# Physics Requirements

The Department of Physics and Astronomy offers several programs. Students may select one of the following: (1) the physics major, (2) the physics major with a concentration in astrophysics, (3) the astronomy minor, and (4) the physics minor. The astronomy minor is described in the “Astronomy” section of the catalogue.

Physicists study nature and how things work on levels ranging from the smallest subatomic and atomic scales, through intermediate scales describing matter in its various forms, up to the largest astrophysical scales of galaxies and the universe as a whole. Physics and astronomy students acquire skills in qualitative descriptions and explanations of physical phenomena, mathematical analysis of physical phenomena, experimental observation, measurement, and instrumentation, theoretical and numerical modeling, scientific writing, and oral presentation. Flexible major and minor programs are designed to fit within a liberal arts education and to provide preparation for careers or advanced training in science, teaching, business, medical professions, and engineering. The department welcomes students from all majors and with diverse backgrounds.

The introductory course sequence, Physics 141 (or 143) and 145, provides a solid basis for further work in physics as well as preparation for medical school and advanced study in other sciences. These courses also provide excellent preparation for students who plan to enter professions such as law, teaching, and business. The intermediate and advanced course offerings in the department provide a strong background for graduate study in physics, astronomy, engineering, and interdisciplinary fields such as biophysics, neuroscience, environmental science, medical physics, and bioengineering.

All faculty members have active research programs that involve undergraduate contributions. Faculty research areas include atomic, molecular, and optical physics, condensed-matter physics, theoretical physics, and astronomy. Research projects make use of the department’s well-equipped laboratories, computer workstations, the Collins and Young Observatories, and supporting technical shops. Students interested in conducting research with faculty are encouraged to consider the Honors Programs that the department offers.

Students seeking a career in engineering may consider applying to an exchange program in which both a bachelor of arts and a bachelor of engineering can be earned upon successful completion of a joint program with Dartmouth College or Columbia University. Interested students should consult with the engineering advisor before selecting their first-semester courses.

Physics 141, 145, 241, and 242 form a comprehensive introduction to classical and modern physics. For students with a previous background in physics and calculus from high school, Physics 143 may be taken instead of Physics 141.

No requirements for the physics major, the physics major with a concentration in astrophysics, or the physics minor may be taken satisfactory/unsatisfactory. Grade point averages for the department’s majors and minors are calculated using all courses that can satisfy the requirements listed below.

Students considering graduate school in physics or astronomy are strongly encouraged to take all of the following courses: Mathematics 253, 262, 311, 352, Physics 253, 311, 321, 332, and 431.

### Requirements for the Physics Major

Physics majors have a lot of flexibility in choosing the courses that are most appropriate for them. Students should work closely with their advisors in selecting courses to fulfill the requirements for the major and satisfy their academic goals. Not all upper-level elective courses are offered every year. Seniors must enroll in Physics 401.

**Required Physics Courses** (unless exempted by advanced placement)

*Physics*

- 141 Foundations of Mechanics (or 143 Honors Physics)
- 145 Foundations of Electromagnetism and Optics
- 241 Modern Physics I
- 242 Modern Physics II
- 250 Experiments in Modern Physics
- 401 Senior Physics and Astronomy Seminar

**Mathematics and Computer Science Courses**: Choose four (unless exempted by advanced placement); no more than one of the courses should be in computer science.

*Computer Science *(152 preferred over 151 or 153)

- 151 Computational Thinking: Visual Media
- 152 Computational Thinking: Science
- 153 Computational Thinking: Smart Systems

*Mathematics*

- 120, 121, 125, or 130 Single-Variable Calculus (or Honors Calculus I, 135 or 161)
- 122 or 160 Series and Multi-Variable Calculus (or Honors Calculus II, 162 or 165)
- 253 Linear Algebra
- 262 Vector Calculus
- 311 Ordinary Differential Equations

**Elective Courses**: Choose at least three. At least two must be 300-level or higher physics or astronomy courses, and at least one 300-level or higher physics or astronomy course must be taken at Colby.

Astronomy

- 231 Introduction to Astrophysics
- 342 Galaxies and Cosmology

*Biology*

- 274 Neurobiology

*Chemistry*

- 255 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
- 341 Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics and Kinetics

*Mathematics*

- 332 Numerical Analysis

*Physics*

- 253 Electronic Measurement in the Sciences
- 311 Classical Mechanics
- 312 Physics of Fluids
- 321 Electricity and Magnetism
- 332 Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
- 333 Experimental Soft Matter Physics
- 335 General Relativity and Cosmology
- 338 Nuclear and Particle Physics
- 431 Quantum Mechanics

### Requirements for the Physics Major with a Concentration in Astrophysics

Students should work closely with their advisors in selecting courses to fulfill the requirements for the concentration. Not all upper-level courses are offered every year. Astronomy 231 and one 300-level physics or astronomy course must be taken at Colby. Seniors must enroll in Physics 401. Students electing the astrophysics concentration should choose a class that focuses on a topic in astrophysics or a related field.

**Required Courses **(unless exempted by advanced placement)

*Physics*

- 141 Foundations of Mechanics (or 143 Honors Physics)
- 145 Foundations of Electromagnetism and Optics
- 241 Modern Physics I
- 242 Modern Physics II
- 250 Experiments in Modern Physics
- 401 Senior Physics and Astronomy Seminar

*Astronomy*

- 231 Introduction to Astrophysics
- 342 Galaxies and Cosmology

*Computer Science –* Choose one (152 preferred over 151 or 153)

- 151 Computational Thinking: Visual Media
- 152 Computational Thinking: Science
- 153 Computational Thinking: Smart Systems

*Mathematics – *Choose three (unless exempted by advanced placement)

- 120, 121, 125, or 130 Single-Variable Calculus (or Honors Calculus I, 135 or 161)
- 122 or 160 Series and Multi-Variable Calculus (or Honors Calculus II, 162 or 165)
- 253 Linear Algebra
- 262 Vector Calculus
- 311 Ordinary Differential Equations

**Elective Courses:** Choose at least two. At least one must be a 300-level or higher physics or astronomy course.

*Computer Science*

- 231 Data Structures and Algorithms
- 251 Data Analysis and Visualization

*Mathematics*

- 381 Mathematical Statistics I: Probability

*Physics*

- 311 Classical Mechanics
- 321 Electricity and Magnetism
- 332 Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
- 335 General Relativity and Cosmology
- 338 Nuclear and Particle Physics
- 431 Quantum Mechanics

*Statistics*

- 212 Introduction to Statistical Methods
- 321 Applied Regression Modeling

### Requirements for Honors in Physics and Physics with a Concentration in Astrophysics

In the junior year, physics majors may apply for admission to the honors program. A 3.25 grade point average in courses that can count toward the major is normally required. Successful completion of the honors program will result in the degree being awarded with “Honors in Physics” or “Honors in Physics with a Concentration in Astrophysics.”

Honors majors in physics must, in addition to fulfilling the requirements for the major, take three additional 300-level or higher physics courses and one additional 200-level or higher mathematics course. In fulfilling these requirements, students must take at least one upper-level experimental course (Astronomy 231, Physics 253 or 333). In their senior year, they must also take Physics 483 and 484 Independent Honors Project. A written honors thesis is required. A thesis completed as part of the Senior Scholars Program may be substituted for the honors thesis.

Honors majors with a concentration in astrophysics must, in addition to fulfilling the requirements for the concentration, take three additional electives, two of which must be 300-level or higher physics or astronomy courses. In their senior year, they must also take Physics 483 and 484 Independent Honors Project. A written honors thesis is required. It is expected that students electing the astrophysics concentration will focus their honors thesis on a topic in astrophysics.

### Requirements for the Minor in Physics

Physics 141 (or 143), 145, 241, 242 (or 300-level or higher physics or astronomy course), Mathematics 121 (or 120, 125, 130, 135, or 161), 122 (or 160, 162, or 165).

Note: Students cannot fulfill the physics minor if electing to minor in astronomy.