James Madison Memorial Building, Room LM 102
1st Street and Independence Avenue, SE
Washington, D.C. 20540-4780
Phone: (202) 707-5387

General Reference Aids: The Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress has a computer printout entitled "Master Record of Manuscript Collections" which provides an index by names and key words to the collections. Manuscripts are described in the National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC) and the Handbook of Manuscripts in the Library of Congress (1918, with supplements to 1931 and 1938). There are approximately 1500 published and unpublished registers for manuscript collections available in the reading room. Some collections have card catalog indexes available. There are name indexes to the Presidential Papers collections. Other special, thematic guides and bibliographic references are available in the reading room.

ABBE, CLEVELAND (1838-1916). Meteorologist.
15 linear feet. 9,100 manuscripts, 150 photographs, 250 printed items.

Dictionary of Scientific Biography; Truman Abbe, Professor Abbe and the Isobars (Vantage, 1955); William J. Humphreys, "Biographical Memoir of Cleveland Abbe, 1838-1916," with bibliography, Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 8 (1919): 469-508.

The bulk of the papers of Cleveland Abbe were presented to the Library of Congress by Abbe's granddaughter, Dr. Petrena Abbe Shea, on October 30, 1963. The balance was transferred to the Library at the same time by the National Archives. The papers were described in the Library of Congress Information Bulletin 22, no.29 (July 22, 1963): 357-358 and in Nathan Reingold, "A Good Place to Study Astronomy," the Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions 20, no.4 (September 1963): 211-217.

#1 Diaries, 1962-70, 1889, arranged chronologically.
#2-9 General Correspondence, 1950-1916.
#9-12 Family Correspondence and Related Papers, ca. 1858-1954. Includes the manuscript of Cleveland Abbe by Truman Abbe assembled under the name of the family member concerned.
#13-31 Subject File, 19 containers.
Includes biographical material, financial records, lecture notebooks, meteorological maps, charts, synopses and forecasts, photographs, holograph astronomical papers (1855-68), notes, and memorabilia arranged alphabetically by subject or type of material and chronologically thereunder.
#32 Speech and Article File.
Manuscript and printed copies of speeches, articles, reports and autobiographical writings, arranged by type of material.
#33-34 Printed matter.
Newspaper clippings and miscellaneous printed matter. The clippings have been segregated, but otherwise the material is unarranged.

Almanac, 1842. 1 v. (ca. 200 p.).
These manuscript notes were kept by an unknown person in Washington, D.C. Weather and notes on daily events were interleaved with pages of a printed almanac. Source unknown. 79-58438.

80 lin. ft., 30,000 items.
Cf. Tom D. Crouch, The Origin and Early Years of the Institute of the Aeronautical Sciences. The Collection contains the manuscript of an article by C.G. Rossby, Athelston Spillhaus, et. al. on meteorology, instrumentation, and general aerodynamic advances, published in the first issue of the Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences.

ANDREWS, JOSEPH GARDNER. b. 1768? Army officer and physician.
Diary, 1795. 1 v. ca. 200 p. Forms part of the Peter Force papers (Series 8D:5). Available on microfilm. Diary (1795 Jan. 1-Dec. 31) kept by Andrews as an Army surgeon at Fort Defiance, Ohio, under the command of Maj. Thomas Hunt. Includes comments on daily events, meteorological observations, monthly state of the garrison reports, and numerous accounts of meetings with Indians. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867. 77-90407 NUCMC MS78-1682.

BACHE, ALEXANDER DALLAS. Scientist and administrator.
5 linear feet. 2,000 items.
The Alexander D. Bache papers have been briefly described in the Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress (1914): 59-60. A microfilm edition of these papers on 5 reels is available for purchase. The Bache papers cover the years 1828 through 1863 and include a journal, general correspondence, special correspondence, a scrapbook, and partial indexes. The bulk of the material falls in the years 1836-38 and 1857-63. The general correspondence relates mainly to the business of the U.S. Coast Survey when Bache served as Superintendent, 1843-67. The scrapbook of newspaper clippings reflects Bache's interest in scientific developments of the period. There is a partial index for correspondence between 1857 and 1860. Repositories other than the Library of Congress that have collections relating to Alexander D. Bache are the Henry E. Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif., the Smithsonian Institutional Archives, and the American Philosophical Society Library, Philadelphia, PA.

BALDWIN, EVELYN BRIGGS (1862-1933). Meteorologist and Arctic explorer.
7.8 linear feet. 4,200 items.
The papers of Evelyn Briggs Baldwin were deposited in the Library of Congress by Mr. Baldwin in 1926. Additional material was deposited in the Library in 1935 by Elmer E. Rogers, Administrator, Scottish Rite Temple, Washington D.C. Both deposits were converted to gifts in 1945.

Biographical Note:
1862: Born July 22, Springfield, Mo.
1885: M.S., Northwestern College, Naperville, Ill.
1885-86: European travels.
1887-91: High school principal and superintendent of city schools, Kansas.
1893-94: Meteorologist for Peary's 2d expedition to North Greenland.
1896: Published The Search for the North Pole (Chicago), 520 pp.
1898-99: Second-in-command and meteorologist of Wellman expedition to Franz Josef Land.
1901-02: Leader of Baldwin-Ziegler polar expedition.
1915: Prepared intelligence report for U.S. government concerning foreign agents Dernberg, Von Papen, and Boy-Ed.
1926-32: Historian, Office of Naval Records and Library, Navy Department, Washington, D.C.
1933: Died Oct. 25, Washington, D.C.

Scope and Content Note:
The papers of Evelyn Briggs Baldwin span the period 1849 to 1933, with the bulk of the manuscripts dealing with the Wellman and Baldwin-Ziegler polar expeditions. The papers include general correspondence, expedition records, some miscellany, and typed genealogical material.

#1-6: General Correspondence, 1872-1933. Letters sent and received, arranged together chronologically.
#7-14: Polar Expedition Records, 1893-1915. Containers 7-12 contain special correspondence, reports, journals, scrapbooks, and typescripts, arranged chronologically. Container 6 deals with meteorology; container 8 with meteorological work in Franz Josef Land during the Wellman expedition. It contains a report entitled, "Meteorological Observations of the Second Wellman Expedition." Containers 13-14 contain financial records (1897-1902), arranged chronologically.
#15-18: Miscellany, 1880-1933. Printed matter, typescripts, addresses, and newspaper clippings, arranged by type of material and then chronologically. Includes two oversize folders.
#19-20: Genealogy, 1649-1933. Notes and genealogical typescripts, arranged by subject.

See related materials in RG-401, National Archives.

BERLANDIER, JEAN LOUIS. d. 1851. Naturalist and explorer. Papers, 1826-47. 27 items. Forms part of the Sir Thomas Phillipps Collection.
Phillipps Nos.:
#15464: Miscellaneous papers relating mainly to Mexico, Lower California, and Texas. Includes Barometric observations in Mexico, 1826-27.
#15470: Berlandier's Journals, 1826-34. 7 v. Entitled "Voyage au Mexique." Volume 7 contains his observations and comments on the climate.
#15530: Berlandier's Journals, 1846-47. 2 v. Journals of Berlandier's experience during the war between the United States and Mexico.
Volume 1 contains descriptions of terrain, climate and weather conditions.

A collection of Berlandier's papers is also found in the Smithsonian Institution Archives.

BRANTZ, LEWIS. 1768-1838. Journal, 1793-94, 1 v. (182 p.).
Forms part of the Peter Force Papers. Series 8, Entry 13, Reel 31. Journal (Mar. 10, 1793-July 14, 1794) kept by Brantz as master of the brigantine Equality on a voyage from Baltimore around the Cape of Good Hope to India and return to Baltimore. Contains entries on weather.

BROWNE, GEORGE W. Naval officer. Logbook, 1860-69.
1 v. (200 pp.).
Logbook of the ship Fernandina, commanded by Browne, recording its voyages and participation in the blockade of Wilmington, N.C. (1861-62) and other North Carolina ports as part of the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Entries consist of data on course and weather and commentary on the events of the voyages of this and other ships. Purchase, 1917. 73-99465.

CLARKE, JOHN. Diary, 1749. 1 v. (32 p.).
Forms part of the Peter Force papers (Series 8D:19). Available on microfilm. Secretary to William Shirley. Diary (Jan. 1-Dec. 2, 1749) discussing personal matters, the weather, travel to and from Boston, questions before the General Court, and local news; interleaved in An Astronomical Diary, or, an Almanack for the Year of Our Lord Christ, 1749 (Boston, J. Draper) by Nathanael (i.e. Nathaniel) Ames. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867. 78-97576 NUCMC MS78-1700.

CONSTITUTION (whaler). Logbook, 1840-42.
1 v. (125 pp.)
Logbook of the whaler Constitution of Nantucket, Mass. (May 10, 1840-Apr. 17, 1842) with entries relating chiefly to weather and sea conditions, the sighting and killing of whales, and whale oil extraction, mainly off the coast of Peru. Gift of Mrs. Dwight M. Miner, 1937. 73-99598.

COURIER (whaler). Logbook, 1846-1850. 1 v. (164 p.).
Forms part of the Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection. The logbook was kept by William Holley, captain of the ship Courier, a whaler out of New Bedford, MA, on a voyage to the west coast of South America. Entries relate to sea and weather conditions, shipboard routine, and whale sightings and captures. Places represented include the Azores, Magdalena Island, Galapagos Islands, and a number of points on the coasts of Chile and Peru. Transfer from the Library's Geography and Map Division, 1951. 83-4197.

CUSHING, JACOB. 1730-1809. Congregational clergyman, of Waltham, MA. Diaries, 1749-1809. 33 v.
Forms part of the Peter Force Papers (Series 8D:30). Available on microfilm. Diary entries interleaved in various printed almanacs in which Cushing comments upon daily events and church activities, including records of deaths and marriages. Also included are miscellaneous financial accounts and meteorological observations. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867, gift, 1916, and transfer, 1978. 78-91843 NUCMC MS78-1708.

18.4 linear feet. 16,100 items.
The papers of John William Draper, his son Daniel Draper (1841-1931), and other family members were donated to the Library of Congress by his great-grandson Daniel C. Draper in 1973 and 1974.

Daniel Draper (1841-1931), established the New York Meteorological Observatory in Central Park, New York in 1868, and served as its director from 1868 to 1911. He received a Ph.D. from New York University in 1880, patented a self-recording barometer in ca.1886, and married Ann Maury Ludlow in 1887.

The Daniel Draper Papers (1861-1931 and undated) include family and general correspondence, a subject file, financial papers, and miscellaneous materials which document Daniel Draper's career as director of the New York Meteorological Observatory. There is correspondence with such prominent scientists as Cleveland Abbe, Alexander Graham Bell, James McKeen Cattell, Alexander Gustave Eiffel, Valentine Mott, John Tyndall, and Charles Piazzi Smyth.

There are 21 containers numbered 23-43: Containers 31 and 32 contain a subject file dated 1863-1921 which includes correspondence, meteorological observations, patent applications, and other material, arranged alphabetically by subject. Selected entries include Consolidated Water Co. of Suburban New York, Draper's Self-Recording Thermometer, New York Meteorological Observatory (8 folders), and Patents. Container 42 (Miscellany) contains an article entitled, "Relative Merits of the Various Types of Registering Maximum and Minimum Thermometers."

A collection of Daniel Draper papers is also found in the Archives Center, NMAH, Smithsonian Institution.

ESPY, JAMES POLLARD. 1785-1860. Meteorologist.
Letter, 1836. 1 item.
Forms part of the Library's Miscellaneous Manuscripts collection. Photocopy (negative). Reproduced by the Library from original in the F. L. Pleadwell collection, Manuscript Division. 79-1355.

Other Espy materials are located in the collections of the National Archives, the Smithsonian Institution Archives, and the Joseph Henry Papers.

FORCE, WILLIAM QUEREAU. 1820-1880. Meteorological clerk.
Forms part of the Peter Force Papers, LC.
William Force was a clerk at the Smithsonian Institution who worked with the meteorological project in the 1850s.

#1: Correspondence, Jan. 13, 1843 - Feb. 2, 1845.
#2: Diaries, 1864, 1867, 1870-71, 1874-75, 1877-78. Correspondence and miscellany, 1844-1944;
#3: Manuscript versions of Third Bulletin of the Proceedings of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, Washington, D.C., February, 1842 to February, 1845; also Proceedings of the Meeting of April, 1844. (Washington: Wm. Q. Force, 1845). Fourth Bulletin of the National Institute for the Promotion of Science, Washington, D.C., February 1845, to November, 1846. (Washington: Wm. Q. Force, 1846).

FREEMAN, THOMAS. d. 1821. Surveyor and explorer. Papers, 1806-1873. 3 items. Forms part of the Peter Force Papers (Series 8D:53, reel 39). Available on microfilm.
Manuscript volume entitled "An Account of the Red River, in Louisiana, drawn up from the returns of Messrs. Freeman and Custis to the War Office of the U.S. who explored the same, in the year 1806" (141 p.) covering the journey of Thomas Freeman and Peter Custis from Fort Adams, Miss., via Natchitoches, La., to a point beyond the Little River during the period May 2 to Sept. 8, 1806. The report includes lists of flora, fauna, and minerals and meteorological observations. The collection also includes two items transferred from the Thomas Jefferson Papers: a copy (1859) of Jefferson's instructions to Freeman for exploring the Red River dated April 14, 1804; and an explanatory note (1873) in the hand of William Q. Force. Finding aid in the Library. Purchase, 1867. 79-59014 NUCMC MS80-2043.

A second collection, 1796-1807, contains 4 items and forms part of the Library's Miscellaneous Manuscripts collection. Purchase, 1908. 79-1458.

GIBBES, LEWIS REEVES (1810-1894), Mathematician and naturalist. Papers, 1793-1894. 5700 items.
Principally correspondence with some printed material, clippings, specimen lists, resolutions, and miscellany. The papers, chiefly 1838-94, relate mainly to Gibbes' career as professor of mathematics, physics, and astronomy at the College of Charleston (S.C.) and his correspondence with other scientists on the subjects of astronomy, physics, geology, meteorology, chemistry, botany and zoology. Other subjects relate to the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Smithsonian Institution. Correspondents include Stephen Alexander, Alexander D. Bache, Henry William DeSaussure, James Espy, Joseph Henry, Edward C. Herrick, Elias Loomis, Matthew F. Maury, and William C. Redfield. Finding aid in the Library. Gift of Miss S.P. Gibbes, 1932; purchase, 1916. 17,327-8N-8P. 77-22707 NUCMC MS78-1722.

GOOD RETURN (whaler). Logbook, 1837-38. 1 v. (100 p.)
Logbook of the Good Return, whaler, of New Bedford, Mass., with entries relating to weather and sailing conditions. Places mentioned include the Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena Island, and Buzzard's Bay, Mass. Purchase, 1903. 75-99705.

GREELY, ADOLPHUS WASHINGTON. 1844-1935. Soldier, explorer, scientist, and author. Papers. 70 linear ft. 45,000 items.
The papers of Adolphus W. Greely were deposited in the Library of Congress in 1959 by his daughter Miss Rose Greely. The deposit was converted to a gift, 1959-69, and further material was given by Miss Greely in 1962-63. Other papers were received in 1961 as a gift of his daughter Mrs. George H. Shedd, and a single item was added by purchase in 1970. A note on the Greely papers appeared in the Library of Congress Quarterly Journal of Current Acquisitions 17 (May 1960): 183; and 18 (May 1961): 135.

The papers of Adolphus W. Greely include diaries; correspondence; letterbooks; military papers; manuscripts; typescripts; galley proofs of articles and books, speeches, lectures, and addresses; material on the polar regions; biographical material; maps; newspaper clippings; photographs and prints; notes and memoranda; and scrapbooks. The papers range from 1753 to 1959, with most of them within the period 1880 to 1935. Many facets of General Greely's career are represented by this collection: his service in the Civil War as a Union soldier; his leadership of the ill-fated Lady Franklin Bay Expedition of 1881-84, which reached farther north than any previous exploring party; his direction of the construction of thousands of miles of telegraph wire and cables in many parts of the world; his career in the Signal Corps, 1867-1906, and as Chief Signal Officer, 1887-1906, a time which saw the reorganization of the national weather service, 1890-91, and the introduction of aviation into the U.S. Army. Over one-half the collection consists of family and general correspondence for the years 1807 and 1851-1939, and letterbooks for the period 1887- 1905. Dominating the remainder of the collection are the military papers, 1863-1921, and related material.

The technical-scientific material after 1877 includes correspondence on polar matters exchanged with Admiral Robert E. Peary, Roald Amundsen, and others; on electrical and radio matters with Guglielmo Marconi, Samuel P. Langley, Alexander Graham Bell, Thomas A. Edison, and others; on the birth of aviation with Samuel P. Langley, General Billy Mitchell, and others; and on the Government's role in science and in the development of Alaska with many Members of Congress and the Cabinet. Prominent among Greely's other correspondents were William A. Glassford, Gilbert H. Grosvenor, William Babcock Hazen, and William Howard Taft. There is an interesting exchange of correspondence in May and June of 1890 between Greely and Theodore Roosevelt concerning the operation of the Civil Service Commission.

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