## CHOCHO, glyoxal

 O3 H6 \\ / C1 - C2 / \\ H4 O5
Tell me about the atomic charges, dipole moment, bond lengths, angles, bond orders,
molecular orbital energies, or total energy.
Tell me about the best Lewis structure.

## Atomic Charges and Dipole Moment

C1 charge= 0.354
C2 charge= 0.355
O3 charge=-0.394
H4 charge= 0.040
O5 charge=-0.394
H6 charge= 0.039
with a dipole moment of 0.18157 Debye

## Bond Lengths:

between C1 and C2: distance=1.535 ang___ between C1 and O3: distance=1.222 ang___
between C1 and H4: distance=1.121 ang___ between C1 and H6: distance=2.251 ang___
between C2 and H4: distance=2.253 ang___ between C2 and O5: distance=1.222 ang___
between C2 and H6: distance=1.121 ang___

## Bond Angles:

for O3-C1-C2: angle=121.0 deg___ for H4-C1-C2: angle=115.2 deg___
for O5-C2-C1: angle=121.3 deg___ for H6-C2-C1: angle=115.0 deg___

## Bond Orders (Mulliken):

between C1 and C2: order=0.796___ between C1 and O3: order=1.853___
between C1 and H4: order=0.983___ between C1 and H6: order=-0.057___
between C2 and H4: order=-0.056___ between C2 and O5: order=1.853___
between C2 and H6: order=0.984___

## Best Lewis Structure

The Lewis structure that is closest to your structure is determined. The hybridization of the atoms in this idealized Lewis structure is given in the table below.

### Hybridization in the Best Lewis Structure

1. A bonding orbital for C1-C2 with 1.9899 electrons
__has 50.01% C 1 character in a sp2.03 hybrid
__has 49.99% C 2 character in a sp2.03 hybrid

2. A bonding orbital for C1-O3 with 1.9982 electrons
__has 35.24% C 1 character in a sp1.89 hybrid
__has 64.76% O 3 character in a sp1.51 hybrid

3. A bonding orbital for C1-O3 with 1.9816 electrons
__has 32.89% C 1 character in a p3 hybrid
__has 67.11% O 3 character in a p3 hybrid

4. A bonding orbital for C1-H4 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 58.11% C 1 character in a sp2.01 hybrid
__has 41.89% H 4 character in a s orbital

5. A bonding orbital for C2-O5 with 1.9982 electrons
__has 35.24% C 2 character in a sp1.89 hybrid
__has 64.76% O 5 character in a sp1.51 hybrid

6. A bonding orbital for C2-O5 with 1.9817 electrons
__has 32.88% C 2 character in a p3 hybrid
__has 67.12% O 5 character in a p3 hybrid

7. A bonding orbital for C2-H6 with 1.9897 electrons
__has 58.09% C 2 character in a sp2.02 hybrid
__has 41.91% H 6 character in a s orbital

12. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.9856 electrons

13. A lone pair orbital for O3 with 1.9074 electrons

14. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.9856 electrons

15. A lone pair orbital for O5 with 1.9072 electrons

-With core pairs on: C 1 C 2 O 3 O 5 -

#### Donor Acceptor Interactions in the Best Lewis Structure

The localized orbitals in your best Lewis structure can interact strongly. A filled bonding or lone pair orbital can act as a donor and an empty or filled bonding, antibonding, or lone pair orbital can act as an acceptor. These interactions can strengthen and weaken bonds. For example, a lone pair donor->antibonding acceptor orbital interaction will weaken the bond associated with the antibonding orbital. Conversly, an interaction with a bonding pair as the acceptor will strengthen the bond. Strong electron delocalization in your best Lewis structure will also show up as donor-acceptor interactions.
Interactions greater than 20 kJ/mol for bonding and lone pair orbitals are listed below.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 3, for C1-O3 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 107, for C2-O5 is 31.6 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second bonding donor orbital, 6, for C2-O5 with the second antibonding acceptor orbital, 104, for C1-O3 is 31.4 kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 13, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 102, for C1-C2 is 115. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 13, for O3 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 105, for C1-H4 is 113. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 102, for C1-C2 is 116. kJ/mol.

The interaction of the second lone pair donor orbital, 15, for O5 with the antibonding acceptor orbital, 108, for C2-H6 is 113. kJ/mol.

## Molecular Orbital Energies

The orbital energies are given in eV, where 1 eV=96.49 kJ/mol. Orbitals with very low energy are core 1s orbitals. More antibonding orbitals than you might expect are sometimes listed, because d orbitals are always included for heavy atoms and p orbitals are included for H atoms. Up spins are shown with a ^ and down spins are shown as v.

19 ----- 1.966

18 ----- 1.245

17 ----- -1.565

16 ----- -4.703

15 -^-v- -6.477

14 -^-v- -7.910

13 -^-v- -10.28

12 -^-v- -11.29

11 -^-v- -11.55

10 -^-v- -12.11

9 -^-v- -12.43

8 -^-v- -14.90

7 -^-v- -17.67

6 -^-v- -26.95

5 -^-v- -27.29

4 -^-v- -269.7 3 -^-v- -269.7

2 -^-v- -507.7 1 -^-v- -507.7

## Total Electronic Energy

The total electronic energy is a very large number, so by convention the units are given in atomic units, that is Hartrees (H). One Hartree is 2625.5 kJ/mol. The energy reference is for totally dissociated atoms. In other words, the reference state is a gas consisting of nuclei and electrons all at infinite distance from each other. The electronic energy includes all electric interactions and the kinetic energy of the electrons. This energy does not include translation, rotation, or vibration of the the molecule.

Total electronic energy = -227.9087957216 Hartrees