HAZARD, EBENEZER. 1744-1817.
U.S. Postmaster General, antiquarian, and historian. Collection, 1492-1832. 1977 items. Forms part of the Peter Force Papers (Series 8B). In part, transcripts. Available on microfilm. Prominent individuals represented in the collection include Benjamin Franklin. Also included are papers, 1790-1830, of Hazard's son, Samuel (1784-1870) containing meteorological journals, and papers relating to the U.S. Military Academy. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867. 77-25452. NUCMC MS78-1731.

German author on aeronautical subjects, pioneer in aviation, and the first European to support the experiments of the Wright Brothers. Papers, 1826-1940.

The collection is exceptionally rich in material on German aviation, spanning the time of balloon experiments to the period of the airplane's development at the time of World War II. It includes material on aviation sports, inventions, laws, meteorology, aviation societies, transportation, and other activities in addition to personal papers and data on subsidiary areas in aeronautics. Correspondents of Hildebrandt include Patrick Alexander, Ernst Damm, Hans Ravenstein, Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Karl Scheimpflug, Octave Chanute, Gilbert Feldhaus, and Albert, Prince of Schleswig-Holstein-Glucksburg. 81-25916.

Almanac, 1829. 1 v. (ca. 50 p.). Manuscript version of Franklin's Almanac; includes information on weather, lunar phases, sun risings and settings. Source unknown. 79-58453 NUCMC MS79-1790.

HOLMES, ABIEL. 1763-1837.
Congregational clergyman of Cambridge, MA. Meteorological Register. 1795-1829. 3 v. Forms part of the Peter Force Papers (Series 8D:71). Available on microfilm.

Meteorological register kept by Holmes recording daily variations in temperature, wind, and weather, 1795 Jan-1829 Dec. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867. 81-98632 NUCMC MS82-1179.

Naval surgeon and author. Papers, 1826-1911. 5 linear ft. 4900 items. Forms part of the Library's Naval Historical Foundation collection.

Correspondence, daybooks, medical journals, MSS. of Horner's published books, registers of weather, and printed matter, chiefly 1840-70, and relating to the medical aspects of Horner's naval career. Register published by the Library in 1970. Other series contain weather registers which give dates, times, and places of the readings of thermometers and barometers as well as descriptions of the condition of the wind and the sea; includes registers of the weather, USS John Adams, 1831; USF United States, 1836-38; USF Savannah, 1849-50; East Gulf Blockading Squadron, 1861-63.

JEFFERSON, THOMAS. 1743-1826. Papers.
Frederick J. Randolph and Frederick L. Francis, "Thomas Jefferson as a Meteorologist," Monthly Weather Review (Dec. 1895): 456-58; Ralph Brown, "The First Century of Meteorological Data in America," Monthly Weather Review 68 (1940): 130-33; John C. Greene, American Science in the Age of Jefferson (Ames, IA: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1984).

#1: Index to Jefferson Correspondence: Vol. 1, 1774-1826; Vol. 2, 1779-1826

#9: Subject file, 1769-1820 includes entries entitled Meteorological remarks; Account books, 1757-1809.

#13: Weather Record, 1783-90.

#28: Garden Book, 1766-1824.

#89: Miscellany; Vol. 2 Weather Records, 1776-1818.

The Guide to Undated Material includes the following entry on the subject of meteorology: Cooper, Thomas, 2 pages of notes dated Feb. 17.

JUDAH, HENRY MOSES. 1821-1866.
Army officer. Journal, 1847. 1 vol. (ca. 80 pages). Journal dated January 10 to August 23, 1847, kept by Judah while serving with the 4th U.S. Infantry Regiment during the Mexican War. Includes general descriptions of the Mexican climate, terrain, and people. Purchase, 1902. 17, 452-1N-1P. 78-93633 NUCMC MS79-1793.

KARNAK (ship). Logbook, 1891. 1 v. (25 p.)
Logbook of the bark Karnak kept by Edward G. Rouse on a voyage from Ship Island (Gulf of Mexico) to Hamburg, Germany from April 20 to July 31, 1891. The log contains daily statements on weather and sea conditions, the ship's course, and duties of the crew. It includes printed information on hurricanes and cyclones. Purchase, 1942. 75-99655.

James was a school teacher in Philadelphia; both were meteorological observers for the Smithsonian Institution. Observations at Philadelphia: record books, 1851-1881. 200 items. Contains three volumes of meteorological notes and observations made by James A. and Sarah E. Kirkpatrick at Philadelphia. A folder of loose material and clippings contains information about weather elsewhere. Transfer from the Library's Stack and Reader Division, 1979-1982. 82-58396. The Kirkpatricks were Smithsonian observers for 21 years (1852-60 and 1862-73). Additional materials in Joseph Henry Papers, Smithsonian Institution.

LANGMUIR, IRVING. (1881-1957).
Noted American chemist, Nobel Prize winner, and weather modification enthusiast. Papers. 42.7 Linear ft. 32,000 items.

The papers of Irving Langmuir were received by the Library of Congress in 1958 as a bequest of Dr. Langmuir. Literary rights in the unpublished writings of Irving Langmuir in these papers, and in other collections of papers in the custody of the Library of Congress, have been dedicated to the public. A note concerning the Irving Langmuir Papers appeared in the Library of Congress Information Bulletin 18, No. 4 (Jan. 26, 1959): 41; the material was described in the Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions 16, No. 3 (May 1959): 146.

This collection consists of correspondence, experimental notebooks, diaries, manuscripts of articles, and speeches. The experimental notebooks date from 1894-1957 and contain data and, after 1946, information on weather control. The extensive subject files kept by Dr. Langmuir include a large amount of material on cloud seeding experiments for artificial production of snow and rain. There is a small group of published scientific journals collected and annotated by Dr. Langmuir, as well as newspaper clippings, a card reference file, photographs, and awards. A register of papers is available at the Library of Congress.

Of particular interest to the history of weather modification are the following containers in the collection:
#5-7: Correspondence, 1940-1957, and undated.
#11-12: Cloud seeding.
#25-26: Marine meteorology.
#35-43: Weather control, U.S. Department of Commerce.
#51: Laboratory notebooks, Sept 21, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1950.
#52: Chemical warfare service notebooks, Jan. 31, 1950 to July 22, 1957.
#54: Notebooks, 1950-54; Experimental sheets.
#82-84: Article and speech file, 1945-1956, and undated.
#90-91: Speeches, 1950-56, and undated; Lecture notes, 1907-56, and undated.
#101: Miscellaneous scientific notes; Newspaper clippings.
#102-03: Photographs.
#104: Card reference file.
#105-06: Awards and degrees.

LEWIS (whaler).
Logbook, 1849-53. 1 v. (250 p.).

Logbook (May 15, 1849-Jan. 7, 1853) of the whaling ship Lewis containing entries on course, weather, whale sightings and captures, ships spoken, and events on board ship. Places represented include New Zealand, New Holland, Sunday Island, and the Fiji Islands. Purchase, 1904. 75-99523.

Naval officer and oceanographer. Papers, 1825-1927. 15 linear ft. 14,500 items.

Gift of Mrs. James R. Werth and other members of the Maury family, 1912-29; and other gifts and purchases, 1914-75. 79-31682 NUCMC MS63-378.

Correspondence, letterbooks, diaries, notebooks, experimental notes, journals, drafts of speeches, articles, and other writings, charts, printed matter, and family papers, relating chiefly to Maury's naval career, his scientific activities and interests, and his service to the Confederacy during the Civil War, including his work as an agent to England. Specific topics include meteorology, the physical geography of Virginia, and oceanography. Finding aid in the Library.

John Leighly, "Introduction" to Matthew Fontaine Maury's, The Physical Geography of the Sea and its Meteorology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press, 1963), ix-xxx; Frances Leigh Williams, Matthew Fontaine Maury: Scientist of the Sea (New Brunswick: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1963).

Lewis J. Darter, Jr., "Federal Archives Relating to Matthew Fontaine Maury," The American Neptune 1, No.2 (April 1941): 149-148, provides a useful analysis and appreciation of the records in the National Archives, principally in the Records of the Hydrographic Office (RG-37) and the Naval Observatory (RG-78), that are pertinent to Maury's period of service as superintendent of the Depot of Charts and Instruments. The Library of Congress -- Manuscript Division's collection of the Records of the United States Naval Observatory (see below), also includes records relating to the period of Maury's superintendency of the Depot of Charts and Instruments.

MYER, ALBERT JAMES. 1829-1880.
Army officer and Chief Signal Officer. Papers, 1816-80. 2300 items.

Gift of Col. John Rogers Meigs Taylor, 1935 and exchange with the U.S. Army Signal Corps Museum Fort Monmouth, N.J., 1960. Microfilm (1 reel, 300 items, NUCMC 77-1554) of originals in the collection of the Library of Congress is available for purchase. Microfilm of originals in the U.S. Army Signal Corps Museum, Fort Monmouth, N.J. (4 reels, 2000 items, NUCMC 67-145) is available for viewing.

Correspondence, letterbooks, diaries, reports, memoranda, legal and business papers, and printed material relating in part to Myer's role in the founding and development of the Signal Corps, the establishment of the US. Weather Bureau and other materials relating to meteorology and the North Polar Expedition, 1871-73. Finding aid in the Library.

Biographical and bibliographical materials: George M. Kober, "General Albert J. Myer and the United States Weather Bureau," The Military Surgeon 65 (1929): 65; Paul J. Scheips, "Albert James Myer, Founder of the Army Signal Corps: A Biographical Study," (Ph.D. dissertation, The American University, 1966); Paul J. Scheips, "Old Probabilities: A.J. Myer and the Signal Corps Weather Service," The Arlington Historical Magazine 5 (1974): 29-43.

The collection contains the following articles:

An annotated copy of Thompson B. Maury, "The Telegraph and the Storm: The United States Signal Services," Harper's New Monthly Magazine XLIII (August, 1871): 398-418, with a number of excellent illustrations, some of them of meteorological equipment. Included is a sketch of "The Signal Office in Washington" and one of the "Interior of Instrument Room in Office of Chief Signal Officer."

A tear sheet copy of Thompson B. Maury, "Storm-Signals: IV, Premonitions of Storms", University Monthly: A Journal of School and Home Education 1 (August, 1871): 123-126.

A marked copy of Harper's New Monthly Magazine XLVIII (December, 1873): 144, containing in the "Editor's Scientific Record," an item on the probability that "an epoch of great importance" in meteorology had been reached at the Vienna Congress of September 2-15, 1873, in the unanimous agreement to take "at least one synchronous observation of the weather daily at all possible stations throughout the entire world," which "if successfully carried into effect is but a grand extension of the system of tri-daily synchronous operation for three years in the Army Signal-Office. The result arrived at in the Vienna Congress is to a considerable extent due to the efforts of Brigadier-General Albert J. Myer, Chief Signal-Officer, U.S.A."

An inscribed copy of E.S. Purdy, Psychometrical Observations Taken at Fascher, Darfour (Cairo: Publications of the Egyptian General Staff, Printing Office to the General Staff, 1877).

A marked copy of "The United States Signal Service," Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly VI (September, 1878): 337-45, with additional illustrations, including an especially good one captioned "The Signal Bureau-Introduction of Science in the Far West," p. 348, which shows a group of three Indians, a small building with an anemometer and a vane, together with two men erecting a telegraph pole against a pole line in the background. There is also a tear-sheet copy of this article sans p. 348.

A marked copy of Th. Moreaux, "Weather Indicator--indicateur du temps dans les stations Météorlogiques des Etats-Unis," La Nature: Revue des Sciences, No. 295 (November 16, 1878): 387-391.

A reprint of "Signal Service, Meteorological Division of the United States," Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia (1879).

A marked copy of "Météorologie internationale: observations simultanees de nuit et de jour sur terre et sur mer," La Nature: Revue des Sciences, No. 319 (July 12, 1879): 94-96.

A marked copy of "Weather Charts for the Northern Hemisphere," Nature XX (August 21, 1879): 381-383.

A marked copy of Thompson B. Maury, "The International Weather Service," The Popular Science Monthly XVI (January 1880): 289-311.

A copy of Notes on the Examination and Comparison of Instruments in the Office of the Chief Signal Officer (n.d.), 96 pp. (a penciled notation on p.16 indicates that this was "prepared under the direction of the Chief Signal Officer."

Printed, probably proof sheets, stapled together and numbered 11-17, inclusive (n.p., n.d.) contain meteorological material printed on scrap paper.

A proof copy of The Results and Prospects of the Cautionary Signal System (n.d.) 16 pp., which contains a renewal of the plea of 1872 for "an established organization of the officers of the Signal Service" -- an effort to get away from the detail system. It contains some strong language which it was sought to soften in explanatory footnotes.

A proof copy of Some of the Chief Uses and Adaptabilities of the Signal Office Reports and Publications (n.d.), 10 pp. (printed on the backs of copies of Signal Service Orders No. 5, February 8, 1875).

A marked copy of Report of the Proceedings of the Meteorological Conferences at Leipzig... (transl. from the official report in the Zeitschrift Für Meteorologie VII, Appendix No. 24 (Charing Cross, London: E. Stanford, 1873), 73 pp.

A clipping from The Nation (December 3, 1872): 366, which comments on the current Signal Corps annual report, observing that "of all the Department reports, that of the Signal Office is the only one which possesses much interest..."

A copy of "The Signal Service," an editorial in an unnamed and undated paper favorably reviewing the Chief Signal Officer's annual report for 1877. The editorial expressed the view that the percentage of verification of weather prognostication for the year -- "86 and a fraction" -- was "simply wonderful."

Reprints of three items from The Washington Post (May 1878?) -- one reprinted in the Chicago Tribune (May 8, 1878?), one in the Journal (May 6, 1878?), and one in the Times (May 7, 1878?). The latter two journals are not further identified. These items deal with the favorable results of an investigation by Representative Clark to whose committee there had been referred a resolution "charging the Signal Service with inefficiency and extravagance in the management, and directing an inquiry whether this service could not be consolidated with the coast survey and life saving service with advantage to the public." Clark, after investigation, found the service "both efficient and economical" and that it was growing in popularity, as shown by the fact that since his inquiry began bills for thirteen additional weather stations had been introduced in the House. He therefore concluded that there "was no reason for its consolidation with the other departments named, and that while the service is capable of improvement and its extension is desirable, and is urged by the Chief Signal Officer, especially for the benefit of the funding community, this is impossible with the appropriation now available. The secretary of war has asked for an appropriation of $350,000..."

An editorial entitled "The Signal Service," The Sentinel (May 7, 1878).


29 small photographs of Myer by Matthew Brady, Alex Gardner, and others. Photographs (5"x7 1/4", n.d.) showing part of the Signal Corps exhibit, including a portable signal tower, weather station, and lance wagons, at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition, 1876.

Photograph of the weather case and indicator, for which Myer was awarded Patent No. 216,440 in 1879.

The 4 reels of microfilm of the originals in the U.S. Army Signal Corps Museum include the following:

Reel 1: A few papers dated 1816-1857 of Judge E. Walden, Myer's father-in-law; A.J. Myer's degrees, commissions, and honors; diaries, 1850-1857; fifteen reports on the examination and adoption of Myer's system of signals, 1859-1860; and his papers for the years 1859-1864.

Reel 2: Papers and correspondence from April 1864 to December 1878. These include his removal and reappointment as Chief Signal Officer; his Manual of Signals; legislation pertaining to the Signal Corps; claims of the Western Union Telegraph Company; and his honorary doctorate from Union College.

Reel 3: Correspondence, 1879-1880; galley proof of the Chief Signal Officer's report for 1878; documentation of Myer's work in meteorology and his attendance at scientific meetings in Europe; maps of military telegraph lines in Texas and Arizona; 48 papers donated by St. Paul's School from distinguished friends and associates of Myer; 24 letters to Myer from his wife, 1862-1865; papers concerning his rank, back pay, and promotion; letters to and from Simeon White; documents relating to Myer's two patents; documents relating to the patent for the Railway Sleeping Car of his father, H.B. Myer; mementos and programs; invitations and calling cards; 27 congratulatory letters regarding his reappointment as Chief Signal Officer.

Reel 4: Correspondence with General James A. Hardie and Joseph Warren; with Kappa Alpha Society; opinions of Colonel Winthrop concerning Myer's Manual of Signals; biographical items, including obituary notices, newspaper clippings concerning his personal interests, and three copybooks dated 1859-1867, 1868-1870, and 1870-1875.

Mathematician, Western explorer, and cartographer. Papers, 1832-1843. Correspondence, 1835-43: journals, 1836-39; astronomical observations, 1838-41; notes concerning meteorology, Mississippi-Missouri Rivers, and St. Pierre tributary. 16,983-1N1P (Chardon journals). 82-34744.

PALADIUM (schooner). Logbook, 1818-1824.
1 v. (250 p.) Logbook (Oct. 29, 1823-Feb. 22, 1824) of the schooner Paladium with entries on course, weather, and daily events during a round trip voyage from Salem, Mass., to Sao Miguel Island in the Azores. Purchase, 1919. 75-99556.

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