Table 1: Periodization of the History of Meteorology in the United States

PERIOD

CULTURE

PATRONS

PROBLEMS

INSTRUMENTS

INSTITUTIONS / JOURNALS


1650-1814 Individuals None Astro-Meteo, Lightning, Climate Change Non-Standard None / Private Journals:

1814-1870 Emerging Systems, Volunteers Army Medical Dept., Ameri. Phil. Soc., Frankl. Inst., Navy, N.Y., Smithsonian, Patent Office American Storms, Climate, Medical geography Standardized by 1850s, Surfaces obs, only, Telegraph Ad Hoc / General: Silliman's Journal, APS Proc., FI Journal, Smithsonian Reports

1870-1920 Service and Forecasting, Military, Government Signal Services, Dept. of Agriculture Forecasts, Vertical Structure, Agriculture Telegraph, Balloons, Mt. Stations, Self-Recording Instruments Federal & State / Specialized: U.S. Weather Bureau, New England Meteorological Soc., Monthly Weather Review, American Journal of Meteorology

1920- Disciplinary, Professional, Sub-disciplines Government, Universities, Foundations, Industry Polar Front, Computer Modeling, Remote Sensing, Air Pollution, Long Range Forecasts, Weather Modification, Climatic Change Aircraft, Radio, Radar, Rockets, Computers, Satellites Numerous / Very Specialized: American Meteorological Soc., National Center for Atmospheric Research, Bull. Amer. Meteorological Soc., Journal of the Atmospheric Sci., J. Climate & Applied Meteo., Journal of Geophysical Research, etc.