Description of the Academy
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) was established in 1863 under a charter granted by the U.S. Congress that requires that "the Academy shall, whenever called upon by any department of the Government, investigate, examine, experiment, and report upon any subject of science or art..." During the more than 125 years since the enactment of this charter, the NAS has become the most prestigious scientific honorary society in the United States and the Federal Government's most important independent advisor in scientific and technical matters. The studies that the NAS performs for the Government are conducted by the National Research Council (NRC), established by the NAS in 1916, under contracts or grants with the sponsoring departments, agencies or Congressional committees. The NRC also conducts an increasing number of privately funded studies, supported by NAS funds or grants from foundations or other private sources. Governance of the NRC is shared by the NAS, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE; established under the NAS charter in 1964) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM; established under the NAS charter in 1970). The IOM conducts its own studies, but these are subject to the same approval and operational guidelines imposed on NRC studies.
Records Access Policies
The NAS and its sister institutions are private organizations and its operations and records are not subject to the Advisory Committee Act or to the Freedom of Information Act; however, as a matter of public responsibility, the institution tries to cooperate with those interested in the history of its activities within the limits necessitated by its advisory processes. The records that comprise the NAS Archives fall into three categories: (1) fraternal papers, those that concern the membership affairs of the three societies: these are private records and are permanently closed to the public; (2) fellowship papers, those that concern the participation of individuals in private or governmental research programs: these are quasi-personal records and are closed to the public for a period of 50 years or until the death of the individual, whichever is later; and (3) operational and program papers, those that concern the operation of the Academy complex and its scientific committees: these are privileged records and are closed to the public for a period of 25 years from the date of creation, although qualified scholars may request the waiving of this restriction on a case-by-case basis. Many of the records of study committees are, however, public documents (e.g., the proposal and contract and the report), and are available from the sponsoring agencies under the Freedom of Information Act. The Archives is open by appointment only 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. on regular work days. Copy services are available. Inquiries concerning access to records, access policy or costs of services should be addressed to the Director or the Deputy Archivist.
The records housed in the NAS Archives are organized into two records groups: the Central File (mostly administrative and international records) and the Program File (mostly the records of NRC committees). Each group comprises several series. Most records in series are organized according to the NAS Records System, a filing scheme that has been used for over forty years. The system is structured on the contemporary organization of the institution, that is, the placement of an entry in the system is determined by the placement of the activity in the organizational structure in the year in question and the placement of the entry will change as the placement of the activity changes over a period of years. All indexes, guides and finding aids, whether manual or automated, follow this scheme. The Archives maintains several automated databases of information about its collections, and staff will search these files for researchers.
Requests for information or for access to records will be more efficiently processed if the requester is able to cite the years of operation and the placement in the organizational structure of the institution for each activity of interest. The chief public access to information about institutional activities and structure is the Organization and Members directory (the O&M), which has been published almost annually since 1917. Most institutional activities have been included in the O&M during their lifetime, and most O&M editions include Academy and committee membership and staff indexes (this is important to note as there is no access to records by personal name within the NAS Records System). The O&M should be available in most university libraries.
Brief Description of Records Relating to the Atmospheric Sciences in the Collections of the NAS Archives
Because of the breadth of the Academy's activities, there are many studies that touch upon the atmospheric sciences, and the list of activities appended gives the names of over 150 such studies or study groups. The list was compiled from the output of searches performed on the Archives databases, mostly using the keyword particles "atmos," "meteo" and "clim". Some listings specifically concern atmospheric research and are particular as to activity name and period (e.g., the Committees on Atmospheric Sciences), while others are broader activities that had subsidiary studies concerning such research (e.g., the Polar Research Board and the Space Science Board, for which only samplings of relevant activities are listed). Of particular note are the collections of international materials: the Academy is the U.S. member for most non-governmental international scientific organizations, so that its collections for such groups as ICSU, the scientific associates of IUGG, etc., or such programs as IGY, IQSY, IBP, GARP, etc., are unique in this country.
Because the Academy's activities are so numerous and varied it is not
possible to give capsule descriptions of each; instead the following
paragraphs give some details concerning the records of the
International Geophysical Year (IGY), the various core committees on
meteorology or atmospheric sciences, and the Global Atmospheric
Research Program (GARP).
INTERNATIONAL GEOPHYSICAL YEAR
The International Geophysical Year (1957-1958; extended into 1959 as the International Geophysical Cooperation) was originally conceived as the Third Polar Year (the First Polar Year was in 1882-1883 and the Second in 1932-1933). It was the first of the many global research programs sponsored by the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). The national programs were coordinated by ICSU's Comité Special de l'Annee Geophysique (CSAGI), the NAS directing U.S. participation through its U.S. National Committee for the International Geophysical Year (USNC-IGY). The U.S. effort was funded mostly by the National Science Foundation, with logistical support provided by the Navy, especially its Operation Deep Freeze in support of the polar programs.
The USNC-IGY comprised an executive committee, technical panels, and several ad hoc groups. The technical panels were: Aurora and Airglow; Cosmic Rays; Geomagnetism; Glaciology; Ionospheric Physics; Latitudes and Longitudes; Meteorology; Oceanography; Rocketry; Earth Satellite Program (plus working groups); Seismology - Gravity; Solar Activity; World Days and Communications; Interdisciplinary Research; Geochemistry; and Radioactivity of Air. To coordinate data gathering there was an Ad hoc Committee on Geophysical Data. The USNC-IGY created the U.S. scientific program and selected from among the projects proposed by various universities, research institutions and private individuals those that would be funded by the NSF. It oversaw the operation of these projects, and coordinated access to facilities and resources. In addition to programmatic efforts, the USNC-IGY was responsible for coordinating the U.S. program with those of other nations, for creating and maintaining a mechanism to organize, collate and provide access to a greater breadth and volume of data than had ever before existed on geophysical subjects, and for providing publicity and continuing information and education programs.
The most spectacular aspect of the IGY was its earth satellite program, which included the USSR's Sputnik series and of the U.S. Explorer series. The impact of Soviet accomplishments (and of the delay in the U.S. program caused by repeated failure) led to the appointing of the first Science Adviser to the President a month after the success of Sputnik, and the creation of the President's Science Advisory Committee shortly afterwards.
Following completion of the effort, the USNC-IGY spent several years compiling and writing reports, and also produced a series of films entitled "Planet Earth." The series comprises the following films, whose titles give some flavor of the comprehensiveness of IGY research: The Hidden Earth; The Shape of the Earth; The Force of Gravity; The Inconstant Air; Secrets of the Ice; Challenge of the Oceans; The Nearest Star; The Flaming Sky; Magnetic Force; Radio Waves; Cosmic Rays; Research by Rockets; and Science in Space. Recently the Academy cosponsored with WQED a new series of television programs with the same title, originally conceived as a look at the same subjects twenty-five years later, but eventually evolving into a contemporary exploration of the Earth and its environment.
The records of the IGY in the NAS Archives are dated ca. 1951-1965 and occupy ca. 360 linear feet as a separate series, with substantial additional materials in other series and collections as well. This collection is the most heterogeneous in the Archives, containing ca. 250 linear feet of paper records, ca. 100 cubic feet of motion picture film, and ca. 10 linear feet of photographs, photograph albums, glass slides, maps, posters, and other items. In addition to the papers of the USNC-IGY, the records also contain full documentation, as it was available to the USNC, of the national programs of the other participating countries, and also early papers of NAS-NRC activities that grew out of IGY activities, e.g. the Committee on Polar Research, the Committee on Oceanography, the Geophysics Research Board, the Space Science Board, and the Committee on Meteorology. The papers were arranged by the USNC prior to its formal discontinuance, and include a finding aid that is, essentially, a folder-by-folder inventory. Although the arrangement and its documentation are in many ways inadequate, and are especially deficient in cross-references, the bulk of the collection has prevented the Archives from replacing a usable organization. All papers in the IGY series are open to researchers, regardless of date; papers pertaining to the IGY arranged in any other series are subject to the date restrictions mentioned above.
Although the collections of the NAS Archives and the NRC Library contain substantial volumes of IGY reports, the USNC-IGY maintained a large library of materials that the Academy's facilities could not accommodate in perpetuity. The IGY Library was therefore deposited with World Data Center A in Boulder, Colorado.
CORE COMMITTEES ON METEOROLOGY AND ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES
Beginning in 1956 within the NAS, and from 1962 to the present in the NRC, the institution has continuously sponsored a core activity in the atmospheric sciences. The specific committees are: the NAS Committee on Meteorology, 1955-1958; the NAS Committee on Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), 1959-1961; the NRC Committee on Atmospheric Sciences (CAS), 1962-1982 (1962-1967, reporting to the Governing Board; 1968-1974, reporting to the Division of Physical Sciences; 1975-1982, reporting to the Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences); the Climate Board (CB), 1977-1982 (reporting to the Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences; called Climate Research Board, 1977-1980); and the NRC Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate (BASC), 1982- (reporting to the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources).
The establishment of the Committee on Meteorology in 1955 was an outgrowth of IGY activities. The Committee's 1958 report, Research and Education in Meteorology: An Interim Report, was instrumental in the establishment of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) by the National Science Foundation (NSF) in 1960. This report was updated in 1960 by the successor group, the Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, in its reports, The Status of Research and Manpower in Meteorology and Meteorology on the Move. After being reassigned to the NRC, the Committee issued its major three volume study, Atmospheric Sciences, 1961-1971 (1962), a report to the President's Science Advisor. The following is a chronological listing of selected subsequent reports through 1984:
Interaction between the Atmosphere and the Oceans (CAS, 1962) Further Views on International Cooperation in the Atmospheric Sciences (CAS, 1964) Scientific Problems of Weather Prediction (CAS, 1964) Atmospheric Ozone Studies (CAS, 1966) The Feasibility of a Global Observation and Analysis Experiment (CAS, 1966) Weather and Climate Modification Problems and Prospects (CAS, 1966) Atmospheric Exploration by Remote Probes (CAS, 1969) The Atmospheric Sciences and Man's Needs (CAS, 1971) Weather and Climate Modification (CAS, 1973) Atmospheric Chemistry (CAS, 1975) Long-range Weather Forecasting (CAS, 1975) Report of the Ad hoc Panel to Review the NASA Earth Radiation Budget Program (CAS, 1976) The Atmospheric Sciences: Problems and Applications (CAS, 1977) Planning and Management of Atmospheric Research Programs (CAS, 1977) Severe Storms (CAS, 1977) The Atmospheric Sciences: National Objectives for the 1980's (CAS, 1980) Atmospheric Precipitation (CAS, 1980) Current Mesoscale Meteorological Research in the United States (CAS, 1981) Carbon Dioxide and Climate (CB, 1982) Meeting the Challenge of Climate (CB, 1982) Global Tropospheric Chemistry (BASC, 1984).The records of these activities are somewhat less than 25 linear feet in volume, and are subject to the date restrictions mentioned above.
GLOBAL ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH PROGRAM (GARP)
GARP had its origins in a suggestion for "further cooperative efforts between all nations in weather prediction and eventually weather control" by U.S. President John F. Kennedy in a speech to the United Nations in 1961. As a consequence of this suggestion, the U.N. adopted several resolutions encouraging international cooperation, especially through the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and expressly inviting the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) to join with the WMO in establishing a research program. After study by the International Union of Geology and Geodesy (IUGG), to which the a 1965 version the NRC Committee on Atmospheric Sciences' 1966 report The Feasibility of a Global Observation and Analysis Experiment was a significant contribution, GARP was formally established in 1967.
The U.S. effort was planned and guided by the U.S. Committee for the Global Atmospheric Research Program (USC-GARP), established in 1968 in the NRC's Division of Physical Sciences (Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 1975-1982; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, 1982-1987). The USC-GARP established the following scientific working groups: Predictability and Data Requirements; Planetary Boundary Layer; Internal Atmospheric Turbulence; Structure of the Tropical Atmosphere; Cumulus Convection; and Large-Scale, Long-Period, Air-Ocean Interactions.
The following is a selection of USC-GARP reports: Plan for U.S. Participation in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (1969) Plan for U.S. Participation in the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (1971) Plan for U.S. Data Management in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (1971) Plan for U.S. Clear-Air Turbulence Research in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (1972) A Preliminary Oceanographic Program for GATE: The Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP), Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment (1972) U.S. Contribution to the Polar Experiment (POLEX): Part 1, POLEX-GARP (North); Part 2, POLEX-GARP (South) (1974) Understanding Climatic Change: A Program for Action (1975) Plan for U.S. Participation in the Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) (1977) Proceedings of the Seminar on the Impact of GATE on Large-Scale Numerical Modeling of the Atmosphere and Ocean (1980).The papers pertaining to GARP amount to ca. 15 linear feet, and are subject to the date restrictions mentioned above, with the exception that formal documentation produced by international bodies are treated as public documents and are therefore open.
SELECTED LISTING OF NAS-NRC COMMITTEES CONCERNING THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES
INTERNATIONAL International Association for Geochemistry & Cosmochemistry, 1965- International Association of Geomagnetism & Aeronomy, 1954- International Association of Meteorology, 1933- International Association of Meteorology & Atmospheric Physics, 1956- International Association of Scientific Hydrology, 1933- International Biological Program, 1962-1974 International Council of Scientific Unions Comité Internationale de Geophysique International Years of Quiet Sun (IQSY), 1962-1967 Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), 1958- GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) (Joint with UN/WMO), 1965-1987 Inter-union Commission on Atmospheric Sciences, 1963-1964 Inter-union Commission on Ionosphere, 1952- Inter-Union Commission on Radio-Meteorology, 1948 Inter-union Commission on Solar & Terrestrial Relationships, 1972 Inter-union Commission on Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1965-1972 Inter-union Commission on Solar-Terrestrial Relationships, 1964-1966 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), 1957- Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), 1956- International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE), 1959-1965 Special Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP), 1973- Working Group on Solar-Terrestrial Physics, 1963-1965 International Geophysical Year, 1951-1965 International Meteorological Organization, 1919-1935 International Research Council, 1919-1931 International Symposium on Atmospheric Diffusion & Air Pollution. Oxford, England, 1958 International Union of Geodesy & Geophysics, 1919- Committee on Atmospheric Sciences (Joint with ICSU/COSPAR & UN/WMO), 1962-1965 International Union of Radiotelegraphy, 1920-1928 International Union of Scientific Radio, 1929- Pacific Science Association, 1924- Pacific Science Congress, 1920- Pan Indian Ocean Scientific Association, 1954-1957 United Nations UN Educational Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO) International Hydrological Decade, 1964-1975 World Meteorological Organization, 1953- NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 1959-1961 Committee on Long-range Weather Forecasting, 1930-1931 Committee on Meteorology [Advisory], 1955-1958 Committee on Polar Research, 1955-1961 Committee on Questions of Meteorological Science & Its Applications, 1881 Committee on Smithsonian Institution Proposal for Measurement of Heat Radiation of Sun, 1924 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research: Ad hoc, 1966-1967 Committee on Weather Bureau: Advisory to Secretary of Commerce, 1963 Committee on Wind & Current Charts & Sailing Directions, 1864 Geophysics Research Board, 1958-1961 Government Relations & Science Advisory Committee, Subcommittee on Weather Bureau, 1936-1939 Meetings: Annual 1955: Symposium on Modern Concepts in Meteorology 1959: Symposium on Physics Chemistry & Biology of Atmosphere Office of Scientific Personnel Associateships: Commerce: NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) 1971 Space Science Board, 1958-1961 Committee on Atmospheres of Earth & Planets, 1960-1961 Committee on Ionospheres of Earth & Planets, 1958-1960 Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Satellites, 1958-1961 Committee on Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research, 1959-1961 Conference on Planetary Atmospheres, 1960 Group on Physics of Planetary Surfaces & Atmospheres, 1959-1960 Panel on Planetary Atmospheres: Ad hoc, 1960 Working Group on Planetary Atmospheres: Ad hoc, 1960 Working Group on Upper Atmosphere Rocket Research, 1959 NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL American Geophysical Union, 1919-1972 Assembly of Engineering Committee on Levee Policy for National Flood Insurance Program, 1981 Assembly of Life Sciences (Division of Medical Sciences) Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants, 1973 Conference on Health Effects of Air Pollutants, 1973 Assembly of Mathematical & Physical Sciences Climate Board, 1980-1981 Climate Research Board, 1977-1980 Climatic Impact Committee, 1975 Committee for Coordination of NASA Climate Program: Ad hoc, 1976 Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 1975-1979 Committee on Impacts of Stratospheric Change, 1976-1980 Committee on National Weather Service, 1979 Conference on Large Body Impacts & Terrestrial Evolution: Geological Climatological & Biological Implications, 1981 Geophysics Research Board Committee on Geology & Climate, 1975-1981 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, 1975-1981 Geophysics Research Forum, 1975-1982 Geophysics Study Committee, 1975-1982 Ocean Sciences Board Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in Marine Environment & Atmosphere, 1976-1978 Polar Research Board, 1975-1982 Committee on Role of Polar Regions in Climatic Change: Ad hoc, 1980-1984 Space Science Board, 1975-1982 Commission on International Relations Board on Science & Technology for International Development Panel on Arid Lands of Sub-saharan Africa, 1973 Commission on Natural Resources Board on Agriculture & Renewable Resources Committee on Agricultural Uses of Weather Forecasts Outlooks & Climatic Guides, 1978 Committee on Atmosphere & Biosphere, 1978-1981 Committee on Climate & Weather Fluctuations & Agricultural Production, 1975-1976 Committee on Air Quality & Stationary Source Emission Control, Joint with Committee on Public Engineering Policy (COPEP), 1974-1975 Committee on Remote Sensing Programs for Earth Resource Surveys, 1974-1976 Conference on Air Quality & Automobile Emissions, 1975 Coordinating Committee for Air Quality Studies, 1973-1976 Environmental Studies Board Committee on Chemistry & Physics of Ozone Depletion, 1981 Committee on Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, 1979 Study of Cost-Benefit Analysis of Air Quality Control Measures, 1973 Ocean Affairs Board Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in Marine Environment & Atmosphere, 1974-1976 Study on Air Pollution, 1973 Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics & Resources Board on Atmospheric Sciences & Climate, 1982- Board on Ocean Sciences & Policy, 1985- Board on Physics & Astronomy Committee on Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions, 1983-1984 Environmental Studies Board Committee on Atmospheric Transport & Chemical Transformation in Acid Precipitation, 1983 Committee on Causes & Effects of Changes in Stratospheric Ozone: "Update 1983," 1982-1984 Geophysics Research Forum, 1982- Geophysics Study Committee, 1982- Naval Studies Board Panel for Review of ONR [Office of Naval Research] Atmospheric Sciences Program, 1987- Ocean Studies Board, 1983-1985 Polar Research Board, 1982- Space Science Board, 1982- Commission on Sociotechnical Systems Building Research Advisory Board Committee on Flood Insurance Studies, 1981 Committee on Prevention & Mitigation of Flood Losses, 1974-1976 Committee on Review of FIA Methodology for Estimating coastal Flooding, 1980 Committee on Fire Research Symposium on Air Quality & Smoke from Urban & Forest Fires, 1976 Committee on Natural Disasters Panel on Winds, 1975 Transportation Research Board Committee on Transportation & Air Quality, 1975-1976 Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 1962-1967 Committee on Natural Resources Meetings: Human Effects on Weather & Climate as Related to Resource Studies, 1962 Committee on Polar Research, 1962-1966 Committee on Weather Bureau: Advisory, 1962-1963 Division of Anthropology & Psychology Disaster Research Group, 1951-1962 Division of Behavioral Sciences Disaster Research Group Studies: Hurricane Audrey, 1963 Studies: Hurricane Carla, 1963 Division of Biology & Agriculture Agricultural Board Committee on Agricultural Meteorology & Climatology, 1956-1965 Committee on Effect of Climatic Factors on Performance of Domestic Animals, 1961-1964 Committee on Plant & Crop Ecology: Subcommittee on Agroclimatology, 1952-1954 Agricultural Research Institute Committee on Agricultural Meteorology, 1968-1970 Committee on Aerobiology, 1937-1939 Committee on Atmosphere & Man, 1921-1928 Committee on Organization & Inquiry in Climatology, 1919-1920 Projects: Proposed Bioclimatics, 1934-1935 Division of Chemistry & Chemical Technology Committee Advisory to Army Chemical Corps Meeting on Rapid Recognition of Biological Particulates in the Atmosphere, 1958 Panel on Stratospheric Effects of Chlorofluormethanes: Ad hoc, 1974 Division of Earth Sciences Committee on Climatology: Advisory to Weather Bureau, 1954 Committee on Hydrology: Proposed, 1963 Committee on Remote Sensing of Environment, 1964-1969 Committee on Remote Sensing Programs for Earth Resource Surveys, 1971-1973 Ocean Affairs Board Ocean Science Committee Study of Large-Scale Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling, 1973 Panel on Monitoring Persistent Pesticides in Marine Environment & Atmosphere, 1971-1973 Science & Engineering Committee Advisory to NOAA (National Oceanographic & Atmospheric Administration), 1972-1973 Division of Engineering Committee on Air Quality Management, 1968-1972 Committee on Prevention & Mitigation of Flood Losses Joint with Division of Earth Sciences, 1973-1974 Division of Engineering & Industrial Research Advisory Board on Quartermaster Research & Development Committee on Foods: Symposium on Nutrition on Climatic Stress, 1952 Building Research Advisory Board Committee on Climatic Research: Advisory, 1950-1956 Division of Geology & Geography Committee on Application of Biological Methods & Data to Geological Problems Subcommittee on Application of Biogeography to Paleoclimatology, 1947 Projects Study of Health Related to Climate: Proposed, 1920 Division of Medical Sciences Committee on Biologic Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants, 1970-1973 Committee on Climate & Health, 1931-1935 Committee on Effects of Atmospheric Contaminants on Human Health & Welfare,1967 Committee on Sanitary Engineering Subcommittee on Atmospheric Control, 1944-1948 Committee on Sanitary Engineering & Environment Subcommittee on Atmospheric & Industrial Hygiene, 1948-1965 Division of Physical Sciences Climatic Impact Committee, 1974 Committee on Atmospheric Sciences, 1968-1974 Committee on DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program, 1972-1974 Committee on Physics of the Earth Committee on Meteorology: Subsidiary, 1926-1931 Committee on Polar Research, 1967-1974 Geophysics Research Board, 1968-1974 Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research, 1968-1974 Panel on Upper Atmosphere Geophysics: Advisory, 1969-1971 Geophysics Research Forum, 1968-1974 Projects Balloons: Hot Air Balloons, 1918 Space Science Board, 1968-1974 Executive Board Armed Forces-NRC Vision Committee Subcommittee on Visibility & Atmospheric Optics, 1948-1951 Committee Advisory to Weather Bureau, 1940 Committee on Meteorology: Technical: Joint NAS-NRC: Proposed, 1942 Committee on Physics Subcommittee on Meteorology, 1917-1918 Geophysics Research Board, 1962-1967 Committee on Consolidated Upper Atmosphere & Space Data Center, 1964 Committee on International Programs in Atmospheric Sciences & Hydrology: Ad hoc, 1962-1963 Geophysics Research Forum, 1960-1967 Office of International Affairs Board on Science & Technology for International Development (BOSTID) Panel on National Oceanic & Atmospheric Climate Impact Assessment Program for Africa, 1987 Space Science Board, 1962-1967: Committee on Rocket-Satellite Research, 1965 Committee on Upper Atmosphere Near Space & Astronomical Research with Sounding Rockets & Probes, 1965 Project Anna (Geodetic Satellite Program), 1962