, and skillful use of German nationalism. He first makes himself the leader of the Nazi party and a symbol of Germanys future. As Rudolf Hess says in the film Triumph des Willens, the party is Hitler, but Hitler is Germany, as Germany is Hitler. Even though it sounds radical and bizarre today, the public firmly believes in Hitlers promise of bringing Germany a glorious future and therefore the public supports Hitlers policies during that period.
ISOLATION, ENTFREMDUNG, UND DAS KüNSTLERLEBEN IN KAFKAS 'EIN BERICHT FüR EINE AKADEMIE', 'DER BAU', UND 'JOSEFINE, DIE SäNGERIN'   (Oral Presentation)
William Qualey ('16), German
Abstract to come
DIE REALITäT DER ASSIMILATION ODER DIE BEDEUTUNG DER MENSCHLICHKEIT?: INTERPRETATIONEN VON FRANZ KAFKAS „EIN BERICHT FüR EINE AKADEMIE“   (Oral Presentation)
Naomi Schmidt ('16), German
Fr meine Seminararbeit fokussiere ich auf Ein Bericht fr eine Akademie (1917) von Franz Kafka. In einer Analyse der Geschichte schreibt Schulz-Behrend, Two divergent interpretations have been given. Max Brod and others told that Rotpeter, the hero oft he story, represents Man generally, whereas William C. Rubinstein suggests that the ape is quite possibly a Jew who has allowed himself tob e converted in ordert o escape persecution. If one of these interpretations is correct, the other one should be given up (Schulz-Behrend 1). Erstmals will ich in meiner Seminararbeit die Frage beantworten, ob es stimmt, dass nur eine Interpretation korrekt sein kann. Dann will ich autobiographische Werke und sekundre Literatur analysieren um zu entscheiden, welche Interpretation besser funktioniert. Oder vielleicht gibt es eine dritte Interpretation, dass meine Forschung finden wird.
ICORN (INTERNATIONAL CITIES OF REFUGE NETWORK): ADVANCING FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION IN STAVANGER, NORWAY   (Oral Presentation)
Madochee Bozier ('16), Goldfarb Center
In collaboration with their international cohort of sister networks and organizations, ICORN champions the rights of writers and artists by promoting their right to freedom of expression and by calling particular attention to the use of the arts as a tool to initiate and further discussion of various rights violations. Initially established in response to the assassination of writers in Algeria, notable artists including, Salman Rushdie, Vaclav Havel, JM Coetzee, and others, called for the creation of a network of cities and regions to protect and promote artistic freedom. Eventually, the 1993 network dissolved, but the international community, still dedicated to their work, founded the ICORN Administrative Center in Stavanger, Norway in 2006. As of 2010, ICORN began to operate independently and progressively expanded their mandate to offer residencies to artists and musicians. In March 2016, ICORN gathered to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the founding of the international, independent non-profit organization. In cooperation with the City of Paris, the General Assembly united guest writers and artists, city coordinators, political representatives, human rights activists, partner organizations and other guests to join in the celebration of 10 years of protection and promotion of the freedom of expression. Thus, the majority of my internship responsibilities focused on preparing for the general assembly. Normally, ICORN is composed of a four-member staff, but my presence in the communications department allowed for a new voice and perspective in terms of communication strategy and creativity.
EXPLORING EFFICIENT TARGETED MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES AND GIS APPLICATIONS FOR CONTOUR PLANTING AT KILIMANJARO PLANTATION, LTD.   (Oral Presentation)
Lidia Henderson ('16), Casey Ballin ('16) and Tyler Clevenger ('16), Goldfarb Center
Kilimanjaro Plantation, Ltd. is among the largest coffee producers in East Africa and prides itself on producing some of the highest quality Arabica coffee in the region. The plantation expressly seeks to uphold three standards: to grow the best Arabica coffee in Tanzania; to be a reliable and consistent partner for coffee lovers; and to adhere to rigorous cultural, social, and ecological guidelines designed to ensure a strong commitment to the well-being of the region. However, KPL also recognizes their responsibility as an environmental steward for the surrounding area. Thus, KPL has targeted two areas in which they would like to explore the possibilities of improved efficiency paired with a reduction in their environmental impacts. The first area of interest is establishing and refining methods for coffee yield estimation, and the second area of interest is establishing labor productivity benchmarks for various plantation tasks. Furthermore, the implementation of agricultural best management practices is key to the mission of the plantation, and as it is located in the foothills of Mount Kilimanjaro, the natural terrain of the area is sloped. Contour planting has been proposed at KPL for the upcoming planting year in order to improve a number of environmental sustainable measures at the farm. By examining three yield estimation methods and comparing their results to the actual harvest, and using existing ESRI shapefiles of KPL planting areas in QGIS and Google Earth to design contour planting blocks at KPL, this paper explores an array of opportunities for improved sustainable production gains at Kilimanjaro Plantation, Ltd.
EDUCATION, EMPOWERMENT, AND ACTIVISM IN THE 1964 MISSISSIPPI FREEDOM SCHOOLS   (Oral Presentation)
Laura Tierney ('16), Goldfarb Center
During the summer of 1964, over one thousand Civil Rights workers and summer volunteers travelled to Mississippi, seeking to combat the states persistent racial discrimination by participating in a community organizing project now known as Freedom Summer. One area of Freedom Summers efforts included the creation of a network of alternative schools known as the Freedom Schools. At the forty-one Freedom Schools across Mississippi, summer project volunteers taught black students of all ages, using a curriculum that combined remedial lessons in academic subjects that the states segregated schools had failed to properly teach, lessons in black history, and a so-called Citizenship Curriculum which called for discussions on issues such as racism and poverty. My paper will examine the different goals, visions, and ideologies that inspired and shaped the Mississippi Freedom Schools. I will chart the origins and the impact of these innovative educational approaches against the wider struggle for black rights in Mississippi and the nation.
THE END OF RACIAL DEMOCRACY: RACE-BASED POLICY REFORM IN BRAZIL   (Oral Presentation)
Solon Arguello ('17), Government
Since the end of the military junta, the Brazilian government has been hesitant to create policy specifically targeting racial issues. However, beginning in the early 2000s, the Brazilian government radically shifted its approach, choosing to recognize and combat racial inequality. This policy pivot was significant because it was a clear departure from the official stance of the Brazilian government since the state began the process of democratization, signaling a new era. For Afro-Brazilians who experience the worst poverty in Brazil, as well as the least access to higher education, these policies present significant developments. The Brazilian state has identified structural issues created by racial inequality, and has now utilizes higher education reform as a vector for social mobility. This paper aims at looking at the mechanisms of democratic inclusion through educational policy targeted specifically at Afro-Brazilians and attempts to define whom the actors that led to the implementation of these policies were. Additionally, I will attempt to explain why these policies began in the early 2000s, attempting to link them to a larger history of race-based social movements in Brazil, processes of democratization, and global shifts in discourse surrounding identity and democracy.
VICTORIES FOR REPRODUCTIVE RIGHTS IN CHILE: WHAT HAS CHANGED?   (Oral Presentation)
Sophia Bartels ('17), Government
The Catholic Church and the Chilean Constitution have been strong opponents of reproductive rights legislation in Chile. Consequently, Chile is one of the few countries in Latin America without comprehensive reproductive rights legislation. Although Chilean CSOs and legislators sponsored a comprehensive bill for reproductive rights in 2000, this bill was not able to pass in Congress. However, President Michelle Bachelet brought the Birth Control and Emergency Contraception Bill to Congress, which surprisingly in 2010 passed into law. This paper will seek to address the question of why Bachelet was able to pass this highly controversial legislation, given that many of the constraints that were in place in 2000 still existed in 2010, and what changed that has made this possible? In this paper I will test three hypotheses, for why this legislation was able to pass: (1) that it passed due to changes in the Political Opportunities Structure (POS) made possible by decreased strength of the opposition (both from the Catholic Church and the Christian Democrats), (2) it passed due to an increased number of women in influential positions in the government coupled with presidentialism, and (3) that it passed due to the use of less doctrine challenging, non-class based framing. This paper will hopefully show the weaknesses of opponents of reproductive rights, the allies of reproductive rights, and the ways in which the changes in the POS can be used in the future to pass comprehensive reproductive rights legislation, including measures on abortion, in Chile, and elsewhere.
THE EGALITARIAN SHIFT IN CHILEAN SOCIAL POLICY: MOBILIZING REFORM IN HEALTH AND EDUCATION   (Oral Presentation)
Cameron Coval ('16), Government
When are egalitarian social policy reforms possible in Latin America? Neoliberalism ostensibly erected significant obstacles to popular social policies. However, in Chile, policy reforms have strengthened the role of the state and promoted equitable access to quality social services. Comparative analysis of the 2005 health, 2009 education, and 2016 education reforms reveals egalitarian reforms are possible when incumbents mobilize public opinion and challenge policy monopolies through conflict expansion. Reform outcomes are even more profound when initiated by civil society mobilization from below.
PROTECTION OF INDIGENOUS LAND RIGHTS IN THE SOUTHERN CONE: A COMPARISON OF THE MAPUCHE AND QOM   (Oral Presentation)
Gregory Morano ('17), Government
Both Argentina and Chile have seen the rise of indigenous movements with a mobilizing grievance of a violation in land rights and environmental and citizenship framing. Between 2010 and 2014 the Mapuche in Chile successfully confronted the Chilean state and their actions ended the controversial HydroAysn dam project. However, the Qom indigenous community in Argentina has continuously been unable to pressure the Argentine government to end oil exploration and expropriation of their lands in the Formosa province. Therefore, this paper seeks to answer the question of what are the factors that determine if indigenous movements fail or succeed in protecting their land rights against resource extraction? This paper will hopefully provide an answer to that question, which will add to our understanding of how states in the Southern Cone can extend indigenous rights.
PASSAGE TO EMPOWERMENT: UNDERSTANDING THE NGO-IZATION OF FEMINISM IN A GUATEMALA CITY NGO   (Oral Presentation)
Emily Sapoch ('16), Government
The past 25 years has seen a rise in feminist non-governmental organizations (NGO) in developing countries. This trend has prompted feminist and development theorists to coin the term NGO-ization of feminism to criticize these feminist NGOs. NGO-izing feminism refers to the use of globally accepted practices and strategies for organization to advance specific goals related to the advancement of women. Critics argue that these kinds of feminist NGOs lack the feminist theory behind their work necessary to call themselves truly feminist, while further diminishing their feminist credibility by accepting funding from large international organizations whose neoliberal projects are otherwise antithetical to the collective theoretical feminist project. However, proponents of these feminist NGOs argue that as long as the feminist NGOs are empowering and improving the lives of women, the funding and strategies used by the NGOs are irrelevant to their status as feminist. This paper seeks to further understand the effect that this kind of empowerment feminism has on communities of women by looking specifically at the case of the womens empowerment programs in the educational NGO, Safe Passage, which works with families living in the community surrounding the Guatemala City garbage dump.
BUCKING THE TRENDS: JIMMY CARTER AND BILL CLINTON AFTER THE WHITE HOUSE   (Poster)
Jane Wiesenberg ('16) and Meredith Keenan ('18), Government
In studying the post-presidential lives of former U.S. presidents, we categorize our nation's leaders into four groups based on the activities they pursued after leaving office. Presidents were characterized as those who (1) went back to the farm to pursue personal activities, (2) were highly active in partisan politics, (3) pursued governmental (non-elective) careers, or finally, (4) those who were actively engaged in public, non-governmental humanitarian affairs. While numerous presidents fit the first three categories, we find that Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton are the only two since Rutherford B. Hayes to fit the latter, each leading extensive efforts to improve the lives of others around the world. Carter established the Carter Center, focusing on global human rights and conflict resolution. In addition to active involvement in partisan politics, Clinton has focused on global economic and health issues through his own foundation. Our study analyzes Carter and Clintons post-presidential work and draws conclusions about the factors that led them to their respective publicly post-presidencies. We consider the implications of these patterns for President Obama and his successors.
L'DOR VADOR: JEWISH VOTING BEHAVIOR FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION   (Oral Presentation)
Jane Wiesenberg ('16), Government
Since 1928, American Jews have favored the Democratic candidate in every presidential election. Of course, there are theological reasons we can suspect to underlie Jewish social liberalism: a dedication to Tzedakah (charity), Torah (respect for education), tikkun olam (healing the world), and non-asceticism. However, while these values may play some role in Jewish-American loyalty to the Democratic Party, they cannot be solely responsible: Jews outside the United States are not more liberal than their non-Jewish counterparts, and, although American Jewish voters have consistently favored Democrats over Republicans, the degree of that support has fluctuated; for example, in the 1980 presidential election, Jimmy Carter received 44% less than a majority of the Jewish vote (though still more than Ronald Reagan). More recently, Barack Obamas support among Jews dropped four points from 2008 to 2012. Thus, we question what factors have maintained the long-standing Jewish-Democratic alliance, but also seek to explore those which have led to periods of less support, and whether there are issues U.S. support for Israel that may threaten the consensus moving forward. Through a triangulated research methodology, which includes both data from public opinion polls and data from focus groups with Jewish voters that we carry out, we find that Jewish Democratic voting has been sustained, in large part, by the intergenerational transmission of values within the Jewish community; along with our other findings, this finding, in particular, leads us to believe that Jewish Democratic voting is likely to endure for years to come.
THE RUSSIAN-SPEAKING MINORITY IN ESTONIA AFTER THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION AND THE 'FORGOTTEN' 1993 NARVA AUTONOMY REFERENDUM   (Oral Presentation)
Artur Fass ('16), History
After almost five decades of Soviet rule which brought an influx of Russian-speaking immigrants many of whom did not assimilate into the local culture and linguistic environment Estonians seized the opportunity provided by Perestroika. The issues of protection of the Estonian language, limitation of immigration, and citizenship rights, defined the political discourse between 1985 and 1991. During that period, the independence-oriented moderates of the 'Popular Front,' who gained power in the first democratic elections in March 1990, promoted a generally inclusive citizenship policy, while the radical nationalists, acting through the oppositionist 'Congress of Estonia,' maintained that all Soviet immigrants cannot be automatically considered as citizens of Estonia. Having declared their independence from the Soviet Union in August 1991, Estonians collectively adopted a de facto ethnically exclusive, segregationist attitude towards half-million non-Estonian residents of the country. The seemingly liberal citizenship policy effectively disenfranchised Estonia's Russian-speakers, many of whom were born in Estonia or spent a majority of their adult lives there. The July 1993 referendum on autonomy in Narva, an event frequently overlooked by those writing about Estonia today, attracted international attention to the newly independent republic. In response to the crisis, the Estonian government, being eager to present itself as a reasonable partner to its Western advisors and preserve the unity of the country, liberalized the controversial Law on Aliens that sparked the rebellion in Narva.
FLAGS AT SEA: EVOLUTION OF CAPITAL SHIPS AND WORLD AFFAIRS   (Oral Presentation)
Kelvin Gonzalez ('16), History
An examination of the evolution of the capital ships of the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, from the age of the British Thalassocracy to the dawn of the Cold War. Focusing a qualitative examination of the trends, the reasoning behind these trends, and the result of these trends in capital ship building, we seek to examine how capital ships evolved during this time period and how these developments shaped the geopolitical landscape of the time, especially between the major naval powers of the period. Tied together with a discussion on naval planning, we seek to understand these developments so that we may apply them in the modern day in regards to modern debates regarding naval development and the path that the United States should take towards the future development of its navy.
INVESTIGATION OF SOCIAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND STATISTICAL FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE EMERGENCE AND SPREAD OF THE 2014 EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE EPIDEMIC IN WEST AFRICA   (Oral Presentation)
Alexandra Bishop ('16), Independent Majors
The sudden emergence of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa in 2014 stunned the global health community. The outbreak ravaged the precarious social structure and health infrastructure in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. On August 8th, 2014 the Director-General of the World Health Organization, Margaret Chen, designated the 2014 EVD outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The 2014 EVD outbreak totaled 28,646 cases and affected ten countries. What factors contributed to the rapid transmission rate and geographical spread of EVD? I present social, biological, and statistical components implicated in the severity of the 2014 EVD outbreak. Deforestation and consumption of bushmeat increase animal-to-human and human-to-human contact, which created a breeding ground for EVD. The combination of insufficient health infrastructure, traditional medical and burial practices, and a cultural of fear perpetuated the spread of EVD. HCWs who responded to the EVD epidemic in West Africa faced the challenge of altering risk perception in local communities and responding to moral panic, or the fear that EVD would disrupt social norms. At the beginning of the outbreak, patients fear and distrust of the Ebola Treatment Units prevented them from seeking treatment. HCWs battled a minimally researched, rapidly mutating virus with the potential to easily adapt to new environments. With no approved treatment options, HCWs primarily relied on supportive care to treat patients. Epidemiological modeling provided critical information on risk factors, such as attending a burial. The 2014 EVD outbreak demonstrates the intricate connection between social practices and the spread of infectious disease, as well as the importance of global collaboration in disease management.
ICELANDIC CULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT: AN EXPLORATION THROUGH FILM AND PHOTOGRAPHY   (Oral Presentation)
Casey Coulter ('16), Independent Majors
Throughout the summer I walked the streets of Reykjavik creating a photo series on the influence of nature in Icelandic urban street art, spent time in one of the worlds oldest ecovillage, travelled with a group of environmental players making the decisions on the future of the Icelandic highlands, spoke extensively with people on their personal relationship to the Icelandic environment, and passively observed and interacted with the booming eco-tourism industry. Through the production of art I was able to experience Icelandic culture in a uniquely revealing way. My various projects evolved into an exploration of the relationship between the Icelandic culture and the environment and how that might differ from a U.S.-centric public perception. In my observations, the disparity between how Icelanders are perceived versus the actuality is in their commitment to sustainability. Their love of the environment comes out of circumstance and a deep-rooted patriotism for their land, not a learnt commitment and desire for a sustainable future. The Icelandic system that we admire and idealize is non-transferable. This is not to say nothing can be learnt from their success, but it should be looked at individually and specifically, not as a system that can be adopted around the world.
MEDITATION AND CONTEMPLATION: DESIGNING A CAMPUS SANCTUARY   (Oral Presentation)
Alison Grover ('16), Independent Majors
Inspired by the Kamppi Chapel of Silence in Helsinki, Finland, the goal of this architectural/sculptural project is to create a calming space on Colby's campus that contrasts the hectic, fast-paced, and demanding world in which students live. This sanctuary on campus, in the form of a built structure, will provide a space for slowing down, thinking, and reflecting through sensory deprivation. Both the sculptural form and the aesthetic design of the structure aim to be conducive to a calm and focused mind. A secular environment where the Colby community can relax and reflect, this space is meant to improve the well-being of its visitors.
DANTE: POETRY THAT CHANGED THE WORLD   (Oral Presentation)
James Manning ('17), Italian
Poetry is often critiqued and scrutinized for meaning and beauty to evaluate its worth. What really makes poetry beautiful is its ability to change the world and alter perceptions. Dante Alighieri did just that with his Divine Comedy. It's transcendence has proven it to be one of the most defining works every made. In a world where religion reigned supreme, Dante created his own world in which readers could attempt to empathize. This empathy and consideration of 'what if?' made an extremely large impact on society both religiously and politically. This also provided a venue through which education found roots. From reading Dante's poem, I learned just how densely packed meaning can be into a single line of poetry.This understanding brought new light to poetry that I had previously lacked. Even reading the Divine Comedy in English allowed for an incredible experience and strong appreciation for the father of Italian's work.
HARMONY AND DISCORD IN THE DIVINE COMEDY   (Oral Presentation)
Zachary Mondschein ('17), Italian
Sounds and noise permeate the Divine Comedy, from the hellish cacophony of Inferno to the divine harmony of Paradise. The Commedia makes one hundred and forty six explicit mentions of music. This presentation will investigate how music serves the allegorical basis of each cantica.
CONTEMPORARY ITALIAN LITERATURE   (Oral Presentation)
Lily Stoelting ('16), Italian
After World War II and the fall of the fascist regime in Italy, the country experienced a political shift that increased social and civil tensions. Specifically, the rise of consumer capitalism left a large portion of the population feeling powerless and marginalized, and new styles of poetry and literature arose in response to this frustration. While poets belonging to the neoavanguardia movement rejected tradition by introducing new and experimental literary structures, thus suggesting the need for both poetic and political revolution, other writers used a traditional narrative framework to directly tell stories of social and political issues. Though the various literary movements had similar goals, their differing stylistic and linguistic choices reveal the fundamental question of how we should represent social and political issues within art and literature.
THE VOLUNTEER TOURISM ENCOUNTER: EXPLORING EXPECTATIONS, AFFECT, AND DISCOMFORT IN RURAL YUCATáN VOLUNTOURISM   (Oral Presentation)
Caroline Tegeler ('16), Latin American Studies
Within the massive tourism and travel industry, the niche market of volunteer tourism has risen recently in both notoriety and popularity with its promises of a more conscious form of experiencing the world and its people. I explore in this thesis project the encounter between volunteer tourist and host community by examining the motivations, expectations, and imagined roles and identities of each side of the voluntourism encounter. The volunteer tourism industry frames voluntourism as a path towards a more personal, ethical and responsible tourism, but has created experiences filled with discomfort for tourists in their encounter with the communities in which they volunteer. I explore this discomfort by examining how the Yucatn voluntourism industry sells altruism, experience, Maya culture, transformation, affect, and making a difference as the primary forms of encounter, and how these expectations and motivations often fall short in the lived experience of voluntourism as told by voluntourists.
MODELING OCEAN ECOSYSTEMS: FORECASTING THE ABUNDANCE OF GELATINOUS ZOOPLANKTON IN THE GULF OF MAINE   (Oral Presentation)
Anna Kronauer ('16), Mathematics and Statistics
Gelatinous zooplankton, colloquially known as the jellyfish, include taxa of widely differing life histories, trophic positions, and phylogeny. These enigmatic, yet astoundingly diverse jellies appear to be blooming with increasing intensity, frequency, and duration. The ecological effects of this phenomenon are presently unknown. As a result of the scarcity in long-term abundance data, however, it can be argued that these recent surges are simply indicative of predictable, approximately 8-year oscillations. To achieve a greater understanding of jellyfish dynamics, the aim of the present research is two-fold: to build a machine learning model for forecasting gelatinous abundance and to conduct a time series analysis of jellies in the Gulf of Maine. The machine learning model uses the K-nearest neighbors algorithm to classify chaetognath blooms with the highest accuracy: 82.07%. Adjusting the model's parameters revealed non-stationarity in the data, meaning that the underlying gelatinous abundance distributions are changing over time. This was reflected in the time series analysis, which detected an increase in the likelihood of observing a higher proportion of jellyfish over time.
A FAST ALGORITHM FOR SIMPLIFYING TRIANGULATIONS OF THE 2-SPHERE   (Oral Presentation)
Daniel Medici ('16), Mathematics and Statistics
Pachner moves are ways of making small, local changes to a simplicial complex without changing the isomorphism type of the simplicial complex. A well-known result, 'the connectivity theorem', states that any two simplicial triangulations of a given surface are related by a finite sequence of Pachner moves. We use combinatorial analogues of the methods of thin position from knot theory to give a new proof of the the connectivity theorem for triangulated spheres. The proof gives rise to an algorithm for finding a sequence of Pachner moves which converts a triangulation into the tetrahedral triangulation of the sphere. We obtain a quadratic upper bound (in terms of the number of triangles in the original triangulation) on the number of Pachner moves needed to complete this sequence, and we show that the algorithm has a polynomial time complexity.
TOPOLOGICAL DATA ANALYSIS   (Oral Presentation)
Nicholas Murphy ('16), Mathematics and Statistics
This project explores the new an growing field of topological data analysis. The talk will begin by providing an introduction to what topological data analysis is, what questions it hopes to answer, and the intuition behind the method. I will also include a brief survey of some of the current application. Next, the talk will focus on algebraic topology, mathematics behind topological data analysis. Topics such as simplicial complexes and homology groups will be covered here. Finally, I will cover persistent homology, one of the main tools of topological data analysis.
MODULAR FORMS AND L-FUNCTIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Jianing Yang ('18), Mathematics and Statistics
What are modular forms? Why are they useful? How do we use L-functions to solve number theory problems? In this presentation, I will introduce several interesting problems in analytic number theory. Specifically, I'm going to talk about Mobius maps and modular forms. A Mobius map is a function on the complex plane in the form of f(z)=(az+b)/(cz+d), where a, b, c, d are complex numbers. These transformations are associated with a group of matrices, and we often focus on specific cases where a, b, c, d are integers and ad-bc is 1. A modular form is a function on a subset of the complex plane that is partly invariant under a subgroup of Mobius maps. By studying the functional equations and Fourier series of modular forms, we can get information about some arithmetic functions and approach certain number theory problems. To this end, it's useful to think about the L-functions associated with modular forms. Currently, we are studying functional equations of L-functions twisted by an additive character.
THE ROLE OF THE WANDERER IN SCHUBERT’S A MINOR SONATA: SCHENKERIAN ANALYSIS IN CONTEXT   (Oral Presentation)
Liam Butchart ('18), Music
Looking to Jeffrey Perrys article, The Wanderers Many Returns: Schuberts Variations Reconsidered, this paper examines the Schubert A Minor sonata through the lens of wandering and returning. In order to do this, the sonata is analyzed under a Schenkerian framework in order to tease out differences both large and small in scale between the movements, so as to highlight the tension and resolution set up inside the piece as a whole. The article then puts the idea of wandering/ returning in historical context to help make sense of the A minor sonata.
USING KINECT SENSORS IN INTERACTIVE MULTIMEDIA   (Oral Presentation)
Stephan Chaikovsky ('18), Music
The purpose of the project has been to investigate the integration of Xbox Kinect sensors and various audio and video processing programs in order to create an interactive multimedia performance environment. This was accomplished by using the open source video development environment Processing as a server for passing data from the sensor to two commercial audio/video manipulation programs: Max/MSP and IsadoraCore. Interconnecting these core components has allowed us to create an interactive multimedia tool that generates audio and video based the movements of a person being tracked by the Kinect sensor. The tool integrates raw coordinate data, video feeds, and gesture recognition data in order to create an environment where the user can interact in real time with a projected video feed using a silhouette of their body. Different movements and gestures by the user will allow them to manipulate the projected video feed and generate audio to accompany it. Note: The presentation will include an opportunity for audience members to interact with the system.
SCHUBERT'S SEXUALITY CONSIDERED; ANALYZING MUSICAL FEMININITY   (Oral Presentation)
Christman Henderer ('18), Music
This project will be focused on analyzing Schubert's proposed homosexuality by discerning what it meant to be a feminine artist in the nineteenth century, whether or not such an analysis really matters when it comes to understanding the music of Schubert, and how aspects of femininity made their way into Schubert's music, specifically his G Major String Quartet. I will be referring to numerous articles on the topic of Schubert's sexuality that present many viewpoints, and will be commenting on them in order to bring to light some of the nuances that have made this issue so prominent in the world of Music History.
FEMININE ENDINGS: SCHUBERT'S MUSIC THROUGH TIME   (Oral Presentation)
Josua Lutian ('18), Music
In this topic, I want to explore and summarize the perceived compositional devices and techniques that Schubert uses that make music scholars think of him as homosexual. As per previous readings and my own personal opinion, I believe that it does not matter if he was gay or not. The purpose of this paper is create a model that can be used to analyze different (Schubert) pieces through this lens. The goal is to have features that is backed up with examples from Schubert's pieces.
SCHUBERT’S SEXUALITY: PLEASE DON’T CONSIDER   (Oral Presentation)
Lauren Shirley ('17), Music
Many scholars have debated the possibility of Schubert being gay through examinations of his writings and those of his peers. While Maynard Solomon, a Schubert Scholar, insists that there is ample evidence of homosexuality in these primary and secondary sources; Rita Steblin, another Schubert scholar, argues that the statements in question have been interpreted without due regard for historical context. I argue that Schuberts sexual orientation is immaterial to analysis and appreciation of his music: a contemporary social lens will always fog our perception of his music and forcing our modern understanding of sexuality onto his music is historically inaccurate.
DON’T KNOW, DON’T RESUSCITATE: TOWARDS A KINGDOM OF ENDS IN CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE   (Oral Presentation)
Griffen Allen ('16), Philosophy
In the United States today 20% of all Americans die in Intensive Care Units, or ICUs. These were developed in the 50s, 60s, and 70s to centralize medical resources to help treat critically ill patients with new technologies like ventilators, dialysis, and other tools that are now commonplace. This occurred simultaneously with the emergence of individualistic autonomy, understood as the patient's right to dictate their treatment, as the dominant force in medical ethics. Ostensibly both of these developments would seem beneficial for patients. However, the ultimate result is overly aggressive care that strips patients of their dignity and ensures that the last moments of their lives are spent in pain. This thesis seeks to demonstrate that autonomy as it is currently instantiated is failing to protect patients adequately, and as expressed by O'Neill a more principled--Kantian--version of autonomy is sorely needed to replace the individualistic autonomy. This can be achieved through a principle of 'Don't Know, Do Not Resuscitate', based on the moral epistemological work of Guerrero combined with Korsgaard's restatement of the moral philosophy of Kant, which argues for greater caution in the face of moral and empirical uncertainty to avoid the risk of treating a patient as a means rather than an end in themselves. This risk is present because often during the stress of end-of-life decision making physicians and family members may opt for more aggressive treatment for reasons that do not necessarily protect the best interest of the patient and instead serve to allay fears of loss, 'giving-up,' and other such emotions. The goal is to promote what Kant called a 'Kingdom of Ends' in the ICU through suggesting caution before aggressive intervention to protect patient autonomy.
RESONANT COLLISIONS OF POTASSIUM ATOMS   (Oral Presentation)
Philip Adamson ('16), Physics and Astronomy
This thesis discusses an approach to excite potassium atoms to very highly excited states (Rydberg states), and then tune their energy levels to induce resonant collisions between atoms. Potassium gas is super-cooled and confined to a small point in a magneto-optical trap. A 405nm laser diode, electronically locked to a potassium vapor cell via Doppler free spectroscopy, excites these atoms from the 4s1/2 state (ground state) to the 5p3/2 state. A 978 nm laser then excites 5p3/2 to 40d5/2 transition, creating Rydberg atoms. Since there is no ground state reference for this transition, an alternative method must be used to lock the lasers frequency. A scanning transfer cavity lock transfers the stability of a 632 nm HeNe reference laser to the unstable 978 nm laser diode by passing both lasers through a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Once Rydberg atoms have been created, their energy levels are tuned with an external electric field so that collisions between atoms cause resonant atomic transitions to different Rydberg states. Electrons from the Rydberg atoms are ionized with a second, stronger electric field, and detected by micro channel plates. Rydberg atoms with different principle quantum numbers ionize at different field strengths, so a successful collision signal has multiple peaks from the micro channel plates.
WHAT IS THE TEMPERATURE OF A ULTRACOLD NEUTRAL PLASMA THAT EVOLVED FROM A RYDBERG STATE?   (Oral Presentation)
Edwin Ward ('16), Physics and Astronomy
Plasma is thought of as the ultimate high energy state, the one with nothing left to give, with examples like the Sun, Fire, Fluorescent Lights and Lightning examples of plasma that one would consider to be very energetic. However humans have discovered how to make a very different plasma, one that hasn't been found anywhere in the natural world. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas, discovered by scientists in the around the turn of the millennia have wholly unique characteristics and are an area of active research in the atomic physics community. One subset of this research focuses on Rydberg States, highly excited atom energy levels that have unusually long lifespans in the atomic world, before they 'decay' into plasma states. This talk will walk through our efforts in conducting the first measurement of the temperature of Rubidium atoms in Rydberg States and Plasma Form, the physics surrounding our efforts as well as the implication and applications Rydberg states and Ultracold Neutral Plasmas have both in basic physical research and quantum computing applications. The talk should be accessible to those with backgrounds in physics as well as general audiences interested in the topic.
THE EFFECTS OF NATURAL AND URBAN ENVIRONMENTS ON LONG-TERM MEMORY   (Poster)
Elizabeth Adams ('18), Katherine Balaguer ('17), Miriam Kopp ('18) and Monique Legault ('18), Psychology
In todays increasingly high-pressure academic society, students need to remain focus and retain vast amounts of information. These students constantly utilize directed attention, which refers to effortful, focused attention that is able to control and inhibit distraction (Kaplan, 1995). Previous research has shown that nature environments have the ability to restore directed attention and thus improve accuracy in short-term memory (Berman, Jonides, & Kaplan, 2008; Hartmann, Apaolaza, & Alija, 2013). The present study will explore natures restorative qualities and their effect on long-term memory. Participants will be presented with four conditions of pictures: nature images, nature images with words, urban images, and urban images with words. At the end of the study phase, they will perform a free recall task and be asked to write down as many of the words as they can remember. They will then be presented with 60 studied images as well as 60 unstudied images in random order. Participants will be asked to identify if the image was studied or unstudied, and they will rate their confidence in their response on a scale of 1-7. We expect participants to recall more words presented on nature backgrounds, as this setting requires little directed attention and therefore more attention will be focused on the word. Finally, we expect participants to recall more images from the urban condition and be more confident in their decisions for this condition because these photos require more directed attention. Results from this study could have important implications for best student studying practices as well as effective marketing strategies.
#MOREMEMORABLE?: REMEMBERING EMOTIONALLY AND PERSONALLY RELEVANT TWEETS   (Poster)
Kimberly Bourne ('16), Psychology
A recent paper (Mickes et. al, 2013) found that participants recognize Facebook posts better than news headlines; to extend those findings we found that memory for the content of twitter posts was better than news headlines regardless of the format it was put in. Thus we are interested in further examining how the content of information contained in social media impacts memory. Specifically, we would like to investigate what factors are driving this high memorability. Past literature suggests that information that is personally relevant and has high emotional valence are more memorable (Ferguson, Rule & Carlson, 1983; Schmidt, & Saari, 2007). Thus we suspect that tweets high in personal relevance and high in negative emotional valence may be adding to this high memorability. To test this, tweets were selected and then rated by participants, those that were rated high and low on personal relevance, emotional valence and arousal but were neutral across other categories were then used as stimuli for a memory task. Participants were presented with 80 of the selected tweets one at a time for 4 seconds each, then they filled out a questionnaire asking about their social media use and were directed to begin a test phase. In the testing phase all selected tweets (160) were shown and participants had to indicate whether or not they had seen that tweet before in the study phase. We expect to find high accuracy in recognition for presented tweets, but in general we expect that this will be even greater for tweets that had been rated high in personal relevance and high in negative emotional valence.
MEMORY FOR MICROBLOGS   (Poster)
Jacqueline Brokaw ('18), Ruoqiao He ('18), Natalie Jones ('18) and Alison Russell ('18), Psychology
The proposed study aims to identify how level of memory recognition and level of interest differ across source and content. More specifically, we are comparing microblogs, a social media post, to news sources to see if one of the two different forums is much better remembered and better like compared to the other. Additionally, we are looking how the content plays a role in this relationship as well. For both the microblog and non-microblog sources we will be pulling sentences that are both emotional and informational content. As with the two different sources we would like to examine if emotional or informational content differ greatly in their effect on memory and interest. It is predicted that both memory and interest level will be highest for sentences that derive from a microblog and are of an emotional content. We believe that making these determinations could be useful for both social media and news mediums as they may be able to increase memory or interest level based on our data.
PERSONALITY TRAITS, ACADEMIC DISCIPLINE, AND CAREER PATH: HOW THE BIG FIVE PREDICT MAJOR AND OCCUPATIONAL INTERESTS   (Oral Presentation)
Seth Butler ('16), Sara Heilbronner ('17), Emma Heilbronner ('17), Emma Heilbronner ('17), Sara Heilbronner ('17) and Carylanne Wolfington ('16), Psychology
The proposed study will examine whether individual personality differences emerge across varying occupation interests as well as the major academic disciplines of natural science, social science, and humanities. A large sample of Colby College students from all three disciplines will be recruited to complete the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2) in order to measure the Big Five personality domains and facets. Participants will then complete a measure of the Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model, which matches personality types with potential career paths. After completion of both questionnaires, participants will complete several demographic questions and specify current or intended major(s). We expect that there will be differences in personality traits across the three disciplines, yet similar personality traits found within each discipline. For example, social science majors are predicted to score high on Extraversion, Agreeableness, Negative Emotionality, and Open-Mindedness. We also expect that these differences across disciplines will carry over into variations that show up in the RIASEC data results. For example, we predict that Realistic majors will score high on Extraversion and Conscientiousness, but low on Agreeableness.
ATTENTION RESTORATION, MEMORY, AND SOUND   (Poster)
Leah Cooney ('16), Faiyaz Islam ('17), Lynna Lei ('16) and Hannah Moy ('16), Psychology
According to Attention Restoration Theory (ART), interacting with nature restores effortful attentional resources. Natural environments, as opposed to urban environments, draw attention softly, meaning that less attentional resources are required to process the stimuli. Past research, however, failed to fully investigate both the restorative effect of nature sounds and the effect nature has on long-term memory. This study focuses on the cognitive benefits of nature images and sounds as compared with urban images and sounds. We expect that those who listened to nature sounds or looked at nature images would have better mood, lower stress, better short- and long-term memory, and better attention than those who listened to urban sounds, looked at urban images, or looked at different shades of gray.
SMASHED EXIT SIGNS: RISK AND SOCIAL INFLUENCES ON DECISIONS   (Oral Presentation)
Leah Cooney ('16), Psychology
Thousands of dollars are poured annually into repairing unnecessary damage at Colby. What factors account for this damage of a public good? Part of the cost-benefit analysis is socially based; people must weigh the costs, such as the risk of getting caught and the social disapproval if they are caught, and the benefits, such as the social validation from a group of their close peers, of their actions. The purpose of this study is to investigate how social pressure and social disapproval impact how much a participant will take from the collective resource. Furthermore, we examined whether levels of risk are more or less salient under certain social influences. To explore this question, participants played a social dilemmas game where social pressure (in the form of earning money for a group of two friends or a group of random participants), social disapproval (in the form of a charity donation given with either the participants name attached or anonymously) and risk of getting caught (high, low) were manipulated. We predict that higher risk will decrease the amount of money that participants will steal, but that risk will decrease in salience and effect when high social pressure is present and will increase when high social disapproval is present.
SOCIAL PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS, MOOD, AND SUGGESTIBILITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN   (Poster)
Emily Doyle ('16) and Sarah Boland ('17), Psychology
Three- to 5-year-old childrens social problem-solving (SPS,) suggestibility, and mood were tested by asking participants to generate unique solutions to prompts, listen to a storybook mood induction, and respond to follow-up misleading and direct questions about a book. Results found that the proportion of unique solutions was a significant predictor of suggestibility, whereas mood was marginally significant. This suggests that children with better SPS are less susceptible to misleading questions, and thus resistant to suggestion.
EFFECTS OF SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-PERCEIVED KNOWLEDGE ON OVERCLAIMING   (Poster)
Caitlin Farrington ('18), Margaret Giles ('18), Yi-Pei Lo ('18) and Maximillian Richard ('18), Psychology
Overclaiming is a phenomenon in which people claim knowledge of concepts, events, and people that either do not exist and cannot be known or are not actually known to them (Atir, Rosenzweig, & Dunning, 2015). Previous research has shown that people have a tendency to overclaim their knowledge when they have a perception that their expertise level of a domain is high (Atir, Rosenzweig, &Dunning, 2015. In the same study, boosting self-perceived expertise in geography through administering easy tests prompted participants to claim familiarity with nonexistent locations more often than participants whose self-perceived expertise was lower due to completing difficult tests. Another study found a negative correlation between self-esteem and overclaiming, however, no clear causal relationship between these two variables was identified (Mesmer-Magnus, Viswesvaran, Deshpande, & Joseph, 2006). The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem and overclaiming further, as well as self-perceived knowledge. To test this on our participants, we will first administer a personality quiz with false feedback in order to manipulate self-esteem, and the same easy or difficult geography quiz from Atir, Rosenzweig, & Dunnings 2015 study to manipulate self perceived knowledge. After this, participants will complete the overclaiming task from Atir, Rosenzweig, & Dunnings 2015 study. A measure of overclaiming will be how much participants claim knowledge of fake items on the overclaiming task. We are also interested in how the interaction between self-esteem and self-perceived knowledge has an impact on over claiming, and if these variables have unique impacts on over claiming. We predict that low self-esteem will correlate to high levels of overclaiming.
COLORING AND ATTENTION RESTRATION   (Poster)
Michaela Garrett ('17), McKayla Blanch ('17) and Erin Breen ('17), Psychology
Previous research has found that being in a natural environment helps to restore directed attention whereas being in an urban environment does not. Viewing pictures of nature or urban environments gives the same result as physically being in those environments. Coloring has the potential to also help restore directed attention and relieve stress, as it has been shown to have positive benefits on mood and cognition. Our study aims to determine if coloring a natural environment will also restore directed attention and if there will be an additive effect so that coloring nature is more restorative than either nature or coloring alone. We will also investigate whether long-term memory and stress will be affected.
HOVERING HELICOPTERS IN COLLEGE: HOW HELICOPTER PARENTING RELATES TO STUDENTS’ SELF-EFFICACY   (Poster)
Sarunas Genys ('17), Margaret Hojlo ('17) and Annabelle Song ('17), Psychology
Frequently, people do not question the relationship they hold with their parents. One might pick on a fathers annoying habit of instructing child when no instruction seems to be needed, or mothers overprotection and care in making sure her beloved child is always fed and feeling well. Being cared for by ones parents seems to be an imperative in many cultures, when one can observe cases when ignored by their parents, children are much more likely to succumb to unhealthy behaviors such as drinking, smoking, and caring less about academics. Literature has suggested that children of over-involved or overcontrolling parents may feel less competent and less able to manage life and its stressors (Bronson and Merryman, 2009). Scholars have coined a new term to specifically describe this new category of overinvolved parents helicopter parents. It would seem particularly important to study the effects of overcontrolling parenting in emerging adulthood because the very nature of the time period calls for greater amounts, not less, of autonomy granting by parents. The following study will explore the relationship between Helicopter Parenting in college-age population and self-efficacy of those students in domains of academics, social life, and career planning. Young adults in college are specifically a interesting age group to study as the need for autonomy increases over time as they strive to become independent young adults. Nevertheless, Helicopter Parents seem to not understand this rites of passage of their child and become overinvolved in their daily lives, structuring their academics, choice of major, and other fields of life that young adults are bound to learn through trial and error themselves to gain independence.
UNDERSTANDING INTENTIONS: THEORY OF MIND AND THE SIDE-EFFECT EFFECT IN 2.5-TO-FIVE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN   (Poster)
Sarunas Genys ('17), K. Strawinski ('17) and Brian Westerman ('16), Psychology
resent study aimed to establish a relationship between Theory of Mind (ToM) and the Side-Effect Effect. Sixty three 2.5-to-five-year-old children from greater Waterville area were selected to complete two tasks. Firstly, a hidden contents false-belief task was administered to test childrens Theory of Mind understanding. In order to test the Side-Effect Effect, an adapted childrens version of SEE for preschool age children was used. The task included two questions that the children were asked firstly whether the boy in the story cared about conducting a certain action, i.e. bringing the frog over to a friends house, and secondly whether he made his friend upset/happy on purpose. Analysis was conducted to see whether ToM pass/fail task result was related to the caring question (as a part of SEE task). The results showed that there was a relationship between passing the ToM ask and correct answer to the caring question. However, we did not find any consistency between overall ToM and SEE task scores. Although the caring question was validated as a measure of ToM, the connection between the caring question and SEE performance was not significant, nor was the relationship between ToM and SEE.
IS IT STILL GOOD IF IT LOOKS BAD? THE NATURE OF AESTHETICS IN RESTORATIVE ENVIRONMENTS   (Poster)
Megan Giblin ('16), Raymond Chung ('16), Tara Nguyen ('16) and Meng Zhao ('16), Psychology
The purpose of this research is to investigate how aesthetics affects the positive benefits of nature on cognition. Natural environments have been shown to capture voluntary attention, allowing directed attention to rest after an attention-fatiguing cognitive task, which, in turn, will improve performance on the task (e.g., Berman, Jonides, & Kaplan, 2008). This resting of directed attention is referred to as attention (or cognitive) restoration (Kaplan, 1995). Nonetheless, sometimes nature does not lead to cognitive restoration (e.g., Hartman, Apaolaza, & Alija, 2013). One reason may be that a particular setting lacks fascination, one of Kaplan's (1995) four criteria for a natural environment to have restorative power. Specifically, the setting does not have the aesthetic quality that makes it comforting and captivating enough to draw ones attention. Thus, the aesthetic quality of a natural environment may play a significant role in the restorative power of that environment. This aspect of nature, however, has not been explicitly examined in psychology. Because natural environments are inherently beautiful, the majority of nature pictures used in past research have been visually pleasing (e.g., Ulrich, 1986). It remains to be tested whether or not less appealing natural environments will still produce restorative effects on attention. The proposed study will not only address this issue, but also look into whether long-term memory also benefits from exposure to nature.
CONCUSSIONS, AGING, AND RETRIEVAL FROM SEMANTIC MEMORY   (Poster)
Shanna Grant ('17), Psychology
The present study investigates how concussions and aging impact retrieval from memory. Previous research has shown that concussions lead to decreased attentional control. Decreased attentional control leads to memory impairments; thus, we are interested in how deficits in attention can lead to memory impairments, particularly retrieval from long-term memory stores. Participants were young adults, older adults, and younger adults with a history of past or recent concussions. Their participation took place over the course of two hour-long sessions, two days apart, and during this time they completed a series of tasks that assess attentional control and retrieval from memory. On the first day, they completed the Moses Illusion Task, Stroop (1935) Task, and Automated O-Span Working Memory Task. On the second day, participants completed the a measure of cued recall over material pre-exposed on Day 1 and the Attention Network Task (ANT). We expect that, compared to control young adult participants, individuals with a history of concussion will have lower attentional control, whereas older adults will have lower working memory. We expect that both groups, those with a history of concussion as well as older adults, will commit more errors on the moses illusion task than younger adults.
FRIENDSHIP AND PERSONALITY SIMILARITY: HOW PERSONALITY CHANGES AROUND OUR FRIENDS   (Oral Presentation)
Shanna Grant ('17), Kimberly Bourne ('16), Kimberly Bourne ('16), Julia Perlmutter ('17) and Julia Perlmutter ('17), Psychology
The Personality and Role Identity Structural Model (Wood & Roberts, 2006) suggests that, within their general identity, people have specific role identities that influence personality for example, ones role within a romantic relationship. The proposed study investigates whether friendship might also act as a role-identity that influences personality, as well as whether people select friends with personality traits similar to their own. Specifically, the proposed study investigates whether, when with a friend, peoples personality shifts to be closer to their friends personality. Each participant in a pair of friends will complete two versions of the Big Five Inventory-2: one on his or her general personality and one on his or her personality when with the friend. I predict that there will be a positive correlation between the pairs general personality traits, particularly for openness to experience, agreeableness, and extraversion. Further, I predict that the friends general personality will correlate more strongly with the participants friendship-specific personality than with the participants general personality. These results would suggest that friends tend to have similar personalities and that, when with a friend, ones personality shifts towards being even more similar to his or her friends personality.
THE EFFECT OF AGE AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTIC ON FACE MEMORY OF PRESCHOOLERS   (Poster)
Mikaela Johnson ('16), Elisa Stern ('17) and Olivia Thurston ('16), Psychology
Three to five year-old children were shown images of own-age faces and adult faces, and were told a mean or nice action that the respective person had performed. In test, children were shown the same target face alongside three distractors. Children were more accurate in recalling the faces of children their own age, relative to adults, therefore supporting the own-age bias. They did not, however, show better recognition for negative over positive targets.
THE EFFECTS OF GENDER STEREOTYPES AND GENDER SALIENCE ON CHILDREN'S USE OF GENDER WHEN REASONING ABOUT OTHERS.   (Poster)
Mikaela Johnson ('16), Psychology
This study investigates young childrens reasoning about the biological and behavior characteristics of others. The goal was to examine on the impact of gender stereotypes and gender salience on childrens reasoning. It was hypothesizde that inducing children to think about gender stereotypes would increase childrens tendency to infer that two individuals of the same gender share biological and behavioral characteristics. In addition, this study examined the question of whether making gender salient in the absence of stereotyping would produce the same effect as stereotyping, i.e., increase childrens tendency to focus on gender when making inferences about another persons characteristics.
WHAT IS HOOKING UP?   (Poster)
Morgan Larrabee ('16), Emily Doyle ('16) and Erin Pierce ('16), Psychology
Previous research has assumed a universal understanding of the term hookup. However, the term is vague and encompasses anything from a kiss, to foreplay, to sexual intercourse. The term seems to be strategically ambiguous, allowing users of the term to withhold specific details of an intimate experience, and it often warrants follow up questions to understand what people really mean.The present study will investigate Colby students definition of hooking up and whether this is a positive or negative definition, what factors influence their definition, and how these factors and their definition affect their participation in the hookup culture. The purpose of this study is to assess whether participants individual experiences of physical intimacy at Colby correlate with their definition of a hookup and whether these experiences, various demographics, and their individual definitions, influence their satisfaction with and participation in the hookup culture.
'THINKING FROM THE GUT' :PHOTOGRAPH QUALITY AND THE TRUTHINESS EFFECT   (Poster)
Jake Lester ('18), Celine El Abboud ('18), Emily Moslener ('18) and Laura Wu ('18), Psychology
We examined the impact of photo presence and quality on the truthiness effect. Truthiness refers to subjective feelings of truth when an individual assesses a statement; or, how true something seems. Previous research found that difficult general knowledge questions seem more true when accompanied by a non-probative photograph (Newman, Garry, Berstein, Kantner, & Lindsay, 2012). Participants included 48 Colby College students. Using Qualtrics, each participant was exposed to 60 general knowledge statements, and each question was accompanied with either a low-quality photo, high-quality photo, or no photo. Half of these questions were difficult and half were easy. Students were instructed to answer true or false to each general knowledge statement, and then rank how confident they were that the answer they indicated was true. Through this research, we gained insight into photo qualitys influence on perceived truth and confidence.
IS GOD GREEN?: RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES ON ANTHROPOGENIC CLIMATE CHANGE   (Oral Presentation)
Sara LoTemplio ('16), Psychology
Despite a scientific consensus of 97%, many Americans don't believe in human-caused climate change. The current study evaluated how religious may influence climate change beliefs. In a survey, Non-Catholic Christians were less likely to believe in anthropogenic climate change than Atheists, Catholics, Agnostics, or those who identified as having no religion. These results indicate that, within Christians, there is variability in climate belief. A second study used subconscious religious and environmental primes to examine whether priming peoples religious and environmental attitudes influenced their belief in climate change. Regardless of priming condition, no differences were measured in climate change belief. The last two studies examined how religious and scientific content that argued either that climate change is man-made or not might shift peoples opinions on climate change. One study examined the effects of Biblical verses on climate change beliefs, revealing that those exposed to verses in denial of climate change were less likely to believe in climate change and trust religious figures. A final examined how short scientific videos may inform our climate change beliefs. Those who watched a video of a climate skeptic were less likely to believe in human-caused climate change and less likely to trust religious figures compared to control, whereas those who watched a video of Bill Nye were more likely to believe in anthropogenic climate change and more likely to trust scientific figures. Overall, results indicate that while our beliefs about climate change do seem to have roots based in religion that can not be changed due to subliminal priming, conscious and deliberate attempts to sway opinions, even at the level of a few sentences, can have meaningful impacts.
BRAIN INJURIES AND ARTISTIC PRODUCTION   (Oral Presentation)
Vianny Lugo Aracena ('18), Psychology
TBA
THE EFFECT OF STUDYING ABROAD ON PERSONALITY, IDENTITY, SELF-COMPASSION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND SATISFACTION WITH LIFE   (Oral Presentation)
Caroline Minott ('16), Psychology
The purpose of the present study was to investigate how studying abroad for a college semester influences personality, identity formation, levels of self-compassion and self-esteem, and overall satisfaction with life. Specifically, I determined which traits were associated with choosing to study abroad, whether students showed marked differences in certain traits by the end of the study abroad semester, and whether the effects persisted several months upon returning. When participating in this study, students answered the same online questionnaire at the start of, directly after, and 2-3 months following the fall semester. Third year college students who were not studying abroad served as the control group. When looking at the end of the semester spent abroad, students who studied abroad in the fall showed more positive changes in extraversion and more negative changes in anxiety - in comparison to the control group. Both the control and abroad conditions showed heightened self-esteem and self-compassion. When looking at the long-term effects of studying abroad, the changes in extraversion did not persist at a significant level. For both the control and abroad conditions, self-compassion increased from the first survey to the third survey. These findings suggest that: studying abroad may positively affect personality - but these changes fade over time, students may be experiencing a maturation effect during their junior year, and rosy retrospection may cause students to over attribute their personal development to studying abroad.
VICARIOUS DEPLETION OF SELF-CONTROL WITH STRESS   (Poster)
Cameron Price ('18), Adela Ramovic ('18), Skyler Smoke ('17) and Natalie Zolper ('18), Psychology
The purpose of this study is to check how induced stress affects peoples self control. Prior experiments have not examined the congruence between stress and self-control. In our target article, Ackerman et al. were looking if people can vicariously deplete self control by taking someone elses perspective. In the Ackerman et al. study they had participants read prompts and either taking the perspective of or observe another persons perspective, then were measured on self control through cognitive tests and surveys. What they found was that simulating depletes self-control, while observing has quite the opposite effect, in other words people you observed were less likely to show depleted self-control. Further research has show that stress could also be a factor in lose of self-control resources. Therefore, to induce stress in half the participants, we will have them sit in low-power poses. These low power poses have been found to raise cortisol levels (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010). We are inducing different stress levels in our study to observe the effects stress has on peoples self regulation when asked about the willingness to spend money on material items. We predict that inducing stress with Cuddys power poses, we will be able to explain another factor that decreases self-control in relation to the Ackerman et al. study.
SHADES OF GREEN: STATUS VS. CONFORMITY   (Poster)
Rebecca Robinson ('17), Julia Butler ('17), Elise O'Brien ('18) and Zhichun Yu ('18), Psychology
For our Psychology Research Methods and Statistics class, we conducted a research experiment to determine why people purchase environmentally friendly products. Based upon an experiment done by Griskevicius et al. (2010), we modeled our approach on their findings that when primed with status, consumers were more likely to purchase environmentally friendly products. Proenvironmental purchases can be a symbol of status because they embody altruistic behaviors, especially because buying green products can be viewed as a form of self-sacrifices at the expense of luxury. We added a second independent variable, a descriptive norm, which we predicted would increase participants' preferences for environmentally friendly products when primed with this norm (Rettie et al., 2014). Through the use of Qualtrics, we were able to conduct our experiment with data from 100 Colby students to see the effect of these two independent variables on our two dependent variables: attractiveness of product and willingness to purchase.
THE EFFECTS OF FEEDBACK FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES AND DIFFERENT SETTINGS   (Oral Presentation)
Michele Strage ('16), Psychology
Study that looked at how people respond to different types of feedback (positive, constructive criticism, or destructive criticism) from different sources (supervisor or a peer) and in different settings (academic and athletic). It also looked to see if there are certain moderators and characteristics that make people respond to feedback the way they do.
UNDERSTANDING THE ATTITUDES BEHIND BODY IMAGE   (Poster)
Chiara Tice ('18), Adam Balaban ('18), Hunter Riehle ('18) and Vanessa Warshaw ('18), Psychology
Body dissatisfaction is a large problem with our world today. Psychologists are always searching for new ways to help people feel comfortable and accept their bodies in a society that constantly pushes for an unachievable body ideal. In our study we explored the use of cognitive defusion as a psychotherapeutic technique to break the connection between a word and its meaning through the rapid repetition of a word. Our study is unique because it explores the effects of cognitive defusion on both positive and negative self-referential thoughts, while prior research has solely explored the therapy's impact on negative thoughts. We hypothesize that cognitive defusion will decrease the impact of both positive and negative thoughts on an individual's attitude toward their body, so participant's attitudes toward their body will improve in the negative thought condition and deteriorate in the positive thought condition after performing cognitive defusion. Similarly we expect that cognitive defusion will reduce the effect of both positive and negative thoughts on emotional discomfort. In other words, participants will become more emotionally comfortable after undergoing cognitive defusion with negative thoughts, but more emotionally uncomfortable after completing cognitive defusion with positive thoughts. It is important to understand the effects on cognitive defusion so it can be effectively employed as a therapeutic technique.
ATTACHMENT, AMBIGUITY, AND EMOJIS   (Poster)
Ronghan Wang ('16), Jenna Athanasopoulos ('17) and Ashley Vandal ('17), Psychology
This study aims to explore the influence of adult attachment styles on interpretations of ambiguous emojis in text messages from a potential romantic partner. Previous research indicates that adult attachment styles serve as predictors of romantic relationship satisfaction, and attachment styles also predict the type of communication technology that people use in romantic relationships. Given that ambiguous events in romantic relationships are often associated with negative emotions in relationships, we are interested in the influence of attachment styles on the interpretation of ambiguous emojis in text messages with potential romantic partners. This study measured Colby College students' adult attachment styles, their interpretation of ambiguous emoji responses from a potential romantic partner, and their certainty level of that interpretation.
DETERMINATION OF THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF LAROMUSTINE AND SMALL MOLECULES ON GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME USING A CHEMICAL GENETIC SCREEN   (Poster)
Ryan Weeks ('16), Psychology
Laromustine is a chemotherapeutic sulfonylhydrazine prodrug used in treating acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) in clinical trial. While treatment of AML has shown to be more effective, there still exists evidence that laromustine may be a successful treatment plan for GBM. A chemical genetic screen is a technique used to determine the enhanced effects between pairs of molecules. This technique is used to determine the synergistic effects between laromustine and a library of small, FDA-approved molecules to identify more effective ways of killing immortalized glioblastoma cells.
THE IMPACT OF VICARIOUS THOUGHT PROCESSES ON THOUGHT EVALUATION   (Poster)
Anthea Weiss ('18), Zoe Larock ('18), Gretchen O'Brien ('18) and Daniel Roache ('18), Psychology
This study focuses on the impact of vicarious thought disposal on thought evaluation. The purpose of our research is to see whether or not a stranger discarding a participants thoughts has a similar effect on the individual than taking no action with that thought. Prior research has looked into what happens when an individual throws away their own thought, when they secure their thought, as well as the effects of shared perspectives between individuals who know each other. In our study, we will measure the effect that the strangers disposal has on the participants subsequent evaluations as well as their moods after the participant either does nothing with their objectified thought or when they must trust a stranger to electronically throw it away. We expect that the stranger disposal condition will reduce the impact of the participants positive and negative thoughts, and participants in the negative thought condition will show a decrease in mood and a decrease in body image evaluation.
THE EFFECTS OF FEAR AND SURPRISE ON POSITIVE RATINGS OF ABSTRACT VISUAL ART   (Poster)
Katherine Wrean ('18), Haley Driscoll ('18), Josua Lutian ('18) and Micaela Reilly ('18), Psychology
We tested the effects of fear, surprise, both, and neither (as primed by short video clips), on positive ratings of abstract visual art.
FEMALE SACRIFICE IN BOLLYWOOD FILM   (Oral Presentation)
Sydney Abrams ('17), Religious Studies
Examining the role of females and the sacrifices they make in Bollywood films.
SIKHISM IN FILMS   (Oral Presentation)
Francis Dunham ('17), Religious Studies
I will be presenting on the the representation of Sikhism in films. Over the years of film production in both India and the United States, the filmic representation of Sikhs has evolved and it is only now that they are starting to be represented fairly in movies.
WITH A LITTLE HELP FROM MY FRIENDS   (Oral Presentation)
Kristin Esdale ('16), Religious Studies
Looking for a better life, German Jews immigrated to America with mercantile skills. They put these skills to work as merchants and peddlers, even in the rural areas of Maine. Earning a living was not as simple as it may have seemed. Jews created informal networks with one another as a form of support. Creating an ethnic economy, and relying on familial and Landschaftn ties, Jews built new lives for themselves in this new land, which ultimately catalyzed the formation of formal support systems, such as a synagogue and fraternal society. The backbones that German Jews created in their society allowed the next generation of Maine-born Jews and the next influx of Eastern European immigrants to thrive in America. The German Jews' successes and failures demonstrated how important it was to have a little help from their friends.
BOLLYWOOD IN THE WEST: BREAKING DOWN BARRIERS OR REINFORCING ORIENTALISM?   (Oral Presentation)
Joseph Forzano ('19), Religious Studies
Bollywood films have some of the largest audiences of all films in the world. To many, this is a positive thing because those in the West have the opportunity to see and (somewhat) understand the culture from which these films are created. However, the spread of Bollywood films can serve to reinforce negative or misconceived stereotypes of Indian culture and further create a divide between the West and the subcontinent.
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON THE REPRESENTATION OF RELIGION AND WOMEN IN BOLLYWOOD AND PARALLEL CINEMA   (Oral Presentation)
Haley Fox ('16), Religious Studies
I will be exploring the differences between Bollywoods representations of traditional religion with those of parallel cinema. Specifically, I will be looking into the ways that directors critique religion due to its oppressive impact on women. I will be looking closely at Bollywood and parallel cinemas focus on the intersection between patriarchal and archaic religious values as a means of stripping women of their individuality and agency. Both Bollywood and parallel cinema have vast influence in exposing social issues within India, but the directors approach these themes in different ways. Parallel cinema has been defined as a cinema of social consciencea critical commentary on a society hindered and damaged by tradition. Contrastingly, Bollywood is much more consumed with song and dance routines, glamor, and drama than it is with describing a consequence of the patriarchy. I will explore Satyajit Rays films as a lens to further analyze the cinematic depiction of orthodoxy as harmful to society; his work seeks to protest the archaic nature of the society he was born into and fight for the modernization of social values.
IMAGINING A TRANSNATIONAL CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY: AN ANALYSIS OF IDENTITY FORMATION WITHIN INTERNATIONAL CHURCHES IN SHANGHAI, CHINA   (Oral Presentation)
Joy Frederich ('16), Religious Studies
All foreigners are in the process of constructing new conceptions of identity, community and home within the context of their lives in Shanghai, China. Christian foreigners find themselves also struggling to balance their faith background with the international church style, the many different denominations represented within the international church, and their own desires for spiritual formation and growth. The international churches that exist for these foreign Christians are extremely unique to China because of their overtly exclusive nature, requiring all attendees to show a foreign passport at the door, and therefore limiting Chinese nationals from entering. The Chinese government, in recognizing the necessity of foreign presence and investment in Chinas economic development, has allowed a space for internationals to worship, however, it has excluded its own people from hearing sermons preached by international pastors and from communing with international Christians. Based on the growing presence of expatriates in Shanghai, the growing size and global influence of Shanghai economically, environmentally, politically, and culturally, my personal, very brief experience as a foreign student in the city, and my interaction with and interest in the international church community in Shanghai, I would like to examine this research question: What aspects of expatriate Christian identity in Shanghai are unique to this community and what can it teach us more generally about the nature of community identity and value?
THE USE OF SUBLIMINAL MESSAGING IN HOLLYWOOD AND BOLLYWOOD TO ESTABLISH ROMANCE AND COURTSHIP IDEALS   (Oral Presentation)
Brooke Gentry ('18), Religious Studies
Why are certain Hollywood and Bollywood films considered 'classics' above others? One can argue it is because of the popular cultural ideas they portray and uphold through subliminal messaging. Whether they are nationalistic, political, family-oriented, or related to morality and ethics, the appealing portrayal of these cultural norms and expectations contributes greatly to a films popularity and interpretation as a 'classic.' Though less studied than perhaps politics or religious morals, romance and courtship in film also often contains subliminal messaging. This model of romance in film has impacted and influenced young people for generations. Often archetypal, even forbidden love stories rarely leave the culturally accepted mold for romance and courtship. Though outwardly different, both Hollywood and Bollywood cultivate a similar standard for romance and courtship through popular classic films, often with moral undertones. What is this standard and how does its mass consumption positively or negatively impact viewers? Does it propagate seemingly backwards or sexist relationships?
THE FAMILIAR AND UNFAMILIAR: WORLDWIDE POPULARITY OF BOLLYWOOD FILMS   (Oral Presentation)
Eleanor Geoghegan ('18), Religious Studies
An exploration into why people choose to watch Bollywood films. The familiarity of the storylines through Hindu undertones and traditions appeal to the primary Indian viewership, but the unfamiliarity appeals to the global audience through suspending their disbelief. The unfamiliarity introduces non-Indian audiences to the Bollywood film industry, and through becoming familiar with it, their interest in Bollywood remains.
AN EXPLORATION OF LEADERSHIP THROUGH THE LENS OF BOLLYWOOD FILMS   (Oral Presentation)
Hailey Hampson ('18), Religious Studies
This paper will explore leadership through the use of Bollywood films and it will examine the techniques of several powerful leaders throughout history, in fiction and reality.Bollywood films attempted to promote nation building, integration, and development after Indias independence in 1948. Lagaan and many other films, attempt to promote these ideas through entertainment and relatable themes for the enjoyment and education of the masses.
WOMEN AND SPORTS IN BOLLYWOOD AND HOLLYWOOD   (Oral Presentation)
Celeste Murtha ('17), Religious Studies
The Bollywood film industry is a patriarchal manifestation of Indian society. It has traditionally objectified women, defining females as weak, inferior, and powerless in contrast to their dominant and authoritative male counterparts. In a historical sense, women have traditionally conformed to fulfill an unquestioned role of vulnerability and subservience. However, in recent Bollywood films, we have begun to see women take on a more competent role as athletes. Nonetheless, these women are forced to assume nontraditional gender roles in order to earn societal acceptance and recognition. We see a similar problem perpetuated in Hollywood films. My analysis will compare the gender inequity in athletics as portrayed by Bollywood and Hollywood.
LAUDATO SI: A NEW ENVIRONMENTAL ETHIC?   (Oral Presentation)
Sarah Shimer ('16), Religious Studies
Pope Francis created waves in environmental and religious communities when he published Laudato Si in June 2015. He is the first pope to devote an entire encyclical to the environment. However, this is not the first time the Catholic Church has addressed the environmental crisis. Francis draws on tradition reaching all the way back to the Bible to create a firm foundation for the environmental ethic he proposes. His encyclical includes references to Catholic Saints and previous popes. In doing so, he roots Laudato Si in the past while also bringing the Catholic Church into the present by making the environmental crisis pertinent issue.
AN EXPLORATION OF THE SIKH DIASPORA IN VANCOUVER, BC   (Oral Presentation)
Lucy Soucek ('18), Religious Studies
This presentation is focused on the research that I did during my two-week trip to Vancouver last summer, which was funded by the Compagna-Sennett Fellowship. During this time, I researched the history of the Sikh diaspora in British Columbia, conducted a survey regarding knowledge of Sikhism among non-Sikhs, and met with several different local Sikhs to talk about the Sikh diaspora in Vancouver. I conducted the survey in four different local food courts in an around Vancouver. During this process, I asked 90 local people from British Columbia about their knowledge of Sikhism. I expected the amount of knowledge to increase, because there are a larger number of Sikhs in Vancouver than there are at Colby College. However, to my astonishment, my survey in Vancouver resulted in a similar way to the one at Colby. I continually wondered why this knowledge was so low. I got a chance to meet with several professors from the University of British Columbia and local Sikhs from Vancouver, including Barj Dhahan, whose grandfather played a prominent role in the original Sikh migration to British Columbia, and who continues to be a powerful political figure. I also got the chance to visit several museums and Sikh Gurdwaras in the area.
MISHPUCHA: THE FAMILIAL NATURE OF JEWISH PASTORAL CARE IN WATERVILLE, MAINE   (Oral Presentation)
Anna Spencer ('16), Religious Studies
'Mishpucha' or family defines the Jewish pastoral care offered in Waterville. This presentation explores how the pastoral care offered to elderly congregants in Waterville builds on family systems and shared Jewish identity to create caring relationships. Through conceptions of Jewish food, Israel, and Yiddish, pastoral care providers offer effective care as pseudo granddaughters.
FOCUS GROUPS AS AN INSTRUMENT TO STUDY INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF JEWISH POLITICAL VALUES   (Oral Presentation)
Jane Wiesenberg ('16), Religious Studies
Focus groups are most often associated with public opinion analysis or market research; they are used to judge how an advertisement or a new product is likely to be received, before a costly launch. For some time, some sociologists have seen the strength of this tool for academic research. Scholars in other disciplines that generally favor quantitative analysis over qualitative work, such as political scientists and economists, have been slower to accept this technique (Copley 2008, 1). While focus groups have often been employed to determine the perceptions, feelings, and thinking of [a group of] people about issues (Krueger and Casey 2000, 12), we suggest a novel application: using focus groups as a method for studying intergenerational transmission of political values by Jewish Americans. The broader goal of our study is to understand the factors influencing Jewish voting behavior, historically and into the future.
PARK POLITICS: THE MAKING OF FREDERICK LAW OLMSTED (1822-1903) & CENTRAL PARK   (Poster)
Kathryn Chow ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
Frederick Law Olmsted, Sr. (1822-1903), renowned as a landscape architect and journalist, was also a political activist who saw urban parks as a way to facilitate social reform. This study focuses on Olmsteds role as superintendent of Central Park, evaluating the impacts of politics throughout his campaign for superintendent and during the construction of Central Park. Politics, in this study, refers to both the interactions between Republican and Democratic parties, and the interactions between Olmsted and his constituents, in both the government and the intellectual sphere. This study will provide readers with a fuller understanding of how local political disputes, ideas about poverty and access to a public good, and arguments regarding allocation of park-funding shaped the debates surrounding the park and contributed to its final design. In the 1840s and 1850s, New York politics debated widespread poverty, unemployment, and public distrust of local government. This study will demonstrate how Olmsteds career as a landscape architect began as a result of the political climate of the time, and how politics impacted Olmsteds work as superintendent.
NEUROMARKETING: THE NEUROLOGICAL REASONS BEHIND OUR CHOICES   (Poster)
Emily Glaenzer ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
Neuromarketing combines the science of neurology and the study of marketing to understand how consumers sensorimotor, cognitive, and affective responses react to marketing stimuli. In this project, I hope to answer the question: to what extent is neuromarketing able to give marketers the ability to understand the consumers decisions? In order to prove this, I researched the implications of neuromarketing as a market research tool compared to traditional methods. In these case studies I showed a) how neuromarketing has transformed or supported each case and b) if neuromarketing has proven more effective than traditional marketing tactics. This project will hopefully serve as a beneficial guide to understanding the impact of neuromarketing on the marketing field and the ability to which we are able to understand consumer decisions.
YESTERDAY'S TOMORROWS: TECHNOLOGY, DISCOVERY, AND THE DAWN OF SCIENCE FICTION   (Poster)
Thomas Kienzle ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
Despite (or perhaps because of) its massive popularity in recent decades, contemporary scholars fiercely debate the origin of the Science Fiction genre, or SF, with different critics advocating beginnings thousands of years apart from one another. This project argues that the SF genre owes its origins to the inventions and scientific discoveries of the mid to late- nineteenth century. Over the course of several decades a handful of key texts emerged which shaped the growth of early SF in ways that still affect the genre. These first proto-SF novels all investigate the impact of science and technology on increasingly broad themes- human nature, the natural world, and all of society. This project tracks these concepts over the course of five novels instrumental in shaping the early genre, beginning with Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, Or, The Modern Prometheus (1818) and ending with H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895). Wells' first novel acts as the culmination of all the 'proto-SF' themes developed by his predecessors and serves as the jumping-off point into a new era of SF history as the first undisputable SF story. Along with Frankenstein and The Time Machine this project also investigates Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon (1865) and Twenty-Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, (1870) as well as Edward Bellamy's Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888).
ELECTIONS ON YOUTUBE: MESSAGING AND ONLINE COMMUNICATION IN THE 2016 PRESIDENTIAL NOMINATION PROCESS   (Poster)
Abraham Krieger ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
The Internet has become an important media environment in the context of political campaigns. This research examines YouTube, the most popular website for political video content, in order to understand how the platform fits into the broader media landscape and analyzes the messaging content of leading candidates seeking the 2016 nomination. It tests several hypotheses about the YouTube content posted by the campaigns of several candidates, Donald Trump, Marco Rubio, Bernie Sanders, and Hillary Clinton, between announcing their candidacies and February 10. The research finds that campaigns upload varying amounts and types of content and that they experience substantially differing levels of popularity. It finds that some campaigns primarily upload news coverage of their candidates while others primarily post content produced specifically for the Internet. YouTube content highlights many policy realms, but among this sample, foreign policy and economic topics are the most popular. Different campaigns utilize YouTube in varying ways and this investigation leads to a broader question: how relevant is YouTube in the age of competing video platforms such as Facebook.
'NOTHING COULD BE FURTHER FROM THE TRUTH' - AN AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL BIOGRAPHY OF TROPICAL METEOROLOGIST JOANNE GEROULD SIMPSON   (Poster)
Maya Meltsner ('19), Science, Technology, and Society
Joanne Simpson gained international recognition as the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in meteorology, as the first woman president of the American Meteorological Society, and for her work on tropical clouds, hurricanes, and satellite rainfall measurements. There is much to be told about the struggles and accomplishments of Joanne Simpson, who was known and loved by many, and much to be learned about her life, legacy, and example. She pioneered a new field, worked under three married names, raised three children, and successfully confronted her own daunting insecurities.
WOMEN IN SCIENCE IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY   (Poster)
Maya Meltsner ('19), Science, Technology, and Society
TBD
HOW TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS IN THE MARIJUANA INDUSTRY WILL AFFECT MAINE'S ECONOMY   (Poster)
Connor Rozinsky ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
Through deep and thorough research into the agricultural, seed hybridization, and distribution technologies involved in the marijuana industry, my project will help the people of Maine better understand how the approaching cannabis craze will impact their respective communities.
ENTERING INTO DIALOGUE WITH POPE FRANCIS' LAUDATO SI: ON CARE FOR OUR COMMON HOME   (Poster)
Sarah Shimer ('16), Science, Technology, and Society
Pope Francis 2015 encyclical Laudato Si: On Care for Our Common Home brings together the spheres of science and religion. In this document, Francis puts forth a call for action to combat climate change to religious and non-religious communities alike. The strength of the document lies in the way Francis poses his call. By drawing on scientific and religious tradition, he situates the encyclical in a broader conversation about the moral obligation for humans to care for the environment. This paper explores the reception of Laudato Si. Political cartoons, written critiques, and personal interviews provide a snapshot of responses to Francis. Current conversations surrounding the document show that Francis successfully conveys his ideas about working towards the common good through dialogue to listeners from a variety of backgrounds.
SEXUAL ASSAULT CRISIS AND SUPPORT CENTER PROJECT PROPOSAL   (Poster)
Grace Baldwin ('16), Ricardo Hernandez-Torres ('16), Gillian Katz ('16), Laurel Whitney ('16) and Izza Zaidi ('17), Sociology
Grant proposal for Non-profits and Philanthropy sociology class.
MAINE CHILDREN'S HOME FOR LITTLE WANDERER'S TEEN PARENT SCHOOL PROGRAM GRANT   (Poster)
Julia Butler ('17), Alyssa Andrews ('17), Joy Frederich ('16), Alexandria Lucas ('17) and Alexandra Perticone ('17), Sociology
As part of the Nonprofits and Philanthropy course, we propose a grant to fund the renovation of a day care at the Maine Children's Home. This grant would allow for greater revenue into the organization's day care, which then facilitates the expansion of free infant slots for the Teen Parent School Program. Without the TPSP's support via infant slots, the teen moms often have no choice other than to drop out of high school.
NONPROFITS AND PHILANTHROPY: GRANT PROPOSAL FROM HOSPICE VOLUNTEERS OF THE WATERVILLE AREA   (Poster)
Teresa Farley ('17), Anne Morris ('17), Julia Perlmutter ('17) and Natalie Sill ('17), Sociology
Our poster will be a presentation of our grant proposal to the Colby Undergraduate Student Philanthropists from the Hospice Volunteers of the Waterville Area as well as our experience with the grant-writing process.
SPONSORING AGENCY: NEGOTIATING ORDER IN SCHOOL-BASED HEALTH   (Oral Presentation)
Susan Fleurant ('16), Sociology
Access to primary and preventative care has risen on the national public health agenda in recent years. School-based health centers are a relatively small yet integral part of the U.S. health care delivery system, particularly in low-income, medically underserved communities. In the state of Maine, school-based health centers in rural and urban settings reduce barriers to access to health services for students across the state. Previous scholarship uses quantitative measures to demonstrate that school-based health centers are effective and address the stark racial and socioeconomic health disparities that persist. The purpose of this study is to gain perspectives of those working on the ground in the field of school-based health in Maine to supplement the plethora of quantitative data on school-based health outcome measures. The author conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand the perspectives of those working in school-based health care in Maine. Grounded in sociological theory, this paper unpacks the experience of school-based health centers in Maine in order to uncover the implications of organizational structures and relations on the provision of school-based health services. Perspectives of program administrators elucidate the challenges and opportunities that arise from different organizational arrangements. This research finds that the different sponsoring agencies for school-based health programs shape the negotiations that occur and the resulting structure. There is significant variation in the organization of school-based health centers, which has implications for long-term sustainability.
HEALTH CARE AGENCY: STATEWIDE AWARENESS OF PATIENT CENTERED CARE IN MENTAL HEALTH FACILITIES   (Oral Presentation)
Holly Hogan ('16), Sociology
This research project focuses on patient-centered care (PCC) in the context of inpatient acute psychiatric units. Hospitals have been claiming their renewed outlooks on health-care via PCC. It has become an increasingly popular term to use on hospital websites and in presidential statements. The technologies and practices surrounding psychiatric care have evolved in such a way that patients are supposed to have more input in their care. This project will discuss the discourse around PCC at Mental Health Care Facilities in Maine. There is no consensus on the definition; the meanings ascribed to it are derived from the individual institutions. This project will ask: How does the syntax of the mission, vision, and values statements construct and maintain PCC practices? This project uses content analysis, interviews, and surveys to develop the full range of data needed to construct the conversation around PCC. Patients received a preexisting survey to evaluate patient satisfaction. Psychiatrists of the acute psychiatric unit where surveys were collected were interviewed. The content analysis looked at how the institutional messages around PCC. A comprehensive definition of PCC would allow for more fluid discourse between institutions. Moving forward all U.S acute psychiatric unit mission, vision, and value statements should be evaluated. More data from interviews should be collected and analyzed to determine the social implications of PCC and doctor- centered care. An analysis comparing how many acute wards use each method must be done to see how mainstream each method is.
NONPROFITS AND PHILANTHROPY: PARTNERSHIP WITH THE CHILDREN'S CENTER   (Poster)
Sarah Shimer ('16), Mara Badali ('16), Alexandra Bishop ('16), Eleanor MacLaughlin ('16) and Mollie Taylor ('17), Sociology
This semester, we partnered with the Children's Center in Augusta, Maine, to write a grant. The Childrens Center in Augusta, Maine, is a 501(c)(3) private nonprofit organization that offers early intervention, family support, and childcare to young children with developmental delays and disabilities. Today, the Childrens Center is one of the only facilities in Central Maine that offers resources and services to children with disabilities and their families. The Center aspires to prepare these toddlers and pre-school aged children to enter the school system and to set them on a path for success. The grant support requested would provide three pieces of equipment for the playground.The funding we hope to receive from this grant will go towards revitalizing the playground at the Childrens Center. The current playground has fallen into a state of disrepair as there are pieces of equipment that no longer serve their necessary functions. As new children of various abilities gain access to the Childrens Centers resources, the current equipment increasingly fails to fit their special needs. This space is so important to the Childrens Center because it is an area in which traditionally-learning children and disabled children can come and learn together. These connections lead to crucial social growth that cannot be taught in a classroom.
TODO SOBRE ALMODóVAR EN OCHO MINUTOS O MENOS   (Oral Presentation)
Erin Griffin ('16), Spanish
El semestre pasado cre una pelcula corta en el estilo de Pedro Almodvar para mi proyecto final. Produje y film este corto con el propsito de encapsular el ambiente almodovariano en menos de ocho minutos. En el corto, exploro los temas de las pelculas tempranas y ms conocidos de Almodvar, especialmente enfocando en el gran tema de las mujeres. Mi inspiracin vino de planos recurrentes del cine almodovariano en cmo estas tcnicas comunican la progresin de sus obras y cmo ejemplifican sus temas. Emple tcnicas y exploro temas que yo creo que hace las pelculas de Almodvar verdaderamente suyas. En la clase, debatimos sobre los elementos repetidos entre las pelculas, y especialmente el avance de sus tcnicas correspondiendo con avances en sus mensajes temticos. Porque vimos pelculas que se extendi por ms de veinte aos de produccin, mi corto experimenta con elementos de las tempranas hasta las ms modernas, intentando de comunicar por excelencia lo que encarnar Almodvar por sus obras. En el corto y en una breve presentacin, enfoco en el tema de la mujer y sus luchas con la sociedad, los hombres y sus propios deseos, y cmo ltimamente supera todo para realizar sus sueos.
EL ERROR DE HOLMBERG Y SU EFECTO EN LA RESTAURACIóN ECOLóGICA   (Oral Presentation)
Alyssa Kullberg ('18), Spanish
La percepcion moderna hacia la gente indigena de America en cuanto a su medio ambiente es que historicamente no tenia un conocimiento practico de el, sino solamente un conocimiento espiritual, y que no lo afectaba significantemente. Se puede atribuir esta creencia comun en parte a un antropologo, Allan Holmberg, quien llego a conclusiones equivocadas despues de estudiar una tribu boliviana. Estas conclusiones se han difundido en nuestra sociedad yactualmente afectan como comprendemos la historia precolombina de America. Exploro las maneras de que Holmerg se equivoco para condenar la racionalizacion resultante de la colonizacion de los indigenas americanas por los europeos, y tambien para cuestionar la manera de que percibimos nuestro medio ambiente, que da forma al campo importante de restauracion ecologica.
EL AJO DE SANTURCE: MASCULINIDAD EN “EL VAMPIRO DE MOCA” POR LUIS NEGRóN   (Oral Presentation)
Vianny Lugo Aracena ('18), Spanish
'El vampiro de Moca' es un cuento de Luis Negron que narra la historia de un joven de sexualidad ambigua que migra desde el pueblo de Moca, Puerto Rico hacia la capital, San Juan. Debido a su apariencia fisica el vampiro se convierte en un objeto de deseo para diferentes personajes dentro de la comunidad queer de Santurce. Sin embargo, asignarle el nombre de vampiro es una forma de denigrar al migrante, diciendo que chupa recursos esenciales para vivir. En este ensayo, discutire como Negron presenta una descripcoin flexible e inflexible de la masculinidad, demostrando como conceptos como la masculinidad puertorriquena son sumamente abstractos y fluidos, incluso dentro de la comunidad queer.
EL PATRIARCADO PERSONIFICADO: EXPLORACIONES DE LAS DINáMICAS DEL PODER EN LAS PELíCULAS DE PEDRO ALMODóVAR   (Oral Presentation)
Taylor Peterson ('16), Spanish
Ser director feminista implica que uno se crean pelculas que atraigan a un pblico femenino porque la trama trata de sus experiencias. Pedro Almodvar se alza como un director feminista por las maneras en que retrata la complejidad social de los problemas que giran alrededor de los cuerpos femeninos. A menudo, los ejercicios del poder de los hombres almodovarianos se dan en los cuerpos femeninos durante actos sexuales. Almodvar explora el significado del embarazo y la lnea que separa la violacin y el placer, y as como las mujeres toman control de sus cuerpos. Este proyecto explora la forma en que Almodvar considera la complicada dinmica del gnero en sus pelculas, y se convierte en un director feminista, retratando mujeres problematizando el abuso de sus cuerpos.
LA MORTALIDAD EN EL CINE ESPAñOL   (Oral Presentation)
Julian Wise ('17), Spanish
Aunque mucha violencia termin con la guerra civil, la mortalidad permaneca en Espaa durante los aos de dictadura y despus en la transicin. Debido al pacto del olvido, Espaa no comenz a mirar hacia el pasado en una manera retrospectiva hasta hace poco, pero lleg el momento donde pelculas empezaron a estrenar, enfocando en los aos de sufrimiento. Las pelculas El espritu de la colmena (Vctor Erice, 1973), La voz dormida (Benito Zambrano, 2011), Soldados de Salamina (David Trueba, 2003), y Tesis (Alejandro Amenbar 1996) usan la mortalidad en una forma directa o indirecta para describir la sociedad contempornea y cmo se trata de aceptar un pasado violento.
RíOS, MARES Y ARENAS EN 'ANTES QUE ANOCHEZCA'   (Oral Presentation)
Julie Wolpow ('16), Spanish
El agua es un tema recurrente en 'Antes que anochezca', las memorias de Reinaldo Arenas. De hecho, es en el río donde Arenas ve por primera y única vez a su padre, y es precisamente en ese mismo río donde es erotizado por unos muchachos nadando desnudos. A lo largo de su vida, el mar igualmente se vuelve en su compañero de múltiples maneras. Cuando está en la cárcel, por ejemplo, Arenas lo anhela. Además, es por el mar, durante el éxodo de Máriel, que Arenas huye de Cuba. El agua se convierte en un símbolo de su libertad tanto sexual como política.
IF ONLY WE WERE SLUMMING IT: CROSS CLASS SOCIAL ACTION IN VICTORIAN THEATER   (Oral Presentation)
William Bonney ('16), Theater and Dance
Through almost every part of history there is ample evidence of those in the higher classes wanting to join the lower, rowdy crowds, if only for a night. Whether it was through dressing down and looking like the commoners, or even just through arriving at places no upper class Lady should ever be, they got to experience a feeling of risk and novelty that would otherwise be impossible. Victorian Theater was saturated with plots exploring slumming, but also, even more-so, the idea of reverse slumming. Middle and Lower class Ladies began to be influenced by this ever present theatrical trope. They began to dress and act like the upper class when going to the theater, living this fantasy out for just a short time while in, they thought, the protected world of the anonymous audience. There was one small problem with the Dressing-up of the lower and middle classes. Often Prostitutes of a higher regard would go out to the theater or other public venues with their clients. They did not want to make obvious their profession, so, in the vein of the role play, they would dress up. Sometimes both as upper class, but often, for the fun of the social taboo, the man would dress down, pretending to engage in a cross class romance! As this practice became more widely known, those Ladies who were simply dressing up for the adventure were often mistaken for prostitutes, or otherwise socially shunned. It often became clear once tried that dressing up was not socially safe. There was nothing anonymous about the audience, and that ridicule and disgrace were risked by dressing up. The ease of dressing down, however, clearly highlights the difference between the classes.
SIT DOWN AND PAY ATTENTION: A LOOK AT TRAINING THE YOUNGER AUDIENCE   (Oral Presentation)
Elisabeth Chee ('16), Theater and Dance
In this presentation, I will demonstrate how children are trained to go to theatrical performances by elementary schools and that the actual methods do not always correlate to the literature of best practices available. As newcomers to theatrical performances, people often have to be coached or prepared for how to act in such a setting, especially children who do not always know the proper etiquette. While some children, particularly those that are in more affluent communities, are taught by parents in a one-on-one setting, many children are first exposed to live performance via their elementary schools. So, there will be a focus on how teachers instruct their students in theatre behavior, including interviews with two current elementary schools. These two schools are in very different communities, one fairly upper-middle class and the other working to middle class, so there may be distinct differences in how the teachers present the material to the students. However, there is almost always a gap of varied sizes between researched best practice and what actually happens. I will be exploring how much for a gap there is between best practice and reality, using teacher interviews and readings that may be available for teachers. As well as the differences between the communities, there are two major types of theatrical performance elementary school aged children are exposed to, to examine as well. Many performances are brought in to the school, instead of being in a specified building for the purpose. This raises the question as to whether there is a difference between how children behave when it is in a familiar building versus a separate venue?
BALLEZ: A DANCE COMPANY FOR QUEER ACTIVISM   (Oral Presentation)
Olivia Gould ('16), Theater and Dance
The history of ballet- both the dance form itself and the stories that the dances tell- is one of strict gender binaries and traditional gender norms. However, a new dance company based in Brooklyn challenges this history with a new type of ballet that they call 'Ballez,' dance performances that re-write the narratives of Story Ballets and re-imagine the characters of these stories to reflect a multiplicity of identities and experiences. The stories that Ballez tells are taken from real histories of lesbian, queer, and transgender people, using dancers that identify with these same labels to tell them. Ballez pushes their audience to interact with their dance pieces in new ways, from moving venues partway through the show to making the audience complicit in street protest marches. This revolutionary work is changing the way the modern audiences not only view ballet as an art form, but the way they perform their own roles as spectators as well.
AUTUMN IN THE PALACE OF HAN: HISTORICAL VS. MODERN THEME   (Oral Presentation)
Tong Jin ('16), Theater and Dance
This presentation will briefly explain Yuanqu, and the plot of Autumn in the Palace of Han. Most importantly, this presentation will address all the possible themes and critical expectations of the play. Discuss how these ideas come from; why they are significant historically; why they are practical in modern days; can analysis separated from historic facts, if so what can we interpret, and if not what can be brought out based on the history.
ANN LIV YOUNG WANTS YOU TO ENJOY THIS   (Oral Presentation)
Brendan Leonard ('16), Theater and Dance
This presentation will argue that dance artist Ann Liv Young's engagement with audiences distinguishes her work as contemporary performance. Young is controversial for including live sex, defecation, and urination on stage, as well as frequently collaborating with her 8-year-old daughter, Lovie. If audience members make their discomfort audible, or visible, Young has no qualms to stop the show and ask, 'Are you enjoying this?' If the answer is no, so help you because Young is very open to starting a discussion right then and there, probing for articulate explanations on the spot. Her reputation looms over her performances, creating a palpable presence quite unlike the welcoming atmosphere common in performance spaces. This presentation will offer a sampling of her work accompanied by my reading of her methodology, contexualized by queer performance theory by Jose Esteban Munoz. Please enjoy.
PROMISING PROJECTION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF INTERACTIVITY IN THE ARTS EXPERIENCE   (Oral Presentation)
Jeannely Lopez ('16), Theater and Dance
Does the essence of interactivity in the theater give too much/too little control to the audience? What are the benefits of allowing the audience to play a bigger role in the arts creation process? By examining iAm: (Re)contextualizing the Familiar, an interactive installation where the audience becomes performer, I will analyze how projection and scenography as a mode of interactivity, improves the meaning making process for audience members. Increasing the amount of influence an audience member has on the creation of a performance elevates their responsibility to make the most our of their experience. This presentation will support how blurring the lines of audience participation and etiquette to engage individuals promotes an enriching arts experience.
DEVOLUTION: AN INTERACTIVE DIGITAL MEDIA PERFORMANCE   (Oral Presentation)
Christine Francis ('16), Theater and Dance/Computer Science
Devolution was inspired by the destruction of children's fairy tales into their core elements to evolve them into new and original work through the use of music, light, projection, and dance. Each piece of the production ranged in style from literal to abstract and from simple to complex. These pieces provided a new approach to the stories many students grew up on and pushed the boundaries of space to emphasize elements such as shadow, light, color, etc. and create environments that focused on solitude, uniformity, and individuality. This digital media performance merged the ideas of theater, dance and technology to create a modern form of art that stretched the edges of theater.
THE SCRIPT: AN INTERACTIVE EXPLORATION OF PERFORMANCE   (Oral Presentation)
Jeannely Lopez ('16), Theater and Dance/Computer Science
Our personal and embodied experiences as humans are inherently performative for our own or others entertainment. To be entertained is to be brought to consider something new or in a different way while being amused (Upton). So why do we strip our daily conversations of their potential to be rewarding and entertaining for everyone? The nature of our daily routines call for us to entertain ourselves with light conversations and gestures in passing that are often taken for granted because were in a rush or we dont have time to stop and talk. What if we can make meaning out of these performances by breaking conversational conventions down and mapping out these scripts to fully conceptualize how cues go beyond the theatrical realm and into our daily social interactions? And what if our embodied interactions, the seemingly mundane and overlooked physicality of our interactions, become beautiful? This presentation serves as preparation for the installation, which will open on April 29th, 2016.
LIGHT DESIGN IN THE THEATRE: THE ART OF THE BREATHING MOMENT   (Oral Presentation)
Nicholas Pattison ('18), Theater and Dance/Computer Science
This study of lighting design uses research on the sculptural quality of light to inform an understanding of collaboration, material generation, and production. Foci of the study include a detailed approach to practical work, exploring theoretical and creative research, and building experience in collaboration. Building upon prior coursework and production experience, this study investigates the theoretical and practical content and objectives of stage light. An artistic goal of this study is to explore what it means to create a breathing moment through light; a moment that design, performance, and text on stage comes alive in harmony. In order to achieve this artistic goal, three objectives of study were set: research, practical work, and graceful collaboration. A graceful lighting designer listens to the director, and delves into the creation of the performance in order to influence design choices. Through the development and use of light keys, concept statements, and rehearsal attendance, the objective of graceful collaboration is able to be achieved. Another objective of this study looks to understand the malleable craft of light through the use of photometric drafting, and work with the ETC Gio console. This practical work will allow an understanding of ways to create stage light, flexibility in that creation, and develop imaginative ways of showing mood and meaning. A final objective of this study is to conduct research on theories and practice of theatre designers and stage lighting designers. This research fuels design solutions and establishes a greater understanding of the role of light in performance. Using research, practical work of the craft, and collaboration, this is a discovery of ways to be a graceful light designer, making moments of performance come alive.
STATISTICS, CINEMA, AND SUNDANCE: MODELING INDEPENDENT FILM SUCCESS   (Poster)
Kathryn Bai ('16), Jillian Palladino ('16) and Katherine Zafirson ('16), Various Departments
Our project attempts to create a mathematical model that predicts how well independent films from the Sundance Film Festival will be received by critics and audiences. The research began with an overview of films from the festival over the past five years. Our data set contains basic information such as length of the movie and whether the protagonist is male or female, but also includes variables based on the films' content, such as whether there are violent scenes or if a major character dies. Using this data, we created models that see how these independent variables impacted our dependent variables; the Rotten Tomatoes scores from critics and audiences.
FORCED MIGRATION AND THE INTERNATIONAL REFUGEE REGIME   (Poster)
Emma Brown ('16), Various Departments
In June 2015, the United Nations announced that a global record of 60 million people were actively displaced -- half of whom were children. With increased media attention devoted to refugee 'crises' around the world, questions of responsibility permeate the discourse around migration. In this project, I pursue two objectives: first, to map the evolution of international refugee regime from its origin to its 2016 application; second, to illuminate and understand the explanations given in existing academic scholarship for the distinction between economic flight and other kinds of forced migration. Ultimately, I hope to understand modern refugee crises better by closely examining the instruments meant to mitigate them. Centrally, these inquiries contribute to a larger research question: why have conflict and violence galvanized exceptions and expansions to the 1951 refugee definition, while poverty has not?
CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS IN CRUSTACEANS: INFLUENCE OF MELATONIN AND LOCALIZATION OF CLK   (Poster)
Seth Butler ('16), Amanda Corwin ('16), Hannah Insuik ('17), Anoush Longerstaey ('17), Alyse Reichheld ('16) and Kumba Seddu ('17), Various Departments
The ultimate goal of our research is to better understand the biological association between sleep and memory. We are using Fiddler Crabs as a model for the human hippocampus, and studying the effect of melatonin on neuron and neurite growth in Fiddler Crab cell cultures. We dissected Fiddler Crab neurons and cultured the brain tissue, treating some cultures with melatonin. Viable neuron and neurite growth was analyzed within 48 hours after initial dissection, and we observed a difference in neuron and neurite growth between the control and experimental groups. We are currently working on immunohistochemistry protocols for these cell cultures to eventually see how melatonin affects the expression of clock genes and how this expression is related to the neuron and neurite growth observed.
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR   (Poster)
Julia Butler ('17), Various Departments
A study of how goal pursuit explains the influence of environmental cues on consumer behavior. Applications for both marketers and consumers are discussed.
MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN RHYTHM OSCILLATOR SYNCHRONIZATION: A CROSS-MODEL STUDY   (Poster)
David Chelimo ('17), Catherine Alden ('16) and Charles Macaulay ('16), Various Departments
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a cluster of about 20,000 cells in the brain responsible for daily (circadian) rhythms. Within the field of computational biology, extensive study has been done on developing an accurate model of the dynamic signaling network governing these circadian rhythms. Given these models, specific research has been devoted to understanding how cells within the SCN become synchronized in their circadian protein expression. In this study, we further investigate the results of Ananthasubramaniam, B. et al (2014), which demonstrate that 1) synchronization is only possible if vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) release is in phase with transcriptional activity of period (per) promoters and that 2) anti-phasic VIP release suppresses a networks rhythm and drives it into a desynchronous state without suppressing individual oscillators. The 2014 study validated their synchronization hypothesis using the model proposed by Gonze, Goodwin (2005) modified to comprise delayed differential equations (DDEs). We further investigate the results of Ananthasubramaniam, B. et al by evaluating the synchronization properties using an analogously modified version of the model proposed by Becker-Weimann, et al (2004).
CYANOBACTERIA BLOOMS IN LOW-NUTRIENT MAINE LAKES: DEVELOPMENT OF A QPCR ASSAY FOR GLOEOTRICHIA ECHINULATA USING THE ITS REGION   (Poster)
Rebecca Chmiel ('17), Seung Kim ('18) and Harriet Rothschild ('16), Various Departments
Maines lakes contribute to a significant portion of the states tourism economy and its public drinking water supply. Across the nation, the water quality of lakes is declining as toxic cyanobacterial blooms become more widespread. The cyanobacterium Gloeotrichia echinulata is increasingly found in lakes throughout New England, including those in our study region (Belgrade Lakes, Maine, USA). Very little is known about the timing, duration, and toxicity of G. echinulata blooms in Maine lakes and even less is known about its genetic diversity. We performed DNA sequencing on isolates of G. echinulata from our study sites for comparative phylogenetic analysis and for development of a quantitative PCR assay that was used for rapid determination of G. echinulata abundance. Time-series samples collected during the summer of 2015 were assayed via qPCR, indicating the presence of G. echinulata cells in almost every lake sample, with peak abundances approaching 200,000 cells per liter. The new qPCR assay will allow us to provide early warning of these potentially toxic organisms in our freshwater resources prior to the onset of visually-noticeable blooms.
C-FOS AND DCM IN DISC1 RATS   (Poster)
Yoona Chun ('17), Various Departments
c-Fos is a transcription factor used as a functional marker for neuronal activation and proves to be an extremely useful and powerful technique. So far, c-Fos has been used in a broad spectrum of studies ranging from the create a functional anatomical map of neuroendocrine systems to the study of seizure activities and brain injury by following rapid and transient patterns of c-Fos expression. This sort of research is made possible through standard double labeling immunocytochemical techniques, allowing the identification of cellular phenotypes of activated neurons. Doublecortin, or DCX, is another powerful tool in neuroscience research, as it is commonly used as a way to locate and identify newly born neurons, or neurogenesis, by localizing a microtubule associated protein in immature neurons. The immunohistochemical pairing of doublecortin and c-Fos is truly a remarkable one and tremendously useful. I am researching neurogenesis and neuronal activation in the hippocampus of a schizophrenic rat. To do so, I use brains of knockout DISC1 rats, a gene highly associated with schizophrenia and perform double-labeling immunohistochemistry. I stain for doublecortin (DCX), to quantify neurogenesis, as well as c-Fos, to determine which neurons are activating. It is essential to double-label these neurons because it allows us to identify which neuronal cells are being activated under a set of specific treatments and conditions, as well as ascertain the functional differences in subpopulations of newly born neurons activated by certain stimuli, in this case, neurons located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.
THE TESTING EFFECT BENEFITS FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH ADHD   (Poster)
Leah Cooney ('16) and Sarah Boland ('17), Various Departments
In this study, we examined whether those with individual learning differences can still benefit from the testing effect, the phenomenon of higher benefits from retrieval practice when compared with re-study. Participants studied both easy and difficult Swahili-English word pairs. Half of the word pairs were re-studied and half of the pairs were tested, with feedback. Participants diagnosed with ADHD were matched with non-ADHD participants and both groups showed an equal testing effect. Furthermore, for both ADHD and non-ADHD participants, those who scored lower on Ravens Progressive Matrices only showed a testing effect for easy pairs. Conversely, those participants who had higher Ravens scores only showed a testing effect for the difficult pairs. And whereas ADHD participants remembered fewer word pairs overall, when all of the participants were matched on their initial encoding performance, the testing effect was the same. Thus, word difficulty, fluid intelligence, ADHD diagnosis, and initial encoding all contribute the positive and varied benefits of the testing effect.
USING ADAPTIVE FREQUENCY GRANGER CAUSALITY TO INFER CELL TOPOLOGY IN THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK   (Poster)
Iavor Dekov ('16) and Esli Tovar ('16), Various Departments
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian brain controls sleep cycles, digestive activity, physical activity, hormone levels and more. The SCN has about 20,000 neurons and scientists have tried to map out how they are connected using different methods. The Granger Causality method has been traditionally used to infer connections in other systems. However, Granger Causality is highly reliant on the assumption that time series are stationary, thus it is not suitable for inferring connections in the SCN because gene expression data from the circadian system has a highly non-stationary nature. Recently, computational biologists have adapted the Granger Causality method to account for this property of gene expression data, creating the Adaptive Frequency Granger Causality (AFGC) method. In the original publication, AFGC was tested on synthetic data only. We have implemented AFGC and tested it on 649 SCN cells to determine how well this new method performs on real data. Our results suggest that AFGC may not be suitable for these data.
ATHLETE IDENTITY AND TEAM COHESION IN STUDENT-ATHLETES   (Poster)
Amelia Diplock ('16), Various Departments
Alcohol use and abuse among college students has become a large health concern. Past research has also provided evidence that among this group student-athletes drink more than their non-athlete peers. College student-athletes are not only at a higher risk of alcohol consumption, but also for alcohol related negative consequences. Recent research has provided evidence that both athlete identity, and team cohesion can impact the amount of alcohol consumed by student-athletes, but has not looked at the impact of these two variables together. Therefore, this study will simultaneously analyze the effects of athletic identity and team cohesion on student athletes drinking behavior. For athletes that participate in a team sport, it is hypothesized that high athletic identity and importance of team cohesion will increase their drinking behavior. The drinking for team sport athletes with low athlete identity and no desire for team cohesion will not be affected. For athletes that participate in an individual sport, it is predicted that high athletic identity will decrease their drinking, and low athletic identity will have no effect. Team cohesion will have no impact on individual sport athletes. The hypotheses were explored by having student-athletes fill out an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was distributed via email, general announcements, and on Facebook. Participants were asked questions regarding their athletic identity, social drinking norms, and team connectedness. It is expected that both athletic identity and team cohesion will affect participants drinking behavior if they are on a team sport. But the drinking behavior of student-athletes that participate in individual sports may only be effected by athletic identity and not team cohesion.
“BUENOS PARA BEBER” MOTIVES AND PERCEPTIONS OF ALCOHOL USE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN CHILE AND THE USA   (Poster)
Addison Gwinner ('16), Various Departments
The present study examined the perceptions of alcohol, and goals of alcohol use in university students in Valparaso Chile and the USA. The objectives were to determine what goals students had for their use, how they perceived alcohol, and what consequences they suffered as a result of their alcohol use. Despite the fact Chile is the country with the highest consumption of alcohol in South America, little research has been conducted into the prevalent goals for alcohol use, and its role in university culture. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals to determine the context of alcohol use in Chile and the US, and university students were given the DMQR, an instrument to determine drinking goals using Coopers four-factor model, the B-YACCQ, a measure of alcohol related consequences, as well as several questions on their perceptions of alcohol. From the interviews, it was determined that heavy alcohol use is a central part of Chilean and American university culture. Additionally, it was clear that common patterns of drinking border on abuse. The most common goals amongst students were Social, and Enhancement, supporting the social role of alcohol; additionally the students had a high average number of consequences on the DMQR, reflecting their heavy use of alcohol. In conclusion, heavy alcohol use is common amongst university students, and is perceived as central part of social gatherings and celebrations. This normalization of alcohol leads to high levels of consumption, and idiosyncratic definitions of abuse. Public policy regarding alcohol use is limited at best, and focused on prevention which given the cultural context is unrealistic.
TATRA MOUNTAIN WOLF POPULATION MONITORING   (Poster)
Emily Held ('17), Various Departments
The European Grey Wolf, Canis lupus lupus, has returned to the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia and Poland after nearly being extirpated in the early to mid 1900s. I examined the importance of monitoring this population as well as comparing the methods used by the Carpathian Wolf Watch project to the methods used in monitoring the reintroduced wolf population in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.
HOW MANY YEARS OF COLLEGE BASKETBALL ARE NECESSARY FOR SUCCESS IN THE NBA?   (Poster)
Mark HoSang ('16), Various Departments
In this study, we utilize multiple logistic and linear regression models to explain success in the National Basketball Association (NBA). In our main model, we utilize the probability of playing five seasons in the NBA as our response variable and quantitative and qualitative variables as our predictors. Since success in the NBA is a very broad definition, we use different response variables in each of our models. By applying advanced NBA knowledge, we are able to interpret these results with context to the NBA. By using NBA data from 1995-2015 and having a strong quantitative perspective, our purpose is to display how many years of college basketball is necessary to be successful at the next level.
COMPARING TESTING AND ENACTMENT IN LEARNING CHEMISTRY   (Poster)
Bridget Horwood ('19), Various Departments
Learning in school settings is based heavily on the retention of information. Therefore, it is important to understand what study methods allow students to absorb the most information. The purpose of this study was to determine if the memory benefits produced by the enactment effect exceed those of testing effect in educational contexts. The enactment effect is the result of physically acting out a phrase, concept, or procedure and leads to a better recall for those acted-out actions. The testing effect results from retrieval practice, which is the repeated process of recalling information via classroom tests or self-testing. The testing effect produces a better long-term memory for information that people have been tested on repeatedly as opposed to material that they have simply re-read. During this study, participants learned about density in liquids and were given a final test after two days. All participants read a passage and then were assigned to one of four different conditions: testing without feedback, testing with feedback, demonstration, and enactment. For the testing without feedback condition, participants took a test after the reading but were not presented with the correct answers before taking the final test. For the testing with feedback condition, participants were given the correct answers before taking the final test. For the demonstration condition, participants watched a video of the density experiment. Lastly, those in the enactment condition performed the actual experiment. We predict that testing with feedback and enactment will result in the best performance on the final test, because enactment provides additional sensory information to the memory trace and testing with feedback has been demonstrated to enhance memory.
SEPARATING SPACE AND TIME IN THE SCN   (Poster)
Shangcheng Jiang ('17) and Raymond Chung ('16), Various Departments
Why do we get sleepy at night and hungry at noon? Because we all have internal biological clocks. The study of this circadian clock and its rhythms is relatively new and there are still uncertainties about how the signals originating in the brain's clock help the rest of the body keep time, or even how signals are generated and regulated within the clock itself. We do know that the cells within the clock have cell-autonomous pulsating signals and that interneuron communication helps keep the cells synchronized (Panda & Hogenesch, 2004). Emerging in tandem with the biological study of circadian rhythms are computational models created in systems biology the applied field of computer science dedicated to verifying and clarifying wet lab findings within cleaner, more controlled settings. Our study seeks to verify and clarify recent findings suggesting that the clocks' circadian signal is controlled spatially (Pauls, Foley, Foley, Lesauter, Hastings, Maywood, & Silver, 2014). This hypothesis is grounded in the double dissociation of temporal and spatial organization of neural firing, meaning one thing governs when neurons are firing at the same time, and another thing governs where neurons are firing at the same time. We use ordinary differential equations to simulate the oscillating signal of clock cells and modify the amplitude, period, and phase to simulate various conditions of spatio-temporal organization. We found that spectral clustering (Pauls et al, 2014) by phase could clearly illustrate the spatial order of SCN activation. These findings bring us a step closer to fully understanding how our body regulates our daily activities and may have practical implications in research concerning sleeping disorders.
RISE TO A NEW FRONTIER IN PUBLIC HEALTH   (Poster)
John Kensinger ('17), Various Departments
With rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions on the rise in the United States, a more dynamic and accessible approach to public health must be brought forth. This is where novel technology, in this case mobile applications, can make all the difference. Rise is a mobile nutrition app where clients pay an affordable recurring fee in exchange for access their own personal registered dietician. The best part is that the whole relationship takes place through the app so that neither party even has to leave the house. Thus, not only is the application more affordable than hiring an in-person clinician, it's also much more convenient. Moreover, the best part about this system is its scaleability. Since it is run entirely through an online database, the only limiting factor is the human labor available on the side of the dietitians. Lucky for us, there are plenty of skilled and educated individuals in the health and nutrition field who would excel at such an opportunity. Now, here is the exciting part... hypothetically, if Rise were backed by the support of the government, a much larger labor force could be accrued and funded. Thus, not only would the scalability of the app increase, but hundreds, if not thousands, of educated health specialists could efficiently share their knowledge and receive compensation. Additionally, subscriptions with Rise could be recommended by general practitioners across the country as a sort of prescription for specific ailments, and if covered by health insurance or subsidized by the government, the number of lives that could be changed for the better is incredible.
MOONFACE BEAR: A CONNECTICUT INDIAN’S STAND, 1993   (Poster)
Jenna Laidley ('19), Various Departments
In April 1993, Golden Paugussett Indian Moonface Bear, son of the tribal chief, Big Eagle, opened a tax-free cigarette shop on the tribes Colchester reservation. In July, a warrant was issued for his arrest. Moonface Bear argued that it was his tribes right to regulate commerce. Thus began a lengthy armed standoff between the Native Americans living on the reservation and Connecticut state police. Moonface Bear shut down the smoke shop on August 11, but only his surrender three months later ended the contentious stand.
INDUCTION OF GENE EXPRESSION IN THE CA1 CELL FIELDS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS BY BEHAVIORAL EXPLORATION IN DISC1 KNOCKOUT RATS   (Poster)
Morgan Larrabee ('16), Various Departments
Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including major deficits in cognition. We sought to study these cognitive symptoms in the DISC1-knockout rat model of schizophrenia and focused on memory and hippocampal function. We hypothesized that the DISC1-knockout rats would have impaired spatial memory abilities on a water maze task and our results confirmed this. In addition, we sought to compare DISC1-knockout and wildtype rats hippocampal engagement when they explored novel and familiar environments. To do this, rats explored different environments and were sacrificed 90 min later; neuronal activation to the experience was gauged using immunohistochemistry for the immediate early gene, c-fos. This analysis is ongoing but our hypothesis is that wildtype rats will differentially respond to the novel and familiar conditions, whereas DISC1-knockout rats will react to both as if they were novel. These results will span our understanding of hippocampal functioning in schizophrenia.
PATIENT DERIVED XENOGRAFT TUMOR SAMPLES: WHAT DOES THE MOUSE CONTRIBUTE?   (Poster)
Adam Lavertu ('16), Various Departments
From 2003 to 2012 the fatality rate of people diagnosed with cancer continued to decline by an average of 1.5% per year. This indicates that modern medicine has done a great deal to improve the prognosis for cancer patients, but there is still a lot about the disease and associated treatments that the scientific community does not yet understand. As new treatments are developed, studies are conducted to evaluate efficacy and potential side effects of the novel approach. Patient derived xenograft (PDX) mouse models provide a platform that closely models human cancer tumors. The PDX mouse models are generated by engrafting fragments from human tumors heterotopically into the cutaneous tissue of NSG mice. NSG mice lack an effective immune system, this absence allows for engraftment of human tumors without the risk of the tumor being rejected by host tissues. Implanted tumors that successfully develop in their new murine host are excised when the host dies and profiled with multiple molecular biology techniques, including but not limited to RNA-seq. Post-implantation human endothelial tissues surrounding the tumor are progressively replaced by host tissues and eventually infiltrate the tumor itself. As a result of this infiltration by host tissues, RNA-seq data generated from PDX tumors contains sequence reads with gene expression information from both the infiltrating murine tissue and the human tumor. During the evaluation of RNA-seq data, the sequences derived from the mouse are identified computationally and separated out. This research focuses on identifying the genes being expressed in those mouse sequences, leading to better understanding of the tumors environment within the mouse. A better understanding of the molecular interactions will aid in future drug trials that use PDX mice.
TICK, TICK, TOCK; HOW NOISY IS YOUR CLOCK?   (Poster)
Adam Lavertu ('16) and Edward Zhou ('17), Various Departments
Everyday, there are an uncountable number of biological processes occurring within living organisms. Circadian rhythms play a major role in maintaining many of these processes, from simple to complex behaviors. Stochastic noise has been seen to have noticeable effects on these rhythms. Our research focuses on defining the relationship between noise and circadian rhythms, continuing research done by St. John et al. on small molecule inhibitors and stochastic noise. We used similar methods to investigate the attributes of circadian rhythms within cells of the mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), examining cells based on their noise profile and the degree to which their rhythms are damped. Ideally, information from this study will help us better understand the difference between cellular regions within the SCN. A better understanding of the SCN, which is central to the proper maintenance of circadian rhythms, could lead to treatments for jet lag, insomnia, and eating disorders.
WARNINGS AGAINST FALSE MEMORY IN ASSOCIATIVE AND CATEGORICAL WORD LISTS   (Poster)
Monique Legault ('18), Various Departments
A false memory is a memory for an event that never occurred or distortions relative to the original event. False memories can be created by giving participants lists of words that are related to one central word (called a critical lure) but that word is not actually presented on the list. In this task, participants frequently remember the critical lure. One question is what types of word lists are more likely to elicit false memories and how this can help us understand how memory is organized and used. Previously, we found that false memories are higher for lists of words that are categorically related and share features (boxer, coyote, pet puppy) than lists of words that are only associated with each other (bark, beware, flea, paw). This effect is called a feature boost. Lower false memory in non-categorically related lists of words could be due to more effective monitoring - in other words, participants are better able to discriminate the critical lure from other items and reject it at test. This study examined whether false memory could be reduced by warning the participant of the critical lures before they studied the lists of words, and whether this reduction of false memory was higher in one type of list or the other. Warnings were equally as effective for both associatively related and associatively and categorically related lists of words. There is lower false memory in the associatively related lists, but it is not easier to use warnings for the associatively related lists over the categorically and associatively related lists.
REPETITION PRIMING ACROSS CONTEXTS: DO PROSE AND POEMS PRIME?   (Poster)
Jake Lester ('18), Kimberly Bourne ('16) and Wing Ng ('18), Various Departments
Every day, we encounter a vast amount of information that we must recognize and sort for importance or emotional relevance. Prior and recent exposure to sensory information and stimuli facilitates faster cognitive processing. We are interested in the differences in processing information from emotionally salient or conceptual contexts. We tested whether priming low and high frequency words in contexts of poems, prose passages, or word lists, impacts responses in a lexical decision task (LDT). An LDT presents participants with a list of words and non-words (e.g. barms, forn) and they must decide if it is a word or non-word as fast and accurately as possible. Targets were embedded in context and presented before completion of an LDT. We selected high and low frequency words from four uncommon poems and presented them in prose, poem, and word list formats. Both low and high frequency words presented in word lists showed robust priming, whereas no priming was found for words embedded in a prose passage or poem, suggesting context affects repetition priming. Additionally, a current follow-up study is investigating recognition of low and high frequency words from different contexts. We hypothesize that memory for words from the word lists will be more robust than words from the poems or the prose passages.
'YOU'RE TAKING MY NOTES AWAY!?': STUDY STRATEGIES, TEST TYPES, AND MEMORY   (Poster)
Sara LoTemplio ('16), Elyse Barnard ('16) and Sarah Carrigan ('16), Various Departments
A growing body of research supports the idea that testing, a common method of assessment in classrooms, enhances memory more so than studying does (Rowland, 2014). However, closed-book tests are not the only method of testing that occurs. It's not uncommon for instructors to give their students open-book or open-note (cheat sheet) exams. While this style of exam may increase performance on that test itself, it may not be more beneficial for memory in general. Previous research has shown that those expecting an open book test studied less than those expecting a closed book test (Agarwal & Roediger, 2011). Furthermore, these tests may not reach the level of desired difficulty necessary to promote proper levels of encoding. Limited research has examined the use of notes or 'cheat sheets' in exams, another common practice in classrooms. The current study investigates how different note-taking and studying techniques influence performance on both an immediate and delayed test. All participants read a passage about bread. While reading they either take notes with the expectation of using them as a 'cheat sheet' in an exam and then either get to use them in the initial exam or do not, take notes as if they are studying for an exam and do not use them, re-read the passage, or just take the test immediately. All participants then come back 48 hours later and take a test on the same material with no notes. We expect note-taking and prior testing to improve retention relative to re-reading and that taking notes as a study aid is more beneficial than creating a 'cheat sheet.'
HABITAT FRAGMENTATION INHIBITS SEED PREDATION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL LANDSCAPE IN EASTERN KANSAS   (Poster)
John Lynch ('16), Various Departments
As agricultural and urban sprawls lead to increasingly fragmented landscapes, small mammal communities are modified along with the plant communities upon which they rely. We assessed the impact of fragmentation on small mammals by quantifying seed predation in an experimentally fragmented landscape in Eastern Kansas. 247 seed depots were deployed into 11 replicates of either large, small, or matrix habitat treatments. Each depot contained 25 seeds of Helianthus anuus and predation was assessed by counting the seeds remaining in each depot after three days in the field. Average seed predation was significantly elevated in large contiguous patches compared to smaller more fragmented patches (p<0.017) and compared to depots deployed within the matrix (p<0.001). It is possible that higher rodent foraging activity is due to lower predation threats experienced in large patches due to elevated woody plant cover. However, no significant edge effects were observed in large patches (p=0.699). Additionally, the proximity of large patches to a forest abutting the landscape correlated to higher seed predation. Neotoma floridana, which resides exclusively on large patches, may have recently migrated from the forest and could explained explain this trend in forest proximity. Our findings support the conclusion that habitat fragmentation alters the foraging behavior of small mammals, which could potentially contribute to differences in the seed bank across patch size. Re-establishing fragment connectivity via corridors may decrease the threat of predation for small mammals and enhance their foraging area in small fragmented patches.
THE TAX PRICE OF GIVING   (Poster)
Mitchell Maffeo ('16), Various Departments
The purpose of this study is to determine through econometric analysis the impact of the Economic Growth and Tax Reconciliation Act of 2001 and subsequent legislation on the incentives to donate to charitable organizations.
ALTERED ADDICTION POTENTIAL? BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION TO AMPHETAMINE AND CROSS-SENSITIZATION TO COCAINE IN PRENATAL CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTED RATS   (Poster)
Leigh Mathieu ('16), Various Departments
The essential dietary nutrient choline produces long-term enrichment in neural function. In our lab, we have found that prenatal choline supplementation increases neuroplasticity and is protective against neuropsychiatric disorders, like schizophrenia and depression. One way it may exert these effects is through changes to dopaminergic circuits. This hypothesis was tested by comparing prenatal standard-fed and choline-supplemented adult male rats in the extent of their behavioral sensitization to amphetamine and cross-sensitization to cocaine. Behavioral sensitization is a phenomenon whereby repeated intermittent drug administration increases responses to it; cross-sensitization reflects an increased sensitivity to a drug of a similar class following sensitization. Rats received an injection of amphetamine once per week for 3 weeks, followed by a cocaine injection in the 4th week. The main dependent measure was their locomotor response to the drugs. We are finding that choline-supplemented rats exhibit significantly less sensitization. Thus, choline may modify risk for drug addiction.
THE SAHARAN AIR LAYER AS A DETERMINANT OF ATLANTIC TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION AND INTENSITY   (Poster)
Lauren McCarthy ('16), Various Departments
The Saharan Air Layer (SAL) exerts a major influence on the climate of the North Atlantic region. The SAL is a warm, dry layer of air that is blown westward from the Sahara Desert over the Northern Atlantic Ocean and contains substantial quantities of eolian dust. Ocean waters to the west of the Sahara Desert are a common source area for Atlantic hurricanes due to warm air and sea surface temperatures and the presence of trade winds. The Saharan Air Layer is commonly accepted as a suppressor of tropical cyclone activity because of its ability to prevent sunlight from reaching the ocean surface, thus cooling the water and hindering convection that leads to hurricane formation. However, an additional hypothesis proposes that dust particles from the SAL may act as cloud condensation nuclei. This suggests that Saharan dust supply has a direct relationship with the formation of clouds and storms, which can both intensify to form hurricanes. After a literary review of previous scientific studies on this topic, this report concludes that there is no strong evidence suggesting that Saharan-sourced cloud condensation nuclei causes increased tropical cyclone frequency or intensity. Sea surface temperatures and vertical wind shear speeds, along with the behavior of the West African Monsoon, the African Squall Line, and the African Easterly Jet, will ultimately determine if a tropical cyclone will form and intensify. Both hypotheses could benefit from future research that contains a larger, more comprehensive sample size of past tropical storms in the Atlantic.
CAN DIETARY CHOLINE SUPPLEMENTATION PREVENT POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION IN A RAT MODEL?   (Poster)
Veronica Mitchell ('16), Various Departments
Choline is an essential dietary nutrient that induces neuroprotective effects. We have found that dietary choline supplementation has antidepressant effects in rats, suggesting it may also protect against the behavioral and neurological symptoms of postpartum depression. This hypothesis was tested using a hormone withdrawal model of postpartum depression in which rats received either choline-supplemented or standard diets during a 23-day simulated pregnancy. The postpartum symptoms were induced by withdrawing rats from ovarian hormones over a 5-day period. During this period, sucrose preference, open field, elevated plus maze, and forced swim tests were conducted. We expect that animals experiencing hormone withdrawal will exhibit depressive symptoms that are rescued by choline supplementation. Such findings influence our understanding and treatment of postpartum depression.
THE INTERACTION BETWEEN TWO MEMBRANE PROTEINS IN HALOPHILIC ARCHAEA   (Poster)
Ryota Nakada ('17), Various Departments
Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) acts as a light-driven proton pump that ultimately provides the cell with energy in H. salinarum. BR is comprised of Bacterioopsin (BO) and retinal cofactor. Previous research has shown that an enzyme lycopene elongase (eye) converts lycopene, a precursor to retinal in the biosynthetic pathway of BR, to Bacterioruberin. The presence of Bacterioopsin inhibits the activity of Lye, resulting in the production of retinal, and subsequently, BR. However, the lye of H. volcanii (a related halophilic microbe) is NOT inhibited by BO. In our lab, we have been trying to determine the relationship between Bacterioopsin and lycopene elongase through protein immunoblots. These two proteins are tagged with specific amino acid sequences that can be bound to by specific antibodies, and their presence or activation can then subsequently be confirmed. So far, we have been trying to find two specific antibodies for BO and lye in order to test their direct relationship.
SO YOU THINK YOU CAN DETECT CHANGES?   (Poster)
Tara Nguyen ('16), Various Departments
Change detection plays an essential part in everyone's lives. Not only does it help people perform daily activities such as driving or interacting with others, change detection can also affect legal matters like eyewitness testimony, where an eyewitness's failure to notice a change in the criminal's identity can lead to false accusations (Laney & Loftus, 2010). People are, in general, not good at detecting changes. Change blindness, or the inability to detect large changes in the visual field, can occur when there are impairments in one's attention and/or memory. Due to the involvement of memory in the experience of change blindness, researchers have used look into how change blindness is related to a specific type memory known as working memory. Working memory is a multi-component system that temporarily maintains, manipulates, and keeps information available for subsequent cognitive tasks (Baddeley, 1992; Baddeley & Hitch, 1974). The present study examined the effects of spatial working memory load and cognitive strategy on change blindness. All participants performed a change detection task, but only half of them completed a memory task. In the former task, participants were instructed to use either an active strategy or a passive strategy. Spatial working memory load, but not cognitive strategy, had an effect on change blindness performance. To explore this null effect of cognitive strategies, and to take into account individual differences in working memory, a follow-up study is currently being conducted. Preliminary results of this follow-up study will be presented.
THE PRICE OF FLIGHT: ENERGETIC TRADEOFFS OF WING MORPH PLASTICITY IN JADERA HAEMATOLOMA   (Poster)
Mary Parks ('16), David Angelini ('16) and Elizabeth Richards, Various Departments
Long and short wing morphs in the red-shouldered soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma, present different energetic trade-off strategies. To describe these tradeoffs, this study investigates the relationship between wing morph, flight ability, egg production, and total lipid content in three distinct populations of J. haematoloma. Life history strategies have been seen to vary among populations and preliminary research indicates there may be a direct relationship between morph, egg production, and flight ability which can be detected in life stage dependent lipid concentrations. These life history tradeoffs may echo to ecological consequences and therefore shape distribution.
INDUCING MUTATIONS IN THE SELENATE REDUCTASE OPERON IN THE BACTERIUM DECHLOROMONAS   (Poster)
Rachel Prestigiacomo ('17), Various Departments
Over the last 3 decades, a small number of selenate-reducing bacteria have been isolated; however, little is known about the enzymes that allow these organisms to reduce selenate, a soluble environmental contaminant, to insoluble elemental selenium. A selenate-reducing bacterium, Dechloromonas strain A34, was isolated from phosphate mining wastes and the genome was sequenced. An operon containing 4 genes coding for a putative selenate reducatase, serABDC, was identified and further characterized. The aim of the project is to investigate and optimize the use of error-prone PCR as a technique to promote random mutagenenesis in the Ser operon in the bacterium Decholoromonas A34. Error-prone PCR allows researchers to change the rate of sequence error occurrence within the target gene during DNA amplification by changing the concentrations of dNTPs, Mn, and Mg. In this study, error-prone PCR was used to generate random mutations in the gene sequence for the first subunit of the operon, serA. The PCR products can then be transformed into cells of Dechloromonas A34, and the resulting transformants will be screened for impaired or absent selenate reduction. When insoluble selenate is reduced, it precipitates as red elemental selenium. Thus, colonies that reduce selenate appear red while colonies that do not reduce selenate are white. The white colonies will be isolated and their genomes will be sequenced in order to gain insight into the sequence, regulation, and function of the selenate reductase enzymes in Dechloromonas A34.
JAN PLAN IN KALIMPONG INDIA   (Poster)
Julia Saul ('18), Various Departments
For Colby's January term I spent the month in Kalimpong, India, a rural part of India up in the Himalayas. While there, I completed an internship that focused on the effects of landslides in the region as well as the sustainable and environmental uses of bamboo. Landslides in Himalayan area of Kalimpong have devastating effects and are increasing in frequency with climate change. Bamboo has great potential as a building material because of its fast rate of growth and strength. My poster will include things I learned about landslides and bamboo as well as photos from my amazing trip.
CLOSURE OF THE RUBISCO ACTIVE SITE THROUGH CHANGES IN SUBSTRATE INTER-PHOSPHATE DISTANCE   (Poster)
Erika Smith ('18), Various Departments
RubisCO is the enzyme found in photosynthetic organisms such as green plants that is responsible for the catalysis of carbon dioxide addition in the first step of the Calvin cycle. In spite of being highly abundant, its carboxylase activity is extremely inefficient and slow. By investigating the active site processes in RubisCO, the understanding of how to correct this seemingly poor enzyme may have positive implications for crop yield, translating to an increase in food production. The significance of the phosphate location of RubisCOs substrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, in their binding sites and the status of RubisCOs active site has not been fully investigated. It is thought that the movement of each phosphate from its primary binding site to a secondary binding site in which the phosphates come closer together is a trigger for the closure of the active site.(1) Through the analysis of crystal structures and molecular dynamic simulations, RubisCOs active site is being investigated to understand the interactions responsible for closure in order for catalysis. This will reveal motions in active site that couple to movement of the phosphates and other conformational changes accompanying the catalytic cycle, confirm highly conserved residues in RubisCO tree, and suggest sites that could be targeted for mutation to affect the kinetics of this essential enzyme. (1)Duff, A. P.; Andrews, T. J.; Curmi, P. M. Journal of molecular biology 2000, 298, 903.
USING MODELS OF IRREVERSIBLE AND EQUILIBRIUM CARBOXYLATION TO EXPLAIN THE ORIGIN OF THE PREFERENTIAL LIGHT ISOTOPE CARBON ADDITION IN RUBISCO   (Poster)
Danielle Smith ('18), Various Departments
Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO), possibly the most abundant protein on Earth, not only plays a pivotal role in the Calvin Cycle, but also in the carbon cycle. Its significance is observed through the isotopic composition of carbon reservoirs as RubisCO preferentially adds light carbon to the biosphere. However, the mechanistic origins of this carboxylation is unknown. It is proposed that the observed biological fractionation values can be constrained between a model of irreversible carbon addition and a model of equilibrium carbon addition. The data obtained from electronic configuration, rate constant, and 13C/12C fractionation calculations on a simplified active site system suggests that RubisCO enzymes switch between these two modes of carbon addition.
XVENTORY: INTEGRATING JAVA AND SQL TO STREAMLINE INVENTORY FOR INTERIOR DESIGN   (Poster)
John Snow ('16), Various Departments
Using Java, JavaFX and MySQL, I am developing a database interface for an interior design company (Mary Snow Designs Inc) The program is designed with user friendliness in mind, so that the clients never need to actually access the main database. Instead, they can edit, add, or delete items using the interface. Ultimately, the goal is to have business report generating capabilities and to allow multiple computers to connect at once, controlling the data edit permissions to prevent overwriting or adding false information. On the client end, the goal is to save hours every day by keeping all inventory information in a central database, rather than using physical files.
HUMAN CHMP2BINTRON5 CAN CAUSE CELL FATE TRANSFORMATIONS WHEN EXPRESSED DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF DROSOPHILA EXTERNAL SENSORY ORGANS   (Poster)
Chao Tang ('18), Various Departments
The human CHMP2B gene encodes a member of the ESCRT-3 complex and plays a major role in endosomal vesicle traffic, including the recycling and degradation of cell surface receptors. A variant form of CHMP2B (CHMP2BIntron5) is associated with the development of frontotemporal dementia. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model, we have previously shown that misexpression of the human CHMP2BIntron5 variant in Drosophila eyes can disrupt the normal function of cell signaling pathways and lead to neuordegeneration of the photoreceptors. To further investigate the activity of CHMP2BIntron5 on cell signaling processes, we have misexpressed this variant form during the development of the external sensory organs. We observe that CHMP2BIntron5 can cause cell fate transformations specifically, a strong shaft cell to socket cell transformation as a strong effect and a neuron to sheath cell transformation as a weaker effect. Both of these effects are reminiscent of increases of Notch activity by gain-of-function mutations, for example. We are currently testing the hypothesis that CHMP2BIntron5 is leading to an increase in Notch pathway activity by assessing the ability of Notch pathway mutations to either suppress or enhance the CHMP2BIntron5 phenotype.
EFFECTS OF LIGHT ENTRAINMENT ON OSCILLATIONS IN THE CORE AND SHELL OF SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS   (Poster)
Elizabeth Tonkin ('16), Sarah Asif ('16) and Alaina Coakley ('16), Various Departments
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the main internal clock of the mammalian system. It is a region of the brain that generates 24 hour (circadian) rhythms which control various parts of daily life such as when to sleep, eat, and perform other important behaviors. The SCN is a network of neurons connected via multiple signaling pathways. There are two main sections of the SCN - the core and the shell. The SCNs oscillations adapt to seasonal changes in day length, in turn playing a role in adjustment of the mammal's behaviors. It is hypothesized that the decoupling of cycles in the two parts of the SCN play a vital role in this process. Recent studies by Myung et al. (2015) found that 𝛾-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is essential for this misaligned behavior between the core and shell. Using a model adapted from Kingsbury et al. that mimics the effects of daylight on the SCN, we change various parameters and observe their respective effects on the synchrony of the core and shell, and overall perceived day length.
MODELLING TOPOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE ENTRAINMENT RANGE OF THE CIRCADIAN CLOCK   (Poster)
Carl Vitzthum ('16) and Alexandru Plesa ('17), Various Departments
The circadian clock is the central biological oscillator responsible for keeping track of day-night cycles for virtually all organisms. In mammals, the circadian clock takes form as a group of neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). On an individual level, the neurons composing the circadian clock can be thought of as individual biochemical oscillators; collectively, they give rise to an overall oscillator that is entrainable to environmental conditions (primarily light) and provides output pathways to temporally tune the organisms physiology. Computational models have been used to determine how altering the cellular characteristics affects the entrainment properties of the overall clock. Our work seeks to understand the ability of the SCN to conform to extreme light cycles by computationally modelling the underlying physiological topology of the SCN, namely the core and shell regions which differ in neuron-to-neuron connectivity and light responsiveness. Using two models, we explore the interaction between several topologically-relevant properties of the individual oscillators and the overall entrainment range of the circadian rhythm.
ALGORHYTHMS   (Poster)
Daniel Vogel ('16), Aaron Liu ('16) and Ian MacClancy ('16), Various Departments
Modern scientific technologies have allowed for much more detailed observations of genetic oscillations corresponding to circadian rhythms. At the center of this is the issue of sifting through the now more detailed and inherently noisier data to determine the period and amplitude of these oscillations. Unfortunately these oscillations can be messy and many times do not conform to simple sinusoidal models. Originally data was fit by eye and now with the advancement of modern computer modeling we can better and more accurately identify trends in data. We will be testing JTK_Cycle, Umbrella Alternatives, and Gene Cycle, three methods used to identify rhythmicity and attempting to determine their accuracy and advantages.
THE EVOLUTION OF THE AMERICAN PARTY SYSTEM AND ITS MODERN IMPLICATIONS ON GOVERNANCE   (Poster)
Theodore Voulgaris ('18), Various Departments
This poster is a culmination of my research on the Two-Party System's impact on the American government. This research consists of analysis from a combination of academic and institutional sources. My conclusions and ideas are generated from an unbiased perspective within the lens and ideals of bipartisan political theory and the Constitution which laid out the institutions of the American Government responsible and responsive to the effect of the Modern Two-Party System in the United States.
STRESS-TESTING FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM PERIODIC ESTIMATORS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS   (Poster)
John Walpuck ('16) and Hunter Standen ('16), Various Departments
The field of Chronobiology studies naturally occurring periodic and cyclical phenomena. Thus, at the base of the field is the necessity for an accurate tool to measure noisy periodic signals. With such a tool, we can effectively analyze or compare systems, allowing greater understanding of a system itself. One of the most widely-known algorithms for periodic signal analysis is the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). However, FFT has several weaknesses which have been addressed through algorithms that extend it. We have performed meta-analysis on two such methods: the FFT Non-Linear Least Squares method and Spectrum Resampling. Through a series of stress tests, we have compared their efficacy in situations of varying levels of noise, duration, and frequency. Our analysis focuses on the benefits and drawbacks of the methods both with respect to each other, and with respect to standard FFT.
PREDICTING THE STRUCTURE OF ANCESTRAL RUBISCOS   (Poster)
Yuewei Wen ('18), Various Departments
RuBisCO catalyzes carbon fixation in all autotrophs. There are two functional forms of RuBisCO; form I is composed of four catalytic dimers and eight small subunits, and form II which is composed of a single catalytic dimer. There are predicted sequences of a chain in each ancestral RuBisCOs, but we are still not clear of their tertiary and quartenary structures. In this project, we aimed to find out whether the ancestral RuBisCOs resembles form I or form II more. We selected the residues interacting with small subunits on one chain of the dimer in an existing form II RuBisCO, and compared the similarities on this very set of residues between form I, form II, and ancestral sequences. Through aligning all the sequences, we created a penalty score based on the similarities between residues for each substitution of residues at each place. The primary result we had is that the earlier ancestral sequences resemble form II RuBisCOs more. In order to further improve the accuracy of our comparison, we tried to parametrize the orientation of each residue based on the identity of its two neighbors. In this way, we will be able to select only the residues that are oriented towards the small subunits, and compare the differences between this set of residues across all form I, form II, and ancestral RuBisCOs to see if the result is different from the primary one we obtained.
KETAMINE AS A NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENT AGAINST A NOVEL MODEL OF MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY IN MALE AND FEMALE SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS   (Poster)
Peter Wirth ('16), Various Departments
Mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) have significantly increased in the last decade and there is mounting evidence of their adverse cognitive and emotional effects. Many animal models apply force through projectiles or blasts to a stationary animal. These mechanical forces do not adequately induce rotational acceleration in the animals head, which is thought to be a key component of human sports-related injuries. Thus, we designed a device in which the animal is accelerated toward a stationary impact zone to produce rapid rotational movement of the head. The present study aimed to characterize the neuroprotective effects of ketamine, an NMDA antagonist, on post-injury behavioral outcomes. Following the mTBI, male and female rats were given three subanesthetic doses of ketamine when glutamate levels are expected to be highest. Preliminary analysis of behavioral data is underway, and we hypothesize that ketamine will offer neuroprotection in tests of memory and locomotion.
RAMSEY THEORY   (Poster)
Muyuan Zhang ('18), Various Departments
Ramsey Theory is a very interesting subject in discrete mathematics. It is so abstract but it is also highly related to our daily life. It has application in almost all of the mathematical field. Ramsey Theory studies the conditions under which regular pattern must appear. The questions in Ramsey Theory usually start with the form: How many elements must there be in some structure to guarantee that the structure will have the property of... It reveals the facts that there is no complete disorder. In my poster, I will firstly give a very intriguing introduction, which is easily to follow, to the theory and then I will show the proof and explanation of the generalized form of the theory. Secondly, I will dig deeper into the subject, find specific applications of the theory, and show the reason why Ramsey Theory is important and useful. I will also provide preliminary definition, theorem, notation so that people who are not familiar with the subject can comprehend the essence of the theory behind the purely abstract math proof.
'CONTESTED REPRESENTATIONS': THE ROLE OF AZTLáN IN CHICANO/A NATIONALIST, FEMINIST, AND INDIGENIST CULTURAL PRODUCTION   (Oral Presentation)
Kendra Elie ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
This project explores the way Aztlán (the ancestral home and nation of the Aztec people and their descendants) has been represented, reenvisioned, and contested in Chicano/a nationalist, feminist, and Indigenist cultural production. Aztlán was first reclaimed as a symbol of Chicano identity during the Chicano Movement of the 1960s and became an important part of the group's message of nationhood and brotherhood. Later, Chicana feminist writers Gloria Anzaldúa and Cherríe Moraga (among many others) reclaimed the symbolism and imagery of Aztlán in their essays and poetry, reenvisioning Aztlán as a feminine, queer space and relating this vision to their own identities and experiences as queer Chicanas. However, Chicana feminists have been criticized for being too focused on the idea of hybridity, which Indigenst writer Dylan A.T. Miner argues 'serves to disenfranchise Xicanos as an Indigenous people' (7). Through an exploration of different representations of Aztlán from each of these three perspectives, my project aims to reexamine the reasons for its continued contestation.
'ANOTHER ROUND' OF BLACK FEMINIST THOUGHT   (Oral Presentation)
Bonnie Maldonado ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
For this project, I will be focusing on the podcast Another Round. Another Round is a podcast on Buzzfeed that is hosted by Heben Nigatu and Tracy Clayton. With less than a year on the air, Another Round is a mixture of seriousness and silliness, as the ladies speak on issues of race, pop culture, gender, mental health, sexuality and politics all while telling bad jokes and drinking Bourbon. I will argue that the podcast in itself is unique because is an example as an alternative mode of communication and the dissimentation of black feminist knowledges through individual consumption.
KEEPING THE MILITARY SAFE: GENDER INCLUSION POLITICS, THE MYTH OF ANTI-VIOLENCE AND U.S. IMPERIALISM IN THE WAR ON TERROR   (Oral Presentation)
Michelle Minkin ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
In the wake of the Abu Ghraib scandal, feminist scholars felt compelled to critically examine how gendered constructions of violence, nation, and citizenship produce the conditions that enable such horrifying violence to occur, and what this means for feminism as a project. Uniting different arguments and conversations about gender, violence, citizenship, inclusion, and empire, I explore how the feminist discourse that rose in the wake of the Abu Ghraib scandal to make sense of the gender politics of the violence and to protect the female soldiers who were implicated and scapegoated in the scandal has become embedded in the liberal project to eliminate sexual violence in the military. Precisely at a moment when the nation was horrified by the images of violence at Abu Ghraib and forced to think critically about sexual violence in the military, particularly in relation to women in the army, the army became powerfully invested in co-opting feminist anti-violence and inclusion discourses to maintain and strengthen American imperialism as a necessary part of the Western liberal project. This opened up a discursive space for narratives of sexual violence against female soldiers that was not there before. Thus, in the decade following the scandal, a massive campaign to fight sexual harassment and violence against female soldiers took hold as the prevailing feminist issue regarding the US army. As a result, more radical critiques of the United States military is a fundamentally violent imperial institution were eclipsed by the liberal feminist project of gender inclusivity and the rhetoric of antiviolence.
BAD MOTHERS: HOW FOOD SERVES AS THE MEASURING STICK OF SUCCESSFUL (AND FAILED) MOTHERHOOD   (Oral Presentation)
Mackenzie Reimer ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
In an examination of motherhood in U.S.-American culture, I explore how cultural understandings of what it means to eat well reflect on how women in the United States are able to serve as mothers to their children. I trace patterns of eating poorly (eating or providing unhealthy or less desirable food to children) and the obesity endemic to new conceptions of who classifies as a bad mother, replacing the previously popular notion of crack mothers as the worst type of. By providing (or not) poor choices for their children, it is culturally assumed that these women are failing in their role as mother. Structural inequalities that create the situations into which failing mothers are often placed without choice are ignored, and their failure becomes a lack of care, effort, or desire to succeed in motherhood. My project will explore representations of bad mothers (and good) using four examples: Michelle Obama, a mother in Pittsburgh, a child activist for non-GMO containing foods, and representations of mothers in Jamie Oliver's television show 'Jamie Oliver's Food Revolution'.
'A SPECIAL PLACE IN HELL': GENDER AND HILLARY CLINTON'S 2016 PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN   (Oral Presentation)
Naomi Schmidt ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
During the same February weekend, two feminist icons made controversial statements regarding Hillary Clintons campaign. Gloria Steinem surprisingly patronized millions of millennial women and their abilities to choose which candidate to vote for, accusing them of supporting Senator Bernie Sanders in order to meet boys. The following day, Madeleine Albright proclaimed to a crowd at a Clinton campaign event that there exists a special place in hell for women who dont support other women. Although this was the thousandth time she had made such a statement, this specific utterance suddenly caused media outrage, along with Steinems comment. With these two important political figures, Hillary Clinton who has constructed much of her campaign around womens rights and her true feminist leanings became the subject of dozens, if not hundreds, of newspaper articles and Internet disputes. This project analyses these articles and Internet comments in order to understand the role that gender is playing in this 2016 election. After 2008, many academics attempted to understand how the sexism of Americans contributed to Clintons defeat in the primaries, and many used this to gauge the positions, opportunities and directions for women in American political leadership. This analysis adds to these studies by following up eight years later, attempting to understand how Americans may have changed gender politics between election cycles, and how this change could influence the American political landscape in the short-term future.
WHAT IS COMPREHENSIVE SEX EDUCATION?: AN EXAMINATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEX EDUCATION AND THEIR EFFECTS ON PERCEPTIONS OF CONSENT, SEXUAL PLEASURE, AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE   (Oral Presentation)
Sonja Sepkowitz ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
This project seeks to examine the idea of comprehensive sex education and what exactly is included in this type of sex education curriculum. I explore the differences between abstinence-only sex education and comprehensive sex education, which many researchers say is better at decreasing teen pregnancy, increasing condom use at first sex, and delaying first sex. I conducted a survey on Colby's campus to gauge how many students had had any form of sex education before coming to Colby, and what they covered in those sex education classes. Some of the questioned I included asked students if their classes covered sexual pleasure, consent, and sexual violence. While many of the students claimed they had a comprehensive sex education, that meant that the classes sometimes only covered different forms of birth control methods. I believe that a true comprehensive sex education should teach not only abstinence, other forms of birth control, and condom use, but also sexual pleasure and issues of consent, thereby teaching students about all aspects of sex, positive and negative, in one class.
FROM THE ONE-CHILD POLICY TO THE TWO-CHILDREN POLICY: POPULATION CONTROL, VIOLENCE, AND FEMINISM IN TRASITION   (Oral Presentation)
Tianyang Zhou ('16), Women's, Gender, and Sexuality Studies
In October 29th, 2015, Chinese National Peoples Congress officially announced a relax of the ban on one of the most controversial population policies anywhere - the one-child policy, to a two-child policy for all families. The change of the family planning policy was sudden and unexpected to the general public, and the lift was made to promote a balanced growth of population, but also to uphold the basic national policy of population control and improve its strategy on population development (Hua, 2015). The change of the family planning policy initiated discussion that reviews gender-inequality under the population control political regime in the past thirty-five years. This paper discusses how did the family planning policy intensifies violence against women, further subordinates women, and raises gender-related social conflicts in China. Meanwhile, this paper also attempts to understand how did women, in both urban and rural areas, cope with the profilerated oppression and form localized resistance as well as non-compliance, which empowered urban daughters and motivated the contemporary feminism thinking in China.


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